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See detailPotentials for Realising a Consistent Transition Between Function Modelling with the IFM Framework and Early System Simulation
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Dohr, Fabio; Gericke, Kilian UL et al

in Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (2013)

Conceptual design is considered one of the most demanding design tasks requiring a joint effort of the involved designers, particularly in interdisciplinary design. Sound decision-making across ... [more ▼]

Conceptual design is considered one of the most demanding design tasks requiring a joint effort of the involved designers, particularly in interdisciplinary design. Sound decision-making across disciplines on alternative solution concepts may be considerably facilitated through early system simulation. A consistent transition of the available information in function modelling to early system simulation may thus support designers in this task. The IFM framework intends to support cross-disciplinary collaboration of involved designers by providing an integrated function modelling approach. In the paper it is analysed in how far a consistent transition from the IFM framework to established modelling techniques for simulation may be realised. The paper compares the information required for early system simulation in an interdisciplinary design context to the specific information conveyed in the different views of the IFM framework. The analysis identifies specific potentials and barriers for a consistent transition between them. Finally, the implications of the derived insights are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating Different Functional Modeling Perspectives
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Qureshi, Ahmed Jawad UL; Gericke, Kilian UL et al

in Charkrabarti, Amaresh; Prakash, Raghu (Eds.) ICoRD'13, Global Product Development (2013)

The paper proposes a modular functional modeling framework, which aims at integrating the different functional modeling perspectives, relevant to different disciplines. The results of two extensive ... [more ▼]

The paper proposes a modular functional modeling framework, which aims at integrating the different functional modeling perspectives, relevant to different disciplines. The results of two extensive literature studies on diverse functional modeling approaches proposed in a variety of disciplines are consolidated. These studies identified specific needs for an integrated functional modeling approach to support interdisciplinary conceptual design. The presented framework aims at fulfilling these needs. It consists of a variety of associated views, represented through different matrices. This matrix-based representation facilitates the analysis of different functional modeling perspectives and their interdependencies. Finally, the implications of the presented approach are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Analysis of Functional Modelling Approaches Across Disicplines
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in AI EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing (2013), 27(3),

Authors across disciplines propose functional modeling as part of systematic design approaches, in order to support and guide designers during conceptual design. The presented research aims at ... [more ▼]

Authors across disciplines propose functional modeling as part of systematic design approaches, in order to support and guide designers during conceptual design. The presented research aims at contributing to a better understanding of the diverse functional modeling approaches proposed across disciplines. The article presents a literature review of 41 modeling approaches from a variety of disciplines. The analysis focuses on what is addressed by functional modeling at which point in the proposed conceptual design process (i.e., in which sequence). The gained insights lead to the identification of specific needs and opportunities, which could support the development of an integrated functional modeling approach. The findings suggest that there is no such shared sequence for functional modeling across disciplines. However, a shared functional modeling perspective has been identified across all reviewed disciplines, which could serve as a common basis for the development of an integrated functional modeling approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA Shared Basis for Functional Modelling
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of Norddesign 2012 (2012)

The presented research aims at contributing to a better understanding of the diverse functional modelling approaches proposed across disciplines, often involving more than one function model. The paper ... [more ▼]

The presented research aims at contributing to a better understanding of the diverse functional modelling approaches proposed across disciplines, often involving more than one function model. The paper presents a review of 41 systematic design approaches from different disciplines, analysing what is addressed by functional modelling at which point in the proposed development process, i.e. in which sequence, if any. The analysis aims at deriving potential commonalities across disciplines, which could support the development of an integrative functional modelling approach. Finally, the results of the analysis are discussed, concluding that while there seems to be no shared sequence in functional modelling across disciplines, a common base can be derived, with regard to what is prominently addressed by functional modelling in the different disciplines. [less ▲]

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See detailAN ANALYSIS OF DESIGN PROCESS MODELS ACROSS DISCIPLINES
Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 12th International Design Conference - DESIGN 2012 (2012)

