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See detailA perspective on urban economics and geographical agent-based models. (Keynote Speech)
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2015, September)

In this presentation, we will argue that there are many benefits to further liaise urban economic models and geographically -aware agent-based simulation models for further understanding the structure and ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, we will argue that there are many benefits to further liaise urban economic models and geographically -aware agent-based simulation models for further understanding the structure and dynamics of cities, especially at the scale of city regions but also, eventually, for contributing micro understanding of changes in a system of cities. At first sight it appears that these two fields of urban research are very separated: urban economics relies mostly on mathematical proofs, a parsimonious set of interactions, static equilibria and a rather homogeneous space and set of agents; while geographical agent-based models emphasize the dynamics and complexity of cities, the heterogeneity of agents and space, and rely solely on computational methods. The presentation will showcase a series of theoretical and applied research to stress the idea that the two can fruitfully be combined and that results are then palatable to both urban economists and geographers and can therefore participate to consolidating a wider and formalised urban theory. The geographical turn towards agent-based approaches, compared to more aggregate models and behaviourally-blind geocomputational methods, is actually a chance for geographers to formalise market as well as non-market interactions in a manner that is consistent with urban economic theory and enhance the treatment of space in this theory. Relying on a formal description of agents utility permits to discuss normative instruments where environmental and welfare impacts can be traded-off by policy makers. Furthermore,, land or housing market outcomes of the models and the analytical efforts actually help to reduce parametric space and calibrate or validate models against independent data. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating bike-share trips using station level data
Medard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Tranportation Research Part B: Methodological (2015), 78

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and ... [more ▼]

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and promotion by mayors in Europe and North America alike. In most cases municipal governments desire their BSS to be successful and, with few exceptions, state them as being so. New technological improvements have dramatically simplified the use and enforcement of bicycle return, resulting in the widespread adoption of BSS. Unfortunately little evaluation of the effectiveness of differently distributed and managed BSS has taken place. Comparing BSS systems quantitatively is challenging due to the limited data made available. The metrics of success presented by municipalities are often too general or incomparable to others making relative evaluations of BSS success arduous. This paper presents multiple methodologies allowing the estimation of the number of daily trips, the most significant measure of BSS usage, based on data that is commonly available, the number of bicycles available at a station over time. Results provide model coefficients as well as trip count estimates for select cities. Of four spatial and temporal aggregate models the day level aggregation is found to be most effective for estimation. In addition to trip estimation this work provides a rigorous formalization of station level data and the ability to distinguish spatio-temporal rebalancing quantities as well as new characteristics of BSS station use. [less ▲]

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See detailLand Use and Transport Interaction Models - Where is the limit?
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Jones, Jonathan; Thomas, Isabelle et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July 08)

Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) models are precious tools to integrating the many impacts and feedbacks of the location of activities on transport infrastructures and vice versa. In that sense ... [more ▼]

Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) models are precious tools to integrating the many impacts and feedbacks of the location of activities on transport infrastructures and vice versa. In that sense, applying LUTI models is key to delivering regulation and planning options for urban and transport sustainability. For they have been used in practice to guide urban planners and help transport policy since the 1960’s and the pioneering work of Lowry (1964). The effectiveness of LUTI models as decision support tools is generally well accepted by transport and planning researchers and by practitioners, despite sailing through troubled waters between consultancy secrets, politically led options, data problems, rule of thumb calibration, and model openness and transparency. At the turn of the millennium, LUTI models have developed from aggregate zone-based models to micro representation of space and disaggregated representation of agents, following increased computing capacity and availability of better GIS and individual data. As demonstrated by Wegener (2011) this modeling shift however goes with costs that impede empirical validation and further adoption in planning. LUTI modelers have long recognized that the different processes within LUTI models act and interface at different speeds (Wegener, 1986). The further granularity accompanying disaggregation then leads to dynamics that are trickier to handle. As argued by Anas (2013), LUTI models need clearer definitions and a stricter use of urban economics concepts. Likewise, we argue in this paper that LUTI models also need to take better care of geographical knowledge and spatial biases. They require the analysis of the robustness of model outcomes to the choice of spatial units and MAUP, which is analyzed by Jones et al. (2013) but also the effect of changing urban system boundaries, which is under focus here. Defining the limits of a coherent study area for modeling is actually questioning the delimitation of a city or urban region. This is obviously not a new question to geographers and economists but it impacts deeply on how inner stocks (population, firms, …) and external flows (traffic, labor,…) are modeled in LUTI models and therefore on their outcome. From intuition and practice, we hypothesize that there is strong inertia in LUTI models outcomes because the many parameters and variables that are present in these models are eventually strongly constrained by the geographical structure considered (monocentric, polycentric, including exurbs or not, etc.). Where the outer limit of a model is traced not only impacts the internal components of the city but also questions the problem of the limits between two cities, which is not trivial. First, we perform a meta-analysis of recent LUTI applications in European contexts based on 19 peer-reviewed articles. The lack of definition of the study area is striking. Interestingly in the first LUTI implementation, Lowry (1964) explicitly mentioned the use of an estimate of the commutershed of Pittsburgh for the next 20 years. The lack of explicit choice in later literature with models of increased complexity, stresses the need for guidelines that could improve practice in order to improve the comparability of applications and the generalization of results where possible. Second, we perform simulations on a synthetic city system using UrbanSim (Waddell et al., 2003). We gradually vary the spatial limits of the system from an inner center monocentric system to a polycentric city region. We also vary population and employment endowments, hence commuting patterns. Our simulations show that LUTI results are highly impacted by the change of limits and therefore suggest a reason why LUTI models are sensitive to large parametric shocks only. Our paper confirms that the absence of a strict theoretical rationale for city delineation weakens the effectiveness of LUTI models. References Anas, A. 2013. A response to the guest editorial: economics as the science for urban modeling. Environment and Planning B, 40 (6), 955 – 958 Jones, J., Peeters, D and Thomas, I. 2013. On the Influence of Scale on Urban Planning Evaluations by LUTI models. ASRDLF Congress 2013. Lowry, I.S. 1964. A model of metropolis. Memorandum RM 4035 Rand Corporation, Santa-Monica. 136p Waddell, P., Borning, A., Noth, M., Freier, N., Becke, M. and Ulfarsson, G. 2003. Microsimulation of Urban Development and Location Choices: Design and Implementation of UrbanSim. Networks and Spatial Economics, 3 (1), 43-67 Wegener, M., Gnad, F., Vannahme, M. 1986. The time scale of urban change. In Hutchinson, B and Batty, M. (Eds), Advances in Urban Systems Modelling. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 145–197. Wegener, M. 2011. From macro to micro - how much micro is too much? Transport Reviews, 31, 161–177 [less ▲]

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See detailOn the delineation of cities in applied LUTI models in Europe: bibliography and simulations
Thomas, Isabelle; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July)

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See detailEmergence of leapfrogging from residential choice with endogenous green space: analytical results
Peeters, Dominique; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean et al

in Journal of Regional Science (2015), 55(3), 491-512

Leapfrog development is a typical form of sprawl. This paper aims at analyzing the existence, size, and persistence of leapfrogging in a dynamic urban economic model with endogenous green amenities. We ... [more ▼]

Leapfrog development is a typical form of sprawl. This paper aims at analyzing the existence, size, and persistence of leapfrogging in a dynamic urban economic model with endogenous green amenities. We analyze whether incoming households choose to settle at the fringe of the city or to jump further away depending on their preferences and the structure of the city. We first provide an analytical treatment of the conditions and characteristics under which a first leapfrog occurs and show how the optimal choice is affected by the size of the city, income, commuting costs, as well as the size of the area where green amenities are considered. We then study how further leapfrogging and multiple urban rings may appear and be maintained in the long-run equilibrium, and how infill processes take place through time. [less ▲]

