References of "Caruso, Geoffrey 50001199"
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See detailCity delineation in European applications of LUTI models: review and tests
Thomas, Isabelle; Jones, Jonathan; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transport Reviews (2018), 38(1), 6-32

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the ... [more ▼]

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the argumentation develops from a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications about LUTI applications in European cities. We show that most authors do not assess findings against potential geographical biases. Second, theoretical simulations are conducted with UrbanSim applied to a synthetic urban area. By varying the geographical limits of the system and population endowments, our simulations confirm that the absence of control on city delineation weakens the results. Finally, the paper suggests methodological guidelines to improve the comparability of LUTI applications and push forward their theoretical agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying the shoreline connection of the Stone Age settlements in Southern Karelia (Finland)
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Nordqvist, Kerkko et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin ... [more ▼]

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin Grewingk stated already in 1865 that in the Eastern Baltic region “Stone Age people lived by the sea and rivers”. Although there was no empirical data at that time, the following discoveries confirmed this claim. The connection is so obvious that archaeological sites are effectively used as a proxy data for reconstructing past shorelines that have been changing due to isostatic land uplift and changing hydrological conditions. The goal of current paper is to give a statistical description of the settlements’ position relative to the shoreline. The case study is based on the Stone Age settlement site locations in Southern Karelia, Finland. The region is characterized by several water bodies, including lake Saimaa, as well as several smaller lakes and rivers. A small amount of settlements in the south-eastern part of the study area is also located on the paleoshorelines of the Baltic Sea. The following questions are asked: how many and what kind of Stone Age sites are shoreline-connected? How to statistically describe the distribution of distances from the settlements to the closest shoreline? Because of the abundance of lake shores in the region, it also has to be judged if the settlement pattern was formed by the economical/cultural lifeways of past inhabitants or was it just enforced by the landscape. To answer this question, it is analysed if the distribution of distances to shoreline of Stone Age sites significantly differs from the ones of later periods? [less ▲]

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See detailAggregate and disaggregate dynamic spatial interaction approaches to modelling coins diffusion
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Thill, Jean-Claude (Ed.) Spatial Analysis and Location Modeling in Urban and Regional Systems (2018)

With the 2002 introduction of the euro as a common currency in Europe,the possibility has emerged to assess international mobility using this new tracer, given that every coin bears a specific national ... [more ▼]

With the 2002 introduction of the euro as a common currency in Europe,the possibility has emerged to assess international mobility using this new tracer, given that every coin bears a specific national side. Using a simple two-country framework, four dynamic modeling strategies were designed in order to simulate the diffusion of coins and to understand how this diffusion is affected by population size, mobility rates and coin exchange processes. Methodological implications are raised with respect to aggregation, synchronicity and stochasticity issues. Although each model converges to an equilibrium, the time to reach this end stage and the level of coin mixing in each country strongly varies with the modeling strategy. Calibration is undertaken with French data, using mobility rates as adjustment variables. The experiment shows that convergence to a perfect mix of coins can only be obtained if reciprocal exchanges are modeled, with a time horizon around 2064 - while non-reciprocal models indicate an imperfect mix converging in the year 2020 at the latest. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale fine-grained LUTI model to simulate land-use scenarios in Luxembourg
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Journal of Transport and Land Use (2018), 11(1), 255272

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and ... [more ▼]

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and additional traffic in a sustainable manner is a key and difficult challenge that requires a policy relevant, flexible and responsive modelling framework. We describe the first fully fledged land-use and transport interaction framework (MOEBIUS) applied to the whole of Luxembourg. We stress its multi-scalar nature and detail the articulation of two of its main components: a dynamic demographic microsimulation at the scale of individuals and a micro-spatial scale simulation of residential choice. Conversely to traditional zone-based approaches, the framework keeps full details of households and individuals for residential and travel mode choice, making the model highly consistent with theory. In addition, results and policy constraints are implemented at a very fine resolution (20m) and can thus incorporate local effects (residential externalities, local urban design). Conversely to fully disaggregated approaches, a linkage is organized at an intermediate scale, which allows one (1) to simplify the generation and spatial distribution of trips, (2) to parallelize parts of the residential choice simulation, and (3) to ensure a good calibration of the population and real estate market estimates. We show model outputs for different scenarios at the horizon 2030 and compare them along sustainability criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEmerging urban form – Emerging pollution: Modelling endogenous health and environmental effects of traffic on residential choice
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Environment and Planning B (2018)