This paper presents a comparison of design methodologies and process models from nine disciplines. The evolutionary development of the approaches, which can be traced back to similar roots, lead to ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparison of design methodologies and process models from nine disciplines. The evolutionary development of the approaches, which can be traced back to similar roots, lead to process models which are now adapted to specific design disciplines but still have many similarities. Most of the established approaches have not been adapted to many of the challenges of current design practice and represent isolated views on the design process. This comparison is intended to provide a basis for consolidation and reformation of design methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Modelling Perspectives Across Disciplines: A Literature Review
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL; Gericke, Kilian UL

in Proceedings of the 12th International Design Conference - DESIGN 2012 (2012)

The research presented in this paper discusses the different understandings of function which hamper shared functional modelling. Function models proposed in literature from various disciplines are then ... [more ▼]

The research presented in this paper discusses the different understandings of function which hamper shared functional modelling. Function models proposed in literature from various disciplines are then analysed, in order to identify the different inherent functional modelling perspectives. The paper concludes that in order to support shared functional modelling and to support cross-disciplinary system development, these different functional modelling perspectives need to be linked. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Project Robustness: A Risk Management Perspective
Gericke, Kilian UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Product development projects are challenging management tasks. The complexity and dynamics of requirements and goals, the novelty of design tasks, and polytely (striving for multiple goals) can all affect ... [more ▼]

Product development projects are challenging management tasks. The complexity and dynamics of requirements and goals, the novelty of design tasks, and polytely (striving for multiple goals) can all affect the course of a project. Frequent consequences of these boundary conditions are unwanted events which inhibit a successful project. This work shall provide a better understanding of project robustness, its barriers and enablers. To achieve this goal, the work was conducted following a research approach based on the Design Research Methodology proposed by Blessing and Chakrabarti. The work is based on a comprehensive literature study which resulted in a model describing the causality of project failures. The underlying assumption of the project failure causality model, that companies which treat risks preventively and proactively are more likely to successfully finish their product development projects than other companies, is examined by an analysis of data from 141 small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Design methodologies, project management, risk management and maturity models such as the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) are proposed in order to support product development. The study validates the importance of the use of these systematic approaches to support product development projects, but none of the considered approaches on its own will secure project success. This suggests that the expected benefit (a robust project) can only be achieved using different approaches conjointly. While design methodologies and project management offer a rich support for development activities, risk management supports the project specific selection of appropriate risk treatment measures. A result of this work is a support for the pre-selection of risk treatment strategies based on the project failure causality model and its link to the proposed categorisation of risk treatment strategies. In this dissertation it is shown that the proposed categorisation of risk treatment strategies, the categorisation of the risk impact evolvement, and the question based support were easily understood by industrial experts. Their feedback validates the applicability and acceptance of the question based support as helpful for risk treatment strategy pre-selection, but also lead to a revision of the proposed support. The result is a matrix based support, intended to contribute to an enhancement of project robustness by supporting the process of risk treatment strategy selection which is currently only insufficiently supported. The matrix based support considers, in addition to traditional risk characteristics (likelihood of occurrence and severity of impact) the time-dependent evolvement of risk impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailComparisons of design methodologies and process models across disciplines: A literature review
Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (2011)

Challenges resulting from an environment characterised by complexity, competition on global markets, dynamics and ever-changing user wants and needs are increasing and affect all design processes ... [more ▼]

Challenges resulting from an environment characterised by complexity, competition on global markets, dynamics and ever-changing user wants and needs are increasing and affect all design processes, irrespective of whether the product or system designed is a machine, a building, software, service, etc.. These challenges require collaboration between disciplines, but current design processes of large systems, such as aircraft, essentially show separate development strands for each discipline. Research into methods is ongoing, but the original design methodologies have not been adapted accordingly. Based on a literature study this paper consolidates findings from different comparisons of design methodologies and process models across disciplines. A consensus can be found that at least on an abstract level design process models have a generic core of common stages. On a detailed level the picture is different. The extent to which design approaches appear similar depends on the perspective of the analyses. The literature study provides an overview of shortcomings of existing design methodologies which may serve as starting points for further research and development of design methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailA Framework for Comparing Design Modelling Approaches Across Disciplines
Eisenbart, Boris UL; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (2011)

