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See detailTrademark or patent? The effects of market concentration, customer type, and venture capital financing on start-ups’ initial IP applications
De Vries, Geertjan; Pennings, Enrico; Block, Jörn et al

in Industry and Innovation (2017), 24(4), 325-345

We analyse the initial IP applications of 4,703 start-ups in the U.S., distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. Our empirical results show that start-ups are more likely to file for ... [more ▼]

We analyse the initial IP applications of 4,703 start-ups in the U.S., distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. Our empirical results show that start-ups are more likely to file for trademarks instead of patents when entering markets with a higher market concentration. Furthermore, we find that start-ups that are primarily active in business-to-consumer markets instead of business-to-business markets are more likely to file trademarks. Finally, the involvement of a venture capitalist (VC) affects the initial IP application. VC-backed start-ups are more likely than other startups to file initial IP in the form of trademarks rather than patents. This paper contributes to research on the use of IP rights in start-ups and to the literature on new venture strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing digital footprints in entrepreneurship research: A Twitter-based personality analysis of superstar entrepreneurs and managers
Obschonka, Martin; Fisch, Christian UL; Boyd, Ryan

in Journal of Business Venturing Insights (2017), 8

Research indicates that individuals’ digital footprints, for example in Twitter and Facebook, can reveal remarkably valid information about their personality characteristics. In this study, we use digital ... [more ▼]

Research indicates that individuals’ digital footprints, for example in Twitter and Facebook, can reveal remarkably valid information about their personality characteristics. In this study, we use digital footprints to gain insights into the personality of superstar entrepreneurs and managers, a largely understudied population in entrepreneurship research. Specifically, we compare the personality characteristics of 106 of the most influential business leaders employing a computerized text analysis tool based on the individuals’ Twitter messages (Receptiviti). Our findings are surprising and indicate that superstar managers are more entrepreneurial in many personality characteristics than superstar entrepreneurs. However, we also found some indications that superstar entrepreneurs seem to show features of a classic “Schumpeterian” entrepreneurial personality with respect to being creative, independent rule-breakers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of Chinese patents: An empirical investigation of citation lags
Fisch, Christian UL; Sandner, Philipp; Regner, Lukas

in China Economic Review (2017), 45

China has been experiencing a substantial growth in patent applications. But is this increase accompanied by a similar increase in patent value? To assess this question, we examine the citation lag of ... [more ▼]

China has been experiencing a substantial growth in patent applications. But is this increase accompanied by a similar increase in patent value? To assess this question, we examine the citation lag of Chinese patents as a proxy of patent value in comparison with patents from the US, Europe, Japan, and Korea. Our empirical analysis comprises a unique data set of 60,000 patents with priority years between 2000 and 2010. Utilizing Cox regressions, our results show that Chinese patents suffer from a large citation lag in comparison to international patents, indicating a lower value. This is especially true for patents filed domestically. However, we find empirical support for an increasing patent value in more recent patents. China shows a strong dynamic in the field of patenting and our results suggest that the gap between Chinese patents and international patents might narrow down in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Schumpeterian entrepreneur: a review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behaviour and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Van Praag, Mirjam

in Industry and Innovation (2017), 24(1), 61-95

Innovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not ... [more ▼]

Innovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very scattered and is separated into several disciplines. We provide a summary that takes stock of the academic knowledge about innovative entrepreneurship and summarizes the evidence from 102 empirical studies published in the primary economics and management journals on the antecedents, behavior, and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship. Based on this state-of-the-art literature review, directions for future research are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWho prefers working in family firms? An exploratory study of individuals’ organizational preferences across 40 countries
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Lau, James et al

in Journal of Family Business Strategy (2016), 7(2), 65-74

Employees can work in family or in non-family firms. Using a sample of more than 12,000 individuals in 40 countries, we investigate this particular occupational choice decision by exploring individual ... [more ▼]