Air pollution bears severe health and environmental impacts and is of increasing concern to urban planners but densification strategies have ambiguous impacts. We analyse how households’ aversion to ... [more ▼]

Air pollution bears severe health and environmental impacts and is of increasing concern to urban planners but densification strategies have ambiguous impacts. We analyse how households’ aversion to generating and being exposed to traffic pollution at the residential place and during their commute influences emerging urban structures and how these structures in turn affect pollution exposure and the residential choice of households. Resulting spatial patterns are difficult to predict because of this feedback and the spatial form of urbanisation and road networks. We address this complexity with a micro-economic agent-based residential choice model dynamically coupled with a cellular automata model for pollution dispersion and its perception in neighbourhoods. Our simulation experiments on a theoretical grid suggest that the spatial scale of this perception is important. We also find that if both health and environmental concerns are to be addressed, a combination of reducing commuting distances and preserving local green spaces is necessary. In particular, locally dispersed urban development and intra-urban green spaces next to busy roads can mitigate pollution exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailDéterminants individuels et territoriaux des navettes internes ou transfrontalières des actifs résidant en France
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Le Texier, Marion; Belkacem, Rachid et al

in Espace, Populations, Sociétés (2018), 2017(3), 1-30

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct form of commuting, especially whether it differs for an active resident from commuting outside his/her reference functional urban area. We use individual data from the 2013 census and characterize the territory at the municipal scale in order to capture the relative polarisation of residential places within the national urban system. From our multinomial logistic models applied to the whole France or the border fringe, we find that gender, age, education, type and sector of activity, as well as the location of the commune with respect to employment poles in France, explain similarly the commute of active individuals towards another urban area in France and across the border. However, the effect is more intensive for cross-border commuting. After controlling the impact of the different neighbouring countries, we still clearly identify a different behaviour from elastic migrants in border areas and an effect of the distance to the border and of the job density on the cross-border commutes. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial sorting, attitudes and the use of green space in Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam; Le Texier, Marion; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018), 31

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending ... [more ▼]

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending on their socio-economic status or residential location. We model joint effects of socio-economic and locational attributes on attitudes and use of UGS in Brussels (BE). The analysis is based on a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum with respondents sampled across non-park public space. Patterns of use are depicted by the frequency and the distance travelled to the most used UGS. Attitudes are analysed along three dimensions: willingness to (i) pay for UGS, (ii) trade-off housing for green space and (iii) substitute private for public green. Our results stress the importance of separating effects of attitudes from socio-economic and locational effects to quantify UGS use, and suggest endogenous effects of green space with residential sorting. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 164 (3 UL)
See detailAgent-based modeling as an interdisciplinary bridge in spatial humanities. Designing the modeling framework for simulation of Mesolithic settlement patterns
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018)

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually limited to just defining the areas of the phenomena of interest. Any further deductions about past communities tend to be without additional proof and thus presented as hypotheses in scientific literature. In this paper we introduce a study that seeks to create a general framework for modeling the emergence of settlement patterns. The central concept for modeling is the human / social perception of the environment and how it is related to potential residential space – places that can be used for human habitation. We hypothesize that the human perception can be used to simulate the processes of emergence of immigration and seasonal mobility. The first goal of the research is to identify possible knowledge sources (eg. paleoecology, geography, geology, anthropology) that give information about residential mobility of pre-agricultural societies. The second goal is to translate selected knowledge to algorithmic representation and evaluate its usability for modeling. The purpose of which is to find the determining factors in the emergence of the settlement patterns and to distinguish between emerging and irreducibly complex phenomena. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 UL)
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See detailThe homothetic scaling of urban land and density profiles: evidence from Europe
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (3 UL)
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See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 UL)
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See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 UL)
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See detailEvidence for the homothetic scaling of urban forms
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (3 UL)
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See detailMeasuring urban forms from inter-building distances: Combining MST graphs with a Local Index of Spatial Association
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Hilal, Mohamed; Thomas, Isabelle