Design models are an important means for the representation of design information in product development processes. Designers use design models to visualise and communicate their ideas to other members of ... [more ▼]

Design models are an important means for the representation of design information in product development processes. Designers use design models to visualise and communicate their ideas to other members of a design team, the project manager or a costumer. Communication between experts from different disciplines using design models is often hindered by different terminology and different ways of modelling. Potential consequences are design flaws, which may lead to time-consuming iterations and – if undetected – to problems during production or use. In order to enhance the communication through design models across disciplines, and to address the mentioned problems, an understanding of similarities as well as differences between modelling approaches needs to be established. For that purpose, this paper discusses different design states which represent a distinct level of available information in the development process. They are derived through comparing different design models proposed in literature and provide the basis of a framework for a detailed comparison of modelling approaches across disciplines. Further, first insights into different ways of modelling are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailScenarios for coupling design thinking with systematic engineering design in NPD
Gericke, Kilian UL; Maier, Anja

in Proceedings of 1st Cambridge Academic Design Management Conference (2011)

This study addresses the external consultant-client interface and suggests different scenarios for coupling the design activities of both parties. More specifically, it investigates scenarios for coupling ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the external consultant-client interface and suggests different scenarios for coupling the design activities of both parties. More specifically, it investigates scenarios for coupling the user-centred perspective of design thinking with systematic engineering design processes via the consultant-client relationship. Having interviewed eight innovation consultants and lecturers working with design thinking, a scheme for differentiation of coupling-scenarios is proposed. The scheme considers different types of process-couplings (partial and complete substitution of the client’s design activities) and modes of interaction (the client’s active or passive involvement in solution generation). Implications for design practice are discussed. Our findings furthermore suggest four dominant issues that affect successful (external) consultant-client relationships: both parties are aware of design process models used when preparing and implementing design projects, negotiate the solution space when writing the design brief, manage expectations especially with respect to envisaged outcomes, and allow for unplanned and potentially unknown solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklungsmethodik nach Pahl und Beitz und Design thinking. Vergleich und Einordnung
Gericke, Kilian UL; Beinke, Christian; Gemmer, Pascal et al

in Proceedings of 19th Symposium Design for X (2010)

Die Konstruktionsforschung strebt danach die Entwicklungspraxis zu unterstützen indem Methodiken, Methoden, Tools und Empfehlungen erarbeitet werden, welche die Arbeit der Entwickler erleichtern sollen ... [more ▼]