Employees can work in family or in non-family firms. Using a sample of more than 12,000 individuals in 40 countries, we investigate this particular occupational choice decision by exploring individual preferences to work in family firms. Our results show that socio-demographic, occupation-related, and entrepreneurship-related variables influence the preference to work in family firms. For example, a preference to work in family firms correlates positively with being female, a positive opinion on entrepreneurs, and self-employment intention, while it correlates negatively with length of full-time education, living in an urban area, being a manager, and entrepreneurship education. Our results help family firms with regard to recruiting of non-family employees and employer branding. [less ▲]

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See detailPatents and trademarks: Motivations, antecedents, and value in industrialized and emerging markets
Fisch, Christian UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) play a very important role for innovations. They serve as a mechanism for innovators (e.g., individuals, companies, universities) to protect their intellectual property ... [more ▼]

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) play a very important role for innovations. They serve as a mechanism for innovators (e.g., individuals, companies, universities) to protect their intellectual property and enable the holder of the IPR to profit from the innovation. Patents and trademarks constitute the two most important and most frequently utilized IPRs. This thesis contains five empirical studies that address recent research gaps in research on patents and trademarks. With regard to patents, this thesis focuses on patenting in China, which underwent a remarkable and explosive growth recently: Only 15 years ago, Chinese applicants filed 1.9% of the patents they filed in 2014. This is because China is trying to transition itself from an imitation-based to innovation-based economy. However, even though China is actively and prominently fostering innovation in trying to become a leading innovator, China is still far away from reaching the world’s innovation frontier. In light of this ongoing and still relatively unexplored phenomenon, this thesis addresses several important issues regarding the antecedents of patenting and the value of patents in China that are crucial, but have received little attention so far. In particular, this thesis addresses the more specific topics of university patenting, the impact of acquisitions on innovation performance, and patent value in China. In contrast to research on patenting, research on trademarking is in comparatively early stages. Trademarks are a very important IPR for firms to distinguish themselves from competitors and have been linked positively to the market valuation, survival, and productivity of firms. However, little is known on why firms file trademarks, which is the focus of the final study in this thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailChinese university patents: quantity, quality, and the role of subsidy programs
Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn; Sandner, Philipp

in Journal of Technology Transfer (2016), 41(1), 60-84

Chinese university patenting has gained importance in recent years. Using a comprehensive dataset of university patents by 155 leading Chinese universities from 1991 to 2009, our study pursues two ... [more ▼]

Chinese university patenting has gained importance in recent years. Using a comprehensive dataset of university patents by 155 leading Chinese universities from 1991 to 2009, our study pursues two objectives: First, we analyze the quantity and quality of patents filed by leading Chinese universities. Second, we analyze the role of subsidy programs with regard to university patenting in China. With regard to the first objective, our results show that university patents witnessed rapid growth in terms of quantity while patent quality did not increase to a similar degree. Regarding the second objective, we find that a subsidy program to promote research excellence at selected universities is a significant driver of patent quantity and quality. In contrast, a subsidy program that decreases the costs of patent applications seems to enhance patent quantity but not patent quality. We conclude that innovation policies which aim to stimulate patents of higher quality should focus primarily on increasing university R&D, and to a lesser extent on decreasing the costs of university patenting. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversity patenting: a comparison of 300 leading universities worldwide
Fisch, Christian UL; Hassel, Tobias; Sandner, Philipp et al

in Journal of Technology Transfer (2015), 40(2), 318-345

Despite a worldwide increase in university patenting, empirical studies have largely focused on analyzing university patenting in individual countries and regions. We provide analyses from an ... [more ▼]

Despite a worldwide increase in university patenting, empirical studies have largely focused on analyzing university patenting in individual countries and regions. We provide analyses from an international perspective, examining patents at the top 300 universities worldwide. By providing a patent ranking system and an analysis of the determinants of university patenting, we enable an international comparison not only between different countries but also between universities within countries. A ranking of the top-patenting universities shows a huge predominance of US universities: 18 of the top 25 universities are located in the US, with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology being ranked first. Our results show that the propensity to apply for patents is very high among US and Asian universities, while European universities lag behind. In addition to the home country, further determinants of university patenting are the quantity of the universities’ publications and a technological focus in areas such as chemistry and mechanical engineering. However, the size of a university and the quality of its publications are not found to be significant determinants. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do SMEs file trademarks? Insights from firms in innovative industries
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Hahn, Alexander et al

in Research Policy (2015), 44(10), 1915-1930

Trademark filings have increased markedly over time. Although prior research has investigated the out-comes of trademark registration, including its effects on firm market valuation and productivity ... [more ▼]