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2017), 163

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and ... [more ▼]

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and provides an efficient way to account for the proximity of built and non-built land. The strength of the approach resides in the direct use of the coordinates of each building, a very parsimonious input of external parameters, and a local spatial statistical perspective. The method consists in, first, constructing and clumping the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) that links each building to its neighbours in order to obtain connected urban and suburban graph subsets, and second, measuring a Local Index of Spatial Association (LISA) on inter-building distances in order to characterise patterns. The method differentiates heterogeneous settlements from statistically significant homogeneous clusters with either long or short connections between buildings. The method is applied to the Southern periphery of Brussels (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2017, June 19)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

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See detailDes espaces verts pour une ville durable: quelle demande? Les cas de Bruxelles et Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (3 UL)
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See detailFraming and reviewing a green mismatch hypothesis
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, April 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 UL)
See detailLocational and socio-economic sorting in the use of green space: Evidence from Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, April 08)

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in ... [more ▼]

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in quantifying how and whether socio-economic benefits of green space accrue to all households or only a portion depending on their socio-economic status and residential location. From urban economic theory we know that residential markets sort households by income along an urban–suburban continuum and the housing-transport-costs trade-off. This trade-off can however be dominated in the presence of exogenous central amenities (parks) or endogenous effects (high income attracting high income) and pull better-off households toward the center, adding discrepancies in accessibility to green amenities by different socio-economic groups. Tiebout's hypothesis implied that marginal benefits from localised amenities are the same for all households in a given location but empirics point to non-efficient sorting and endogenous effects (socio-economic sorting) in the demand for localised amenities in general. We address these questions based on results of a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum in Brussels (Belgium) in May 2016. The survey includes around 500 respondents sampled across (non-park) public space and malls to reach both users and non-users of green space and cover the variety of residential locations (good or bad provision of green / distant or far from the CBD). We analyse the role of proximity, size and quality of public green space on its use across different socio-economic attributes and residential/job places and stated willingness-to-pay and substitution possibilities with private green space. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (9 UL)
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See detailScaling evidence of the homothetic nature of cities
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and soil-sealing profiles for a large set of cities, we demonstrate a remarkable constancy of the profiles across city size. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5m resolu- tion for 300 European cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1km resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the Urban Atlas. We analyse the profile of each artificial land use and population with distance to the town hall. In line with earlier literature, we confirm the strong monocentricity of the European city and the negative exponential curve for population density. Moreover, we find that land use curves, in particular the share of housing and roads, scale along the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population curves scale in three dimensions with the cubic root of city population. In short, European cities of different sizes are homothetic in terms of land use and population density. While earlier literature documented the scaling of average densities (total surface and population) with city size, we document the scaling of the whole radial distance profile with city size, thus liaising intra-urban radial analysis and systems of cities. In addition to providing a new empirical view of the European city, our scaling offers a set of practical and coherent definitions of a city, independent of its population, from which we can re-question urban scaling laws and Zipf’s law for cities. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing geographical effects in spatial diffusion processes: The case of euro coins
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2017), 61

We examine how geographical structures impact diffusion processes within a regional system. From the example of euro coin diffusion across countries, we show how the relative position and population ... [more ▼]

We examine how geographical structures impact diffusion processes within a regional system. From the example of euro coin diffusion across countries, we show how the relative position and population endowment of regions impact our understanding of interregional mobility, beyond simple spatial interaction effects. The mix of coins of different origins is a complex but unique trace of the movement of individuals within a common currency area, potentially revealing a new facet of European integration. We simulate an individual-based dynamic model where agents move and exchange coins across regions. We analyse the convergence towards a homogeneous mix of coins through time for a series of different theoretical spatial systems. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates the impact of the regularity and aggregation levels, or centrality/periphery effects, on spatial diffusion dynamics. We then calibrate the model against empirical data for the regions of 5 European countries and provide estimates of mobility rates, distance decay and population attractiveness factors, affecting the diffusion of coins, hence international movements and European integration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 166 (8 UL)