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See detailEndogenous traffic-induced air pollution and equilibrium city structure
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2015, February)

Citizens' increasing concern about exposure to air pollution has implications on their residential decision and therefore on the internal structure of cities, which in turn impacts on the intra-urban ... [more ▼]

Citizens' increasing concern about exposure to air pollution has implications on their residential decision and therefore on the internal structure of cities, which in turn impacts on the intra-urban variation of air pollution. We analyse interdependencies of residential choice, internal city structure and air pollution by contributing an extension to the standard urban economics model with endogenous local pollution arising from passing traffic. We define the analytical conditions for the existence of equilibrium, derive equilibrium properties and perform comparative statics. We find that strong preference for air quality can lead households to move towards the urban fringe and accept higher densities on the outskirts when transport costs and background air pollution are low, resulting in non-monotonous density gradients. Households and pollution distributions vary spatially depending on the various factors shaping urban form; for instance, high background pollution concentration reduces spatial expansion, while improvements in vehicle technology foster it. We then contrast equilibrium structures resulting from the trade-offs in location choice from a health (exposure) and environmental (emissions) perspective. We further find that the processes shaping internal urban structure as well as the scale of air pollution as location choice determinant have variable spatial implications for pollution variations within cities. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing land transaction data and structural econometric estimation of preference parameters for urban economic simulation models
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Data in Brief (2015), 5

This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model. The estimates are used by Caruso et al. (2015) to run a calibrated microeconomic urban growth simulation model where households are assumed to trade-off accessibility and local green space amenities. [less ▲]

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See detailGreener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015)

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasising the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Challenges, specificities and commonalities of transport research and policy within the BENELUX countries–the case of Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe; Hesse, Markus UL et al

in European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (2015), 15(4), 501-505

In the recent years, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has emerged as a new player in research as part of a strategy to foster its knowledge for both economical and societal developments. In the transport ... [more ▼]

In the recent years, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has emerged as a new player in research as part of a strategy to foster its knowledge for both economical and societal developments. In the transport research field, the University of Luxembourg (created in 2003) with its Geography and Spatial Planning Institute (created in 2007) and its Transport Engineering group (created in 2012) joined forces with the public research institution LISER (previously CEPS-INSTEAD) to organize the 2013 Transport Research Day of the BIVEC. Looking backward to the event while preparing this editorial, we can see it actually played a kick-off role for the international diffusion of Luxembourg research on transport and related land-use issues, and was a good occasion to shed lights on Luxembourg specificities and commonalities within the Benelux, which we like to stress in this editorial. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkplace Relocation and Mobility Changes in a Transnational Metropolitan Area: The Case of the University of Luxembourg
Sprumont, François UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transportation Research Procedia (2014, December), 4

The aim of this paper is to study the utility variation related to the commuting mobility of University staff members due to their future workplace relocation. During the year 2012, a travel survey was ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to study the utility variation related to the commuting mobility of University staff members due to their future workplace relocation. During the year 2012, a travel survey was completed by a total of 397 staff members, representing 36.4% of the university employees, who filled in a questionnaire which revealed complex decision making patterns due to the special traveling scenario involving four countries at once. A Multinomial Logit model has been used to anticipate the impact of university relocation from the capital city to a developing area in the south of the country which will happen between 2015 and 2018 and that will affect most of the employees. The effects of several Travel Demand Management measures are discussed based on the analysis of alternative scenarios [less ▲]

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See detailMapping uncertainty from multi-criteria analysis of land development suitability, the case of Howth, Dublin
Quinn, Bernadette; Schiel, Kerry UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Journal of Maps (2014)

