References of "Caruso, Geoffrey 50001199"
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See detailEquilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from traffic
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Picard, Pierre M UL

in Regional Science and Urban Economics (2017), 62

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and ... [more ▼]

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technologies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper compares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe. [less ▲]

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See detailBee Species Richness in Europe
Schiel, Kerry UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Vereecken, Nicolas

Cartographic material (2017)

This map portfolio compares maps of bee species richness in Europe automatically aggregated per country from the IUCN Red List with national numbers obtained from various other sources.

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See detailGrenzüberschreitende Alltagspraktiken in der Großregion SaarLorLux
Wille, Christian UL; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

This paper examines everyday practices carried out by the inhabitants of Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia in neighbouring regions abroad. The key consideration here is ... [more ▼]

This paper examines everyday practices carried out by the inhabitants of Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia in neighbouring regions abroad. The key consideration here is that the Greater Region SaarLorLux can be defined as a cross-border reality of life based on the cross-border implementation of everyday practices of its inhabitants. In such a socio-constructivist perspective, it is not asked what the Greater Region SaarLorLux is, but in what ways it is constituted or how it manifests itself in the everyday life of its inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailAn agent-based model to simulate the feedback effect between traffic-induced air pollution and urban structure
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, September 22)

A spatial complexity currently of increasing concern is the relation between the internal structure of urban areas and traffic‐induced air pollution. Urban air pollution has severe impacts on the ... [more ▼]

A spatial complexity currently of increasing concern is the relation between the internal structure of urban areas and traffic‐induced air pollution. Urban air pollution has severe impacts on the environment and on human health with traffic being its major source. Air pollution from traffic varies locally within the city depending on traffic patterns that arise from the spatial arrangement of land uses and subsequent travel demand across time. In this paper, we contribute a dynamic agent‐based residential model (ABM) applied to 2D theoretical space based on micro‐economic principles with local exposure and pollution externalities arising from car commuting traffic and an endogenous road network. We analyse the effects of households’ aversion to generating and being exposed to local traffic pollution on emerging land use patterns and pollution distribution. The focus is thereby set on endogenising local health but also global environmental concerns of traffic‐induced air pollution in location choice. The ABM framework allows discussing the spatial interactions against the background of pollution‐related (e.g., pollutant diffusion, cold‐start emissions, additional emissions through traffic congestion) and preference‐related (e.g., exposure during the commute versus at the residential location, size of the impact neighbourhood) framework conditions and planning approaches (localized lump‐sum taxes, cordon tolls, flat taxes). We discuss the stability and performance criteria of the resulting cities, which are on the one hand city aggregates (e.g., total emissions, total exposure, spatial extent of the urban area), but on the other hand and more importantly location‐dependent disaggregates (local patterns of land rents, exposure, green spaces, design of the road network). Thus, our paper interlinks pollution‐related concerns and urban structures from a health and environmental perspective, which take place at different spatial scales (different radii of interaction) and thereby ties in with the compaction‐sprawl debate in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailConsidering activity pattern to achieve a more sustainable commuting behavior
Sprumont, François UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Viti, Francesco UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, September 19)

While commuting allows workers to take part to the economy, this specific trip represents a non-negligible share of the total trips undertaken by individuals. Because of the repetitive pattern both in ... [more ▼]

While commuting allows workers to take part to the economy, this specific trip represents a non-negligible share of the total trips undertaken by individuals. Because of the repetitive pattern both in time and space of the home-to-work trip, different transport policies can be implemented in order to reduce some of its negative impacts. Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures aim at reducing the transport demand or inducing a modal shift towards active or public transport modes. Too often, these strategies, by focusing narrowly on the home-to-work trip, do not take into account the complexity of the individuals’ daily activity chain. Indeed, the complexity of the activity pattern might impede some workers to use public or active modes for the commuting trip despite, for instance, a very short home-to-work distance. Results of a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach indicates that, for working days, socio-demographic variables affect more car use than activity-chain complexity. Thus, the proposed TDM measures aiming at decreasing car use for commuting takes into account the daily activity behavior but also suggest ways to deal with individual’s characteristics [less ▲]

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See detailEquilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from traffic
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Picard, Pierre M UL

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and ... [more ▼]

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technologies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper compares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe. [less ▲]

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See detailLand use and density in the European city: monocentric analysis and scaling
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, August)