Die Konstruktionsforschung strebt danach die Entwicklungspraxis zu unterstützen indem Methodiken, Methoden, Tools und Empfehlungen erarbeitet werden, welche die Arbeit der Entwickler erleichtern sollen, mit dem Ziel bessere Produkte zu entwickeln. Das Umfeld der Entwicklungspraxis ist dabei gekennzeichnet durch Komplexität, Wettbewerb auf globalen Märkten, Dynamik und sich ständig ändernden Kundenwünschen und -bedürfnissen. Die daraus erwachsenden Herausforderungen nehmen fortlaufend zu und tangieren alle Entwicklungsprozesse unabhängig davon ob eine Maschine, eine Software, ein Service oder ein andere Produktform entwickelt wird. Neben den genannten Aspekten stellt auch das veränderte Konsumentenverhalten eine Herausforderung für die Produktentwicklung dar. Das Internet ermöglicht eine nie dagewesene Auswahl- und Vergleichsmöglichkeit von Produkten, wodurch wesentlich selektiver konsumiert wird und infolge dessen Produkte immer differenzierter und tärker an die Kundenwünsche und –bedürfnisse angepasst werden müssen. Abhängig von Entwicklungsgegenstand, Marktsegment, Branche und weiteren Faktoren sind die existierenden methodischen Hilfsmittel unterschiedlich gut geeignet, die Arbeit des Entwicklers zu erleichtern und die Entwicklung besserer Produkte zu unterstützen. Dies bedeutet, dass methodische Ansätze Kontext-abhängig ausgewählt bzw. adaptiert werden müssen. In jüngster Zeit hält Design Thinking, ein neuer Ansatz zur methodischen Produktentwicklung, Einzug in verschiedenste Branchen. Im nachfolgenden Artikel wird Design Thinking kurz beschrieben und exemplarisch mit dem methodischen Vorgehen nach Pahl und Beitz verglichen. Der Vergleich beinhaltet den Prozessumfang (welche Phasen des Entwicklungsprozesses werden abgebildet) und ausgewählte Kontext-Aspekte (für welche Art von Entwicklungsvorhaben ist der Ansatz anwendbar). Anhand dieser Aspekte wird diskutiert, welche wesentlichen Unterschiede zwischen den Ansätzen bestehen, wo Überschneidungen existieren und welches Potential die Kombination beider Ansätze in sich birgt. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive estimation in the ideation phase of engineering design
Adolphy, Sebastian; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

Poster (2010)

Estimation in its diverse forms is assumed to be relevant for problem solving in engineering design due to the inherent deficiencies in information availability and reliability. Nevertheless aside from ... [more ▼]

Estimation in its diverse forms is assumed to be relevant for problem solving in engineering design due to the inherent deficiencies in information availability and reliability. Nevertheless aside from some exception estimation as a method is hardly mentioned in standard literature on systematic approaches to engineering design like Pahl and Beitz. As well it is rarely deliberate addressed in engineering education. Engineering designers are expected to gain estimation competence by experience. Good performance in estimation and the development of estimation competence by hat is left to chance. Estimation as a problem solving strategy covers a wide range of activities on a continuous spectrum between the extremes of random guesses and highly mathematical statistics based approaches. Our research addresses estimation activities which are solely based on cognitive performance, without using specific mathematical procedures or technological support. Our current study is an explorative, qualitative protocol analysis of two idea creation meetings addressing different problems in the early phases of a technology-driven innovation project recorded by the DTRS7 organisation. The addressed research questions are: Where, how, why and what for is estimation used in engineering design? This analysis should give further insight in the not widely delineated topic of estimation in engineering design. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of the Design Task Description on the course and outcome of idea generation meetings
Gericke, Kilian UL; Schmidt-Kretschmer, Michael; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in McDonnell, Janet; Lloyd, Peter (Eds.) About: Designing - Analysing Design Meetings (2009)

This paper presents the results of an explorative, comparative protocol analysis of two design meetings that focused on identifying how the style of the Design Task Description influences the course and ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of an explorative, comparative protocol analysis of two design meetings that focused on identifying how the style of the Design Task Description influences the course and the outcome of an idea generation meeting. A framework is used to allocate potential influencing factors, including the DTD, and to discuss the various relationships and influences in order to understand the differences in course and outcome of the meetings. The style of the DTD was found to influence the length of the analysis phase and lead to differences in the course of the two idea generation meetings and to a higher idea generation rate. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasure and Failure Cost Analysis: Selecting Risk Treatment Strategies
Gericke, Kilian UL; Klimentew, Lars; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (2009)

Project Risk Management is used to prevent projects to fail. Despite its proven use, barriers still exist that hinder implementation and use by inexperienced persons. One barrier is the additional effort ... [more ▼]