This paper presents a method for determining and mapping suitable locations for development using Multi Criteria Analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process and considering uncertainties in the process ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a method for determining and mapping suitable locations for development using Multi Criteria Analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process and considering uncertainties in the process. The method is applied to the case study of Howth (Dublin), where development suitability is assessed against specific protection and conservation areas as well as ground water vulnerability. Uncertainty is incorporated using a Monte Carlo simulation into the Analytical Hierarchy Process calculations to determine criteria weightings. A map is derived, which includes, for all locations, both site suitability for development and the level of uncertainty attached to this suitability. The map combines a double categorization of suitability and uncertainty. The method allows for increased transparency in decision making regarding site suitability for development, as well as increased confidence in decision making to allow for reduced risk in terms of the potential impact of development. [less ▲]

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See detailGeographical Determinants of Residential Land Values in Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The sustained periurbanisation observed throughout Luxembourg has considerably challenged spatial planning policies. The limited success of recent policies that aimed at modifying consumers’ residential ... [more ▼]

The sustained periurbanisation observed throughout Luxembourg has considerably challenged spatial planning policies. The limited success of recent policies that aimed at modifying consumers’ residential preferences, underlies the main research objective of this thesis to further understand consumers’ preferences for the local geographical context, that can be considered as additional drivers of the ongoing urban spatial expansion. Besides the standard trade-off discussed in the monocentric city model (Alonso, 1964), several extensions to this model and specifically the periurban model (Cavailhès et al., 2004) have shown the utility bearing attributes of local urban and rural amenities for land consumers. By the means of the hedonic pricing method (Rosen, 1974), I aimed thus at identifying the marginal value of periurban amenities developable land consumers revealed when purchasing land. The main question addressed in this thesis is how urban and green amenities are valued by land consumers in Luxembourg, relying on advanced spatial econometric techniques. Further the focus was turned to the heterogeneity of consumers’ preferences with regard to their socio-economic background, relying on the spatial quantile regression approach. Moreover, spatial market segmentation and spatial heterogeneity in the valuation of the geographical determinants was further investigated by relying on the multilevel modelling approach, rather an uncommon practice in hedonic modelling context. The results of the thesis confirm that distance to Luxembourg by car and parcel size are the main determinants of land prices in Luxembourg, confirming thus urban economic theory. It was shown that not all land consumers are in competition on the same market and spatial market segments have been identified. Further, we show that land-use diversity is valued differently at different distances and that its marginal impact varies throughout Luxembourg, depending on the specific geographical context, and with regard to the price distribution. Results underline the importance of periurban amenities in consumers’ location decision, that however vary between (spatial) market segments. Accounting for the specificities of the local geographical context and individuals needs should help finding ways to design more acceptable and liveable neighbourhood plans that at the same time account better for the negative effects of urban spatial expansion. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Analysis of internal migration in Luxembourg
Kalogirou, Stamatis; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2014, September 08)

The aims of this paper are to look at the spatial patterns and to model internal migration in Luxembourg. Between 2010 and 2011, 17344 people or 3.7% of the total population moved from one municipality ... [more ▼]

The aims of this paper are to look at the spatial patterns and to model internal migration in Luxembourg. Between 2010 and 2011, 17344 people or 3.7% of the total population moved from one municipality (commune) to another within Luxembourg, showing a very dynamic migratory system. Luxembourg City is a net migration looser in terms of internal migration: 3128 people moved out of Luxembourg and 1428 people moved in to the capital in the same period. This paper presents an innovative migration flow map while attempting to explain, for the first time in Luxembourg, the driving forces of migratory moves at a fine geographical scale, most of the literature being focussed on the strong international migration, thus hiding local residential processes. The data analysed refer to the migration flows between the 116 local authorities (communes) in Luxembourg and the 12-months migration question. We present models for out-migration, in-migration and migration flows. For the latter, we fit unconstrained gravity models using Poisson, and Negative Binomial (NB) regressions, and their Zero Inflated variants in order to account for overdispersion and the large number of zero flows. The empirical results are very interesting and show processes that differ from other countries. It appears that cultural and urban planning factors rather than labour force factors affect the decision to migrate within Luxembourg, which is plausible given the location, the size and the ethnic background of the population residing in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial patterns of land-use and neighbourhood diversity: a multilevel analysis of residential land prices in Luxembourg
Glaesener, Marie-Line UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2014, August 28)