In this work we study the evolution of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre, and how land use and density curves scale with city population ... [more ▼]

In this work we study the evolution of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre, and how land use and density curves scale with city population. The principal aim of this research is to provide stylized facts and generic formulas for the calibration of monocentric urban economic models to European cities. We use the GMES Urban Atlas database, providing a precise description of land use in the 305 major European larger urban zones (LUZ), which have more than 100.000 inhabitants. For the population density we use the Geostat population grid, which covers the whole of European Union (EU) with a 1km$^2$ grid dataset. We combine the land use and population datasets by attributing the population of the Geostat grid to the geographic units of the (much more precise) land use dataset. This attribution is proportional to the surface of each unit and weighted thanks to the nomenclature of the GMES Urban Atlas, which gives classes of soil sealing and density of urban fabric. Then we analyse the evolution with distance to the city centre, which we define for convenience as the location of the city hall, of population density and of the share of land used for different purposes: housing, roads, railways, urban green, water, agriculture, forest. To this end, we define concentric rings of fixed width around the city centre, in which we average land use and population. In order to compare results between different cities and to obtain a global picture ("average" or "standard" European city), we study simple scaling relationships for the obtained monocentric land use shares and density curves. We choose to study the scaling of these curves with respect to the city population, as has been done in the literature for different parameters (like income or road space). In our case city population is taken as the population of the LUZ, computed thanks to the population grid. It turns out that land use curves, in particular housing or roads shares, tend to scale like the square root of city population. Population curves have roughly exponential shapes, as widely modelled in the literature, and tend to scale like the city population to a power close to $1/3$. These results allow us to propose a simple monocentric description of land use shares and population curves in a representative European city, whose size can be chosen based on the scaling relationships we obtain. This result is especially interesting, and of practical use, for the purpose of calibration of monocentric urban models. [less ▲]

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See detailLand use and density in the European city: monocentric analysis and scaling
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (2 UL)
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See detailBike-share rebalancing strategies, patterns, and purpose
Medard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Thomas, Isabelle

in Journal of Transport Geography (2016), 55

We provide a first spatio-temporal exploration of bicycle sharing system (BSS) rebalancing patterns from data extracted for individual stations at a fine temporal scale and operator interviews. Analyzing ... [more ▼]

We provide a first spatio-temporal exploration of bicycle sharing system (BSS) rebalancing patterns from data extracted for individual stations at a fine temporal scale and operator interviews. Analyzing rebalancing operations for nine BSS, we describe implications for operators, municipalities, and future optimization work. We find that stations adjacent to transit hubs receive disproportionate amounts of rebalancing relative to trips and that rebalancing is more often responding to morning and afternoon demand exceeding station dock capacities rather than longer term accumulations of bicycles. More importantly, we observe some operator’ rebalancing behaviors constrained between opposing goals of maximizing trips, profits, and service level agreements. Many BSS have no explicitly defined purpose, but existing rebalancing strategies can support or clash with the purpose or suggested benefits of a BSS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 186 (4 UL)
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See detailLand use and density in the European city: monocentric analysis and scaling
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, May)

In this work we study the profile of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre. More specifically we address the scaling of land use and density ... [more ▼]

In this work we study the profile of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre. More specifically we address the scaling of land use and density curves with respect to city population and rely on fine grained land use data. Our main objective is to retrieve generic laws that can support the calibration of monocentric urban economic models for European cities. We use the GMES Urban Atlas database, providing a precise description of land use at 5m resolution in the 305 major European urban areas (more than 100.000 inhabitants). We combine this dataset with population density from the Geostat population grid, which covers the whole of European Union (EU) with a 1km2 resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the GMES data. We analyse the evolution with distance to the city centre, which we define for convenience as the location of the city hall, of population density and of the share of land used for different purposes: housing, roads, railways, urban green, water, agriculture, forest. To this end, we define concentric rings of fixed width around the city centre, in which we average each land use and population. In order to compare different cities and to identify a global picture, i.e. a standard representative European city, we study scaling relationships for the ob- tained monocentric land use shares and density curves. We analyse the scaling of these curves with respect to city population, following similar approaches con- ducted in the literature for different parameters (such as income or road space). The total population for each city is computed from the population grid. We find that land use curves, in particular housing and roads shares, tend to scale like the square root of city population. Population curves have roughly exponential shapes, as it has been widely modelled in the literature, although usually not based on land use and soil sealing data. Population curves tend to scale like the city population to a power close to 1/3. These results allow us to propose a simple monocentric description of land use shares and population curves in a representative European city, whose size can be chosen based on the scaling relationships we obtain. This result is especially interesting, and of practical use, for the purpose of calibration and validation of monocentric urban models, that can differentiate (or not) housing from land and include interactions between non-developed and developed land. [less ▲]

