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See detailDeveloping and Validating a Short-Form Questionnaire for the Assessment of Seven Facets of Conscientiousness in Large-Scale Assessments
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Journal of Personality Assessment (2022), 104(6), 759-773

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no ... [more ▼]

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no short instrument assessing facets of conscientiousness in the educational context. Therefore, in the present multi-study report, we develop and validate a short-form questionnaire for the assessment of seven Conscientiousness facets, namely Industriousness, Perfectionism, Tidiness, Procrastination Refrainment, Control, Caution, and Task Planning. To this end, we examined multiple representative samples totaling N = 14,604 Grade 9 and 10 students from Luxembourg. The questionnaire was developed by adapting and shortening an existing scale using an exhaustive search algorithm. The algorithm was specified to select the best item combination based on model fit, reliability, and measurement invariance across the German and French language versions. The resulting instrument showed the expected factorial structure. The relations of the facets with personality constructs and academic achievement were in line with theoretical assumptions. Reliability was acceptable for all facets. Measurement invariance across language versions, gender, immigration status and cohort was established. We conclude that the presented questionnaire provides a short measurement of seven facets of Conscientiousness with valid and reliable scores. [less ▲]

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See detailRésultats du monitoring scolaire national ÉpStan dans le contexte de la pandémie de COVID-19
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l’éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detailBefunde aus dem nationalen Bildungsmonitoring ÉpStan vor dem Hintergrund der COVID-19- Pandemie
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailCompétences en littératie numérique et pensée computationnelle des élèves de huitième année – Principales conclusions d’ICILS 2018
Boualam, Rachid UL; Lomos, Catalina; Fischbach, Antoine UL

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l’éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detailRésultats du monitoring scolaire national ÉpStan dans le contexte de la pandémie de COVID-19 (Matériels supplémentaires)
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport National sur l´Éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detailLes enseignant(e)s, acteurs essentiels dans la mise en œuvre des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans l’enseignement et l’apprentissage – Principales conclusions d’ICILS 2018
Lomos, Catalina; Luyten, Hans J.W.; Boualam, Rachid UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l’éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detailLehrkräfte als maßgebliche Akteur*innen beim Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie (IKT) in Lern- und Lehrprozessen – Zentrale Ergebnisse der ICILS 2018
Lomos, Catalina; Luyten, Hans J.W.; Boualam, Rachid UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailBefunde aus dem nationalen Bildungsmonitoring ÉpStan vor dem Hintergrund der COVID-19 Pandemie (Supplement)
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailStability of Primary School Value-Added Scores over Time: A Comparison Between Math and Language Achievement as Outcome Variables
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

Value-added (VA) models are widely used for accountability purposes in education. Tracking a teacher’s or a school’s VA score over time forms oftentimes the basis for high-stakes decision-making and can ... [more ▼]

Value-added (VA) models are widely used for accountability purposes in education. Tracking a teacher’s or a school’s VA score over time forms oftentimes the basis for high-stakes decision-making and can determine whether teachers can keep their jobs or schools may receive certain funding. Despite their high-stakes application, the stability of VA scores over time has not yet been investigated for primary schools. Moreover, it is unclear whether different outcome measures (e.g., language and mathematics) may differ in their stability over time. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the stability of VA scores over time and investigate the differences across outcome variables. Furthermore, we wanted to showcase the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools, with a focus on an informative use of VA scores rather than an evaluative way. The exploration of school VA scores in primary schools is especially relevant for heterogeneous student populations, for instance, in Luxembourg. Thus, we drew on representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme and examined the stability of school VA scores over two years in 146 schools (N = 7016 students). The overall stability, as measured by correlation coefficients, was moderate with r = .37 for VA scores in language and r = .34 for VA scores in mathematics from grade one to grade three. Real-life implications for schools will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Luxembourgish Education System: Differences between students based on background characteristics in elementary and secondary school
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in ... [more ▼]

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in academic achievement (OECD, 2021). The present study is based on fully representative large-scale data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées; ÉpStan; LUCET, 2021). The ÉpStan are assessing key competencies of primary and secondary school students in different subjects (e.g., German, French and Math). To allow a fair performance comparison, socio-economic and socio-cultural backgrounds of students (e.g., gender, migration and language background) are systematically taken into consideration. The ÉpStan 2020 entail data from approximatively 25.000 students from five different grades (elementary and secondary school), from 15.000 parents (elementary school) and comparative data from 160.000 students from previous cohorts, thus providing key empirical findings on the pandemic’s impact on the Luxembourgish education system. In the present contribution, we analyze a) how the results of standardized achievement tests compare to previous cohorts and under consideration of students’ socio-economical and socio-cultural background, as well as b) how parents and students perceived home-schooling with regard to aspects such as coping, technical equipment, motivation or contact to teachers. First results indicate that in Grades 1, 5, 7 and 9, standardized achievement scores were generally stable in comparison to previous years. However, in Grade 3, students’ competency scores in German (primary language of instruction in elementary school) listening comprehension worsened substantially. Furthermore, third graders from socio-economically disadvantaged households and/or students that do not speak Luxembourgish/German at home did worse in German reading comprehension than their peers from socio-economically advantaged households and/or speaking Luxembourgish/German at home. Concerning the perception of home-schooling, students coped rather well with the situation, with German being a bit more challenging in primary school and math in secondary school. Findings concerning motivation and enjoyment of home-schooling were mixed, with primary school students’ motivation being comparably to the regular school setting but approximately half of the secondary school students being less motivated than in the regular school setting. Furthermore, all households seem to have been well equipped, with the situation being slightly more favorable in socio-economically advantaged households. For the majority of students, the contact with teachers was frequent, with teachers having adapted their type of support to the needs of their students (e.g., more personal contact towards students from socio-economically disadvantaged households). To conclude, it can be said that no systematic negative trend has been identified in students’ achievement scores. Only German listening comprehension in Grade 3 has worsened substantially and these skills should therefore be fostered as early as possible. Overall, students coped rather well with home-schooling without, however, particularly enjoying it. While students entering the pandemic with favorable background characteristics (e.g., higher socio-economic status, speaking a language of instruction at home) managed better both regarding competencies and perception of home-schooling, students with less favorable background characteristics have received more differentiated support. These findings underline that already existing inequalities in the Luxembourgish school system have in parts been intensified by the pandemic. References LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu OECD. (2021). The State of School Education: One Year into the COVID Pandemic. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/201dde84-en [less ▲]