There is increasing interest in understanding how the spatial organisation of land uses within a neighbourhood impact on the perceived quality of a residential place. Not only this diversity may lead to ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in understanding how the spatial organisation of land uses within a neighbourhood impact on the perceived quality of a residential place. Not only this diversity may lead to higher attractiveness but also is usually seen as a key aspect of sustainable urban growth (mixed use development). Geoghegan et al. (1997) assume that increasing land use diversity might affect property values in two ways: negatively as they introduce higher chances of negative visual and noise externalities, but in the meantime positively as diversity may implicitly mean the proximity to important local urban amenities. Our paper aims at revealing the role of land-use diversity in determining the price of residential land, hence the attractiveness of a location beyond the structural qualities of houses. We conduct a hedonic price analysis of all residential land transactions across the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg between 2007 and 2011. Land-use diversity is measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition to these unconventional geographical measures, we rely also on a multilevel modelling approach, which is still quite rare in land and housing hedonic literature (notable exceptions are Orford (2000), and Chasco and Le Gallo (2012)). We believe the multi-level approach is needed here to account for the nested nature of the data and to relax the assumption of a unitary equilibrium land market. As an alternative to the single-level model, the multilevel model accounts for the hierarchical structure of the spatial units, by modelling the variability at each of the considered levels and allowing individual observations within a particular spatial unit to be more similar than a random sample (Jones, 1991). Orford (2000) in particular emphasises the capacity of multi-level models to deal with spatial segmentations of the market and spatial dependence effects. In our paper we first identify the variability of transaction price at the different levels compared to the overall mean. Second, we check for spatial variations in the valuation of land-use diversity and parcel size in the residential land market. Third we test for remaining spatial effects via a cross-regressive multilevel model, as suggested by Chasco and Le Gallo (2012). Our results confirm the usefulness of the multilevel model approach and a negative valuation of close land-use diversity, whereas it is considered a positive externality in walking distance. Further, random coefficients for the Shannon indices confirm spatial variations in the valuation of land-use diversity. Via the cross-regressive multilevel model we test for remaining spatial effects and conclude that our model cleared up the entire spatial dependence in the land price data, conversely to the case in Chasco and Le Gallo (2012) and thus rather supporting suggestions from Orford (2000). [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial implications of endogenous pollution externalities in a residential location model
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2014, August)

Exposure to traffic-induced air pollution is acknowledged to cause harmful effects on the environment and human health. Citizens are increasingly concerned as reflected in the willingness of citizens to ... [more ▼]

Exposure to traffic-induced air pollution is acknowledged to cause harmful effects on the environment and human health. Citizens are increasingly concerned as reflected in the willingness of citizens to pay for living in less polluted urban environments. Air quality is an amenity progressively considered in location choice . While residents might seek to remove oneself from traffic as source of emissions and favour low density environments, urban planners often argue towards urban densification in order to limit the generation of emissions by reducing distances between activities and, thus, distances travelled . The potential ease of citizens’ satisfaction in such densified areas with reduced green space amenities and concentration of development and traffic is, however, often omitted . This contradiction triggers the debate about the role of urban structure and, in particular, residential preferences on mitigating not only environmental, but also health and social impacts caused by urban air pollution. To shed further light on this debate, we contribute a spatial economics model focussing on residential choice and explicitly including traffic-induced exposure to air pollution as residential disamenity. Economic literature introducing air pollution on an urban scale into economic models to assess its impact on urban structure comprises equilibrium models with aggregate pollution from industrial sources ; however, only few with (disaggregate) pollution from transport and an explicit treatment of space . A general link between environmental and traffic congestion externalities has been mathematically formalized but not yet explicitly so in the context of residential exposure. This research builds on the standard urban economics model and explicitly formulates exposure disamenities in residents’ utility perception. The paper focuses on deriving analytical properties from the model with pollution exposure from traffic, while the literature is predominantly numerical so far. Analytical comparative statics grant insights into spatial implications, residents’ utility and health impacts. Thereby, also the impact of, for instance, environmental awareness, technological improvements and the severity of health damage are analysed. Despite vast critiques on sprawl, with regard to air pollution dispersed urban structures resulting from exposure aversion might yet reflect beneficial trade-offs between commuting distance and prevention of exposure; thus, between environmental and social concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban compactness and the trade-off between air pollution emission and exposure: Lessons from a spatially explicit theoretical model
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2014), 45