Project Risk Management is used to prevent projects to fail. Despite its proven use, barriers still exist that hinder implementation and use by inexperienced persons. One barrier is the additional effort required by the process of Project Risk Management itself. An additional barrier is the lack of systematic support of important steps like the selection of an appropriate risk treatment strategy. The decision which strategy to select is a challenging task due to the uncertain character of the addressed issue. The trade-off of the perceived additional efforts caused by a method must be addressed by an enhancement of the cost-benefit ratio of the applied methods and implemented risk treatment measures. Decision making using the proposed Measure and Failure Cost Analysis (MFCA) method enables the Risk Manager to compare the arising costs of different risk treatment strategies caused by an occurring risk and risk treatment measures. It is based on a de-escalation principle which analyzes the course of the impact of an event. The method compares the reaction rate of different strategies and proposes the favorite one. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and Visualisation of Project Structure using Linkography: Focussing Project Risk Management
Gericke, Kilian UL; Kleinod, Björn; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & 21st International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology IDETC/DTM 2009 (2009)

Product development projects are difficult to plan due to complexity, dynamics, lack of transparency and polytely. Risk Management is often used to cope with this situation. Linkography is adapted with ... [more ▼]

Product development projects are difficult to plan due to complexity, dynamics, lack of transparency and polytely. Risk Management is often used to cope with this situation. Linkography is adapted with the aim to ease the effort of the Risk Management process. Linkography is used to focus all Risk Management activities on those work packages which might affect the project the most in the case of failing the expected outcome. The criticality of a work package is defined by the number of links to other work packages, its duration and its costs. By applying Linkography as a Risk Management method, a prioritized list of work packages can be generated which pass consecutively through the usual Risk Management process. Unlike other methods, Linkography supports the user in a visual manner. Hence, Linkography can easily be used for communication with unskilled stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailA Method for Identifying Improvement Potentials within Product Development Processes
Gries, Bruno; Gericke, Kilian UL

in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (2009)

When a company tries to improve its product development process one of the first challenges is to become clear about two things: what “improvement” means and where within the overall process it is most ... [more ▼]

When a company tries to improve its product development process one of the first challenges is to become clear about two things: what “improvement” means and where within the overall process it is most necessary. The method proposed in this paper aims at identifying activities within a development process which have a high potential for improvement. It is based on the concept of process efficiency, i.e. the ratio of effort spent vs. value added. While the effort of a development activity can be determined quite easily, the value it adds is more difficult to quantify. Therefore an algorithm is described which uses a Design Structure Matrix (DSM) to calculate the value of each development activity based on the knowledge gained through it and the degree to which other activities depend on it. The method has been successfully applied to a real-life product development process and has received initial positive feedback from industry. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation and its Role in Engineering Design - An Introduction
Adolphy, Sebastian; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (2009)

Estimation is assumed to be a relevant method for problem solving in product development due to the deficiencies in information availability and certainty, as well because of short resources. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

Estimation is assumed to be a relevant method for problem solving in product development due to the deficiencies in information availability and certainty, as well because of short resources. Nevertheless estimation as a method is hardly mentioned in literature on product development nor is it part of engineering education. As a consequence good performance in estimation and the development of estimation competence is left to chance, i.e. expected to be built up through experience. We believe that estimation can be supported and taught. Hence estimation competence can be developed purposive and more quickly. The aims of the research introduced in this paper are to understand relevance and functioning of estimation in engineering design, and to develop support for engineering practice and education based on this understanding. This paper focuses on demonstrating the topics’ relevance by addressing the following questions: •Why is estimation important for engineering design? •What is the state of the art in understanding estimation in general? •What is the state of the art of estimation as a method in engineering design? On the basis of this initial investigation we propose our research framework. After goal, approach and scope of our research, the main research questions on estimation in engineering design we wish to answer are formulated, and the research methods we are using. Furthermore first results on characteristics of estimation in engineering design identified by tests, as well as video and protocol analysis are summarized. At least an outlook on the prospect research is given. [less ▲]

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See detailA FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND PROJECT ROBUSTNESS
Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

Poster (2008)

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See detailEstimation in Engineering Design
Adolphy, Sebastian; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

Poster (2008)

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