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See detailChild–Computer Interaction: From a systematic review towards an integrated understanding of interaction design methods for children
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Niess, Jasmin; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in International Journal of Child - Computer Interaction (2021), 100398

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC ... [more ▼]

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC) community has developed, extended, and advanced research and design methods for children’s involvement in designing and evaluating interactive technologies. However, as the CCI field evolves, the need arises for an integrated understanding of interaction design methods currently applied. To that end, we analyzed 272 full papers across a selection of journals and conference venues from 2005 to 2020. Our review contributes to the literature on this topic by (1) examining a holistic child population, including developmentally diverse children and children from 0 to 18 years old, (2) illustrating the interplay of children’s and adults’ roles across different methods, and (3) identifying patterns of triangulation in the methods applied while taking recent ethical debates about children’s involvement in design into account. While we found that most studies were conducted in natural settings, we observed a preference for evaluating interactive artifacts at a single point in time. Method triangulation was applied in two-thirds of the papers, with a preference for qualitative methods. Researchers used triangulation predominantly with respect to mainstream methods that were not specifically developed for child participants, such as user observation combined with semi-structured interviews or activity logging. However, the CCI field employs a wide variety of creative design methods which engage children more actively in the design process by having them take on roles such as informant and design partner. In turn, we see that more passive children’s roles, e.g., user or tester, are more often linked to an expert mindset by the adult. Adults take on a wider spectrum of roles in the design process when addressing specific developmental groups, such as children with autism spectrum disorder. We conclude with a critical discussion about the constraints involved in conducting CCI research and discuss implications that can inform future methodological advances in the field and underlying challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-Term Effects of Retention in Grade 8 in Luxembourg
Klapproth, Florian; Keller, Ulrich UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects may be due to the absence of new learning experiences (Pagani, Tremblay, Vitaro, Boulerice & McDuff, 2001). However, in the short term, positive effects of grade retention are quite likely to occur (Klapproth, Schaltz, Brunner, Keller, Fischbach, Ugen & Martin, 2016). In Luxembourg, more than half of the students repeat at least one grade within their entire school career (Klapproth & Schaltz, 2015). Since grade retention is applied so frequently, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term effects of grade retention, and particularly retention in grade 8. The data used in this study were drawn from 2,835 Luxembourgish students who completed primary education (grade 6) and began secondary education (grade 7) in the 2008-2009 school year. We conducted propensity-score matching to select retained and promoted students with comparable characteristics. We used the “same age-cohort, same grade, different times of measurement” approach for comparisons (Klapproth et al., 2016). The dependent variables were the school marks in the main subjects (German, French, and mathematics) in grades 10, 11, and 12, which can vary between 0 and 60 (with higher values indicating better achievement, and values below 30 indicating insufficient achievement). Our results showed that grade 8 repeaters obtain significantly lower school marks in grades 10 to 12 as compared to matched non-repeaters, with most negative effects appearing for mathematics and French (as opposed to German) and with negative effects strengthening significantly with time. These results seem to confirm results of previous meta-analyses on longer-term effects of grade retention, seemingly suggesting that grade retention is no effective means to tackle low student achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of Value-Added Models: Comparing Classical and Machine Learning Approaches
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical ... [more ▼]

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical actions on students’ achievement, independent of students’ backgrounds (e.g., Braun, 2005). A plethora of VA models exist, and several outcome measures are in use to estimate VA scores, yet without consensus on the model specification (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019). Furthermore, it is unclear whether the most frequently used VA models (i.e., multi-level, linear regression, and random forest models) and outcome measures (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) indicate a similar stability of VA scores over time. Objectives: Drawing from the data of a highly diverse and multilingual school setting, where leveling out the influence of students’ backgrounds is of special interest, we aim to (a) clarify the stability of school VA scores over time; (b) shed light on the sensitivity toward different statistical models and outcome variables; and (c) evaluate the practical implications of (in)stable VA scores for individual schools. Method: Utilizing the representative, longitudinal data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021), we examined the stability of school VA scores. We drew on two longitudinal data sets of students who participated in the standardized achievement tests in Grade 1 in 2014 or 2016 and then again in Grade 3 two years later (i.e., 2016 and 2018, respectively), with a total of 5875 students in 146 schools. School VA scores were calculated using classical approaches (i.e., linear regression and multilevel models) and one of the most commonly used machine learning approaches in educational research (i.e., random forests). Results and Discussion: The overall stability over time across the VA models was moderate, with multilevel models showing greater stability than linear regression models and random forests. Stability differed across outcome measures and was higher for VA models with language achievement as an outcome variable as compared to those with mathematics achievement. Practical implications for schools and teachers will be discussed. [less ▲]

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