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. The interplay between urban structure and air pollution from an environmental, health and social perspective is the focus of our work: we model ... [more ▼]

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. The interplay between urban structure and air pollution from an environmental, health and social perspective is the focus of our work: we model how urban structure impacts traffic-induced pollutant emissions and the exposure of residents to those pollutants. We present a chain of models applied to theoretical monocentric space: a residential choice model with endogenous open-space and road network, a commuting traffic generation and road assignment model and a pollutant emissions, dispersion and exposure model. The theoretical study approach decouples results from location specific characteristics and enables us to analyse how the preference of households for green amenities, a transport tax, the provision of public transport alternatives and local neighbourhood design impact the environment (total emissions) as well as residents’ health (population exposure) and utility. We emphasise that environmental strategies in the form of urban compaction have a strong impact on the exposure of households to pollutants, especially close to the centre, in addition to their reduction of welfare. Our results suggest that more beneficial policy outcomes can be obtained from strategies which preserve green spaces close to the centre or which intend a greater shift from car to public transport. Further, we find indication that different local designs of neighbourhoods have much stronger impacts on the exposure–emission tension than city-wide land use or transport options. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bevölkerung der Großregion SaarLorLux
Interregionale Arbeitsmarktbeobachtungsstelle, IBA; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This contribution is an excerpt from the report on the economic and social situation of the Greater Region 2013/2014 for the Economic and Social Committee of the Greater Region (IBA/OIE, 2014, pp. 3-10 ... [more ▼]

This contribution is an excerpt from the report on the economic and social situation of the Greater Region 2013/2014 for the Economic and Social Committee of the Greater Region (IBA/OIE, 2014, pp. 3-10). The maps show the population density in the Greater Region as of 1 January 2013, the working-age population as of 1 January 2012 and the population development from 2000 to 2013 (Lorraine: zones d'emploi 1999-2011), calculated by the Interregional Labour Market Observatory IBA. The population density of the Greater Region in 2013 was almost 175 inhabitants per square kilometre, although the distribution varies widely from regionally: from more than 2,000 inhabitants per square kilometre in Mainz and Ludwigshafen to the sparsely populated areas of Verdun and Commercy with less than 30 inhabitants per square kilometre. This is where important economic priorities lie and influences from the large conurbations of neighboring federal states have an impact. Densely populated areas are also located in the northern part of Wallonia, particularly in the economic centres of Charleroi and Liège. In addition, the population of the Greater Region concentrates primarily on a transnational core area, which encompasses all sub-regions and important economic priorities. [less ▲]

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See detailHow green neighbourhoods make cities more compact? A 2D microeconomic perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhes, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model with no symmetry assumption where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model with no symmetry assumption where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and view to amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog agricultural land or not, hence impact on the emergence of sprawl patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and activities within neighbourhoods may constitute an effective policy lever in some urban contexts and a positive incentive to a more compact development. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between residential and daily mobility: Luxembourg case study in the MOEBIUS project (extended abstract)
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Hesse, Markus; Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013 (2013)

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is ... [more ▼]

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is similar in its objectives to a Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) model, although very modular in its implementation and with ability to deal with very fine spatial resolution inputs and outputs. We simulate (i) the future potential urbanisation in Luxembourg, (ii) the population and its spatial distribution, and (iii) the daily mobility (commuting pattern and travel mode choice) at a disaggregated level. [less ▲]

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