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See detailGIS-based modelling of shallow geothermal energy potential for CO2 emission mitigation in urban areas
Schiel, Kerry UL; Baume, Olivier; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Renewable Energy : An International Journal (2016), 86

Due to the rapidly increasing percentage of the population living in urban centres, there is a need to focus on the energy demand of these cities and the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels ... [more ▼]

Due to the rapidly increasing percentage of the population living in urban centres, there is a need to focus on the energy demand of these cities and the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels. In this paper, we develop a spatial model to determine the potential per parcel for using shallow geothermal energy, for space heating and hot water. The method is based on the space heating and hot water energy demand of each building and the specific heat extraction potential of the subsurface per parcel. With this information, along with the available space per parcel for boreholes, the percentage of the energy demand that could be supplied by geothermal energy is calculated. The potential reduction in CO2 emissions should all possible geothermal energy be utilised, is also calculated. The method is applied to Ludwigsburg, Germany. It was found that CO2 emissions could potentially be reduced by 29.7% if all space heating and hot water requirements were provided by geothermal energy, which would contribute to the sustainability of a city. The method is simple in execution and could be applied to other cities as the data used should be readily available. Another advantage is the implementation into the web based Smart City Energy platform which allows interactive exploration of solutions across the city. [less ▲]

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See detailSites du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Mendgen, Eva; Helfer, Malte UL; Pauly, Michel UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

In 2017, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has no less than twelve sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. They date from different periods, from prehistory to the beginning of the 20th century, and belong ... [more ▼]

In 2017, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has no less than twelve sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. They date from different periods, from prehistory to the beginning of the 20th century, and belong to different categories. Architectural and industrial monuments are part of the Greater Region's World Cultural Heritage, as are squares and entire cities, fortifications and cultural landscapes. The World Heritage sites bear witness to the rich European history and are a sign of the Greater Region's exceptional cultural diversity. They are also exceptionally beautiful and picturesque. Each of the World Heritage Sites is related to many other monuments, while providing its own context, history and spatial, cultural and social coordination system. In recent years, global and transnational aspects have gradually led to the listing of ensembles of sites and cultural landscapes. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Parcs naturels dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Deshaies, Michel; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

The nature parks are essentially rural areas, relatively extensive, whose landscapes, shaped mainly by traditional agricultural activities, have characteristics and aesthetic qualities favourable to the ... [more ▼]

The nature parks are essentially rural areas, relatively extensive, whose landscapes, shaped mainly by traditional agricultural activities, have characteristics and aesthetic qualities favourable to the reception and development of leisure activities and green tourism. Relatively far from the major urban areas, the landscapes have undergone little transformation under the influence of suburbanisation. The nature parks were set up at different times, within an institutional framework and with objectives that differed significantly depending on the legislation in force in the four countries; the emphasis was initially placed on nature protection, but from the 1990s onwards, sustainable local development became increasingly important. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontaliers atypiques dans la Grande-Région SaarLorLux
Wille, Christian UL; Helfer, Malte UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

The Greater Region is characterised by the singular independence of its labour market between its different sectors. Cross-border commuting across national borders has been facilitated in a tangible way ... [more ▼]

The Greater Region is characterised by the singular independence of its labour market between its different sectors. Cross-border commuting across national borders has been facilitated in a tangible way by the process of European unification, as a result of which the status of cross-border commuters has been defined from the point of view of social and fiscal rights. This definition does not distinguish between border workers who migrate from their "home region" to the neighbouring country and those who come from the neighbouring country to the "home region" to join their place of work. The last-mentioned atypical border phenomenon is becoming increasingly important in the Greater Region. It is therefore in the context of residential mobility and atypical mobility of cross-border employees that the motivations of the latter as well as questions relating to the spatial organisation of daily practices are analysed in the context of the change of domicile. Aspects of social life at the place of residence will also be investigated and the subjective evaluation of residential migration will be detailed. The evaluation of each of these elements is based on the comparative study of atypical commuting at the border between Luxembourg and Lorraine/Saarland. [less ▲]

