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See detailDiagnostische Kompetenz von Lehrkräften in der schulischen Leistungsbeurteilung
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine UL; Böhmer, Matthias UL

in Steffgen, Georges; Michaux, Gilles; Ferring, Dieter (Eds.) Psychologie in Luxemburg - Ein Handbuch (2014)

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See detailIntroduction
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine UL; Böhmer, Matthias UL

in Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias (Eds.) Teachers' Professional Development: Assessment, Training, and Learning (2014)

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See detailSmoking, implicit attitudes, and context-sensitivity: An Overview
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Jin, Z (Ed.) Exploring implicit cognition: Learning, memory, and social-cognitive processes (2014)

The focus on implicit attitudes toward smoking is relatively novel and this chapter provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. The review summarizes empirical studies focusing on ... [more ▼]

The focus on implicit attitudes toward smoking is relatively novel and this chapter provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. The review summarizes empirical studies focusing on implicit attitudes toward smoking. Implicit attitudes are suggested to guide automatic behavior, thereby playing a pivotal role for automatic processes inherent in addictive behaviors. The chapter further explores the extent to which implicit attitudes are sensitive to context. More specifically it reviews studies that have focused on the differential effects of external cues such as warning labels as well as internal cues such as deprivation. Overall 32 studies were analyzed, including studies focusing on implicit attitudes toward smoking compared to positive, negative or neutral categories; implicit attitudes in relation to situational context such as TV advertisement, warning labels and (non)smoking settings; and implicit attitudes in relation to nicotine dependence and nicotine deprivation. Results of these studies show that although smokers generally have more positive implicit attitudes than non-smokers, the valence of the implicit attitude depends on the contrasting category and hence varies as a result of the applied method or stimuli. Studies considering situational contexts revealed that implicit attitudes toward smoking are partly dependent on external cues, especially outcome expectancies. Similarly, internal cues are shown to affect implicit attitudes whereby not so much the level of nicotine dependency but more the level of nicotine deprivation seems vital. Only one study investigated the combined effect of external and internal cues on implicit attitudes toward smoking, not only highlighting the complexity of the relationships, but also the importance of considering implicit attitudes when developing and evaluating intervention. Implications for intervention and future research are indicated in the discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailPrädiktoren der Sekundarschulempfehlung in Luxemburg: Ergebnisse einer Large-Scale-Untersuchung
Klapproth, Florian UL; Glock, Sabine UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft (2013), 16

Mit dieser Studie wurde anhand einer Stichprobe von 2925 Schülern aus luxemburgischen Grundschulen geprüft, inwieweit die Leistungen von Schülern luxemburgischer Grundschulen und Merkmale ihres sozialen ... [more ▼]

Mit dieser Studie wurde anhand einer Stichprobe von 2925 Schülern aus luxemburgischen Grundschulen geprüft, inwieweit die Leistungen von Schülern luxemburgischer Grundschulen und Merkmale ihres sozialen Hintergrundes Eingang finden in die Sekundarschulempfehlungen, die am Ende ihrer Grundschulzeit ausgesprochen wurden. Zur Analyse des Gewichts unterschiedlicher Prädiktoren für die Sekundarschulempfehlung wurde ein Zweiebenenmodell der logistischen Regression verwendet. Im Wesentlichen ergaben sich folgende Befunde: Schulnoten und Ergebnisse aus standardisierten Schulleistungstests stellten die stärksten Prädiktoren für die Sekundarschulempfehlung dar. Nach den individuellen Schülerleistungen war der Elternwunsch der stärkste Prädiktor für die Sekundarschulempfehlung. Darüber hinaus hingen sowohl die Nationalität als auch der sozioökonomische Status der Schüler mit der Sekundarschulempfehlung zusammen. Selbst bei Kontrolle ihrer schulischen Leistungen erhielten Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund seltener eine Empfehlung für den höchsten Schulzweig als Schüler ohne Migrationshintergrund. Ein hohes Klassenleistungsniveau führte bei Kontrolle der individuellen Leistungen seltener zu Empfehlungen für den höchsten Schulzweig als ein niedriges Klassenleistungsniveau. [less ▲]

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See detailWarning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking related risk perception
Glock, Sabine UL; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Ritter, Simone

in Journal of Health Psychology (2013), 18

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into ... [more ▼]

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants’ smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. [less ▲]

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See detailGute Absicht, kein Erfolg? Intendierte und nichtintendierte Wirkungen von Warnhinweisen auf Zigarettenschachteln
Glock, Sabine UL; Ritter, Simone; Müller, Barbara

in Rossmann, Constanze; Hastall, Matthias R. (Eds.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2013)

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See detailDoes nationality matter? The impact of expectations on student teachers’ judgments
Glock, Sabine UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Social Psychology of Education (2013), 16

In Germany, Turkish students are overrepresented on lowest school tracks. Research has provided evidence that stereotypical expectations can color judgments. We experimentally investigated whether student ... [more ▼]

In Germany, Turkish students are overrepresented on lowest school tracks. Research has provided evidence that stereotypical expectations can color judgments. We experimentally investigated whether student information that strongly confirmed or disconfirmedTurkish stereotypical expectations led to student teachers’ judgments that were biased against nationality. Furthermore, we explored whether judging an expectation- confirming or expectation-disconfirming Turkish student resulted in changes in stereotypical beliefs. Results showed that student teachers’ judgments were biased against nationality when it came to an expectation-confirming student and that the expectation-disconfirming student could change stereotypical beliefs into slightly more positive ones. Results are discussed with regard to their theoretical relevance as well as to their importance for teacher education. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit attitudes toward smoking: How the smell of cigarettes influences college-age smokers and non-smokers
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Unz, Dagmar

in Journal of Health Psychology (2013)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue ... [more ▼]

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailEducational psychology: Using insights from implicit attitudes measures
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Educational Psychology Review (2013), 25

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See detailEffects of and Attention to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages
Süssenbach, Philipp; Niemeier, Sarah; Glock, Sabine UL

in Psychology & Health (2013), 28

Objective: The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers’ explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking ... [more ▼]

Objective: The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers’ explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking, perceived health risk, quit intentions) and implicit attitudes. In addition, participants’ visual attention towards the graphic warnings was recorded using eye-tracking methodology. Design and methods: Sixty-three smokers participated in the present study and either viewed graphic cigarette warnings with aversive and non-aversive images or text-only warnings. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results: Especially, graphic cigarette warnings with aversive content drew attention and elicited high threat. However, whereas attention directed to the textual information of the graphic warnings predicted smokers’ risk perceptions, attention directed to the images of the graphic warnings did not. Moreover, smokers’ in the graphic warning condition reported more positive cognitions about smoking, thus revealing cognitive dissonance. Conclusion: Smokers employ defensive psychological mechanisms when confronted with threatening warnings. Although aversive images attract attention, they do not promote health knowledge. Implications for graphic health warnings and the importance of taking their content (i.e. aversive vs. non-aversive images) into account are discussed. [less ▲]

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