Trademark filings have increased markedly over time. Although prior research has investigated the out-comes of trademark registration, including its effects on firm market valuation and productivity, little isknown about why firms file trademarks. However, to interpret the increase in trademark filings and itseconomic effects, it is important to know and understand why firms file trademarks. Because trademarksare particularly important to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this study analyzes trademark-ing motives using a survey of 600 SMEs in innovative industries. An exploratory factor analysis yieldsthree distinct motives: protection, marketing, and exchange. A cluster analysis reveals four distinct clus-ters of firms with respect to the three trademarking motives. A comparison of these clusters revealssignificant differences in several industry- and firm-level characteristics, including participation in ser-vice industries and relationships with external parties. Implications for research on SMEs, trademarks,and intellectual property management are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSocialist Heritage and Image of Entrepreneurs in Europe: Micro-Level Evidence
Adam-Müller, Axel; Andres, René; Block, Jörn et al

in Business Administration Review (2015), 75(4), 211-232

What factors shape an individual’s opinion on entrepreneurs? How do these factors differ across countries? This paper analyzes the relationship between socialist history and individuals’ opinions on ... [more ▼]

What factors shape an individual’s opinion on entrepreneurs? How do these factors differ across countries? This paper analyzes the relationship between socialist history and individuals’ opinions on entrepreneurs. Using a large-scale micro-level dataset from 30 European countries, we find that individuals from countries with a socialist history have a more negative opinion on entrepreneurs. This negative effect is less pronounced for individuals that are younger, better educated and have self-employed parents. Our paper makes two contributions to the literature: First, it provides empirical evidence on the determinants of individuals’ opinion on entrepreneurs. Second, it contributes to the understanding of entrepreneurship in former socialist countries. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademark families: characteristics and market values
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Sandner, Philipp

in Journal of Brand Management (2014), 21(1), 150-170

Research shows that financial markets value trademarks. Often, a firm’s trademarks can be decomposed into groups of related trademarks (trademark families). This study identifies different types of ... [more ▼]

Research shows that financial markets value trademarks. Often, a firm’s trademarks can be decomposed into groups of related trademarks (trademark families). This study identifies different types of trademark families and analyzes their respective effects on the market values of large, publicly listed firms. The results show that financial markets value only those trademarks that develop existing brands, while they do not value the creation of new trademarks. The implications of the results for corporate intellectual property and brand management are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTitel: Die Bedeutung des CEO für die Internationalisierung von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen
Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn

in Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter (2013), 60(1), 139-153

Die Internationalisierung von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) ist für die Unternehmenspraxis von hoher Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich damit, inwiefern Charakteristika des Chief ... [more ▼]

Die Internationalisierung von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) ist für die Unternehmenspraxis von hoher Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich damit, inwiefern Charakteristika des Chief Executive Officers (CEO) Einfluss auf die Markteintrittsformwahl von KMU nehmen. Die durchgeführten empirischen Analysen zeigen, dass ein hohes Alter, ein hohes Bildungsniveau sowie eine große internationale Erfahrung des CEO die Wahrscheinlichkeit direktinvestiver Markteintrittsformen verringern. Die Ergebnisse sind relevant für die Unternehmenspraxis, da sie zeigen, dass es zu einer durch die Person des CEO begründeten, jedoch aus Unternehmenssicht möglicherweise nicht optimalen Markteintrittsformwahl kommen kann. KMU sollten sich dieser Möglichkeit bewusst sein und solchen Entscheidungsverzerrungen gegebenenfalls entgegenwirken. [less ▲]

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