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See detailCollective and Cooperative Behaviour Models
Provitolo, Damienne; Frankhauser, Pierre; Morer, Myriam et al

in Frankhauser, Pierre; Ansel, Dominique (Eds.) Deciding Where to Live (2016)

In modelling residential choice we cannot escape the debate about the effect of societal context on an individual’s decision-making. This debate depends on whether we set more store by the aggregate scale ... [more ▼]

In modelling residential choice we cannot escape the debate about the effect of societal context on an individual’s decision-making. This debate depends on whether we set more store by the aggregate scale of society or by the individual’s decision-making. An individual-centred approach will focus on the particularities of an individual and the way her past, for example, influences her decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailFormes Urbaines et Aménités Vertes
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailPossessions en prêt au Haut Moyen Âge des Abbayes de Gorze et Wissembourg, de 661 à environ 860
Kasten, Brigitte; Schäfer, Jens; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

In the medieval world, the abbey had multiple meanings. On the one hand, it was a place of spiritual life where the abbey community lived, prayed and worked according to the strict ideals of the rule. The ... [more ▼]

In the medieval world, the abbey had multiple meanings. On the one hand, it was a place of spiritual life where the abbey community lived, prayed and worked according to the strict ideals of the rule. The schools, libraries and scriptoriums in which manuscripts were copied and partially decorated, also made it a centre of learning and the spread of knowledge. On the other hand, the abbeys were one of the largest landowners in the Middle Ages and their abbots were not only the superiors of religious communities but also the directors of large economic centres. The endowments for their foundation and donations from royalty or nobility provided the abbeys with considerable property. These assets were by no means a coherent mass in the vicinity of the abbey, but were rather scattered over long distances. The abbeys of Wissembourg and Gorze, through the cartularies that have come down to us, lend themselves to a more precise examination of the abbeys' economy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
See detailLa ville est insensible aux formes idéales
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

L’urbanisme, c’est bien plus qu’une simple affaire de dessin en plan. Un dessin en plan, si régulier soit-il sur le plan géométrique/géométral, ne donnera en fait jamais dans la réalité deux villes ... [more ▼]

L’urbanisme, c’est bien plus qu’une simple affaire de dessin en plan. Un dessin en plan, si régulier soit-il sur le plan géométrique/géométral, ne donnera en fait jamais dans la réalité deux villes identiques quant à leur fonctionnement. La vie d’une ville se passe dans le temps, ses occupants et ses activités produisent des strates qui se cumulent et produisent un espace hétérogène. Cette « dépendance de chemin » contraint fortement les activités et les flux, au point de les rendre insensibles à des impositions, même fortes, mais elle crée aussi des opportunités de reconversion, des quartiers attractifs, uniques voire sympathiques. Les villes wallonnes n’y échappent pas, jouons-en ! [less ▲]

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See detailGreener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (2015), 54

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailNeighborhood green and services diversity effects on land prices: evidence from a multilevel hedonic analysis in Luxembourg
Glaesener, Marie-Line UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Landscape and Urban Planning (2015), 143

The article aims at revealing the role of green space diversity and the mix of neighborhood services on the price of residential land in Luxembourg. We use a multilevel approach to estimate a hedonic ... [more ▼]

The article aims at revealing the role of green space diversity and the mix of neighborhood services on the price of residential land in Luxembourg. We use a multilevel approach to estimate a hedonic model in order to benefit from the hierarchical structure of the data and to reveal spatial heterogeneity in the valuation of these neighborhood qualities. In addition to standard accessibility and socio-economic variables, we include geographical variables in the form of neighborhood mix indices and a Shannon diversity index of land-uses. Via a spatial cross-regressive specification we also test whether our nested levels are able to capture most of the spatial dependence. Our results show that the presence of a mix of services and green space does not directly impact prices, but that the diversity of land-uses (Shannon index) matters, and has negative effects when considered within immediate proximity and positive effects within a walking distance. Land use effects however vary spatially and emphasize the contrast between regions that are particularly attractive and picturesque, and the former industrial conurbation. In our case we also show the ability of the multilevel approach to capture spatial auto-correlation effects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 233 (7 UL)