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See detailReport of Stakeholder Workshop
Carr, Constance UL

Report (2013)

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See detailReview of “Knowledge Economy and the City by Ali Madanipour”
Carr, Constance UL

in Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie = Journal of Economic & Social Geography (2013), 104(1), 120-122

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See detailImplications of Results
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

Report (2013)

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See detailGovernance for Sustainable Spatial Development – a comparative study of Luxembourg and Switzerland
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

Report (2013)

The project, SUSTAIN_GOV, aims at investigating sustainable spatial development policies in the context of governance, both with respect to Luxembourg and, as a comparative ap-proach, to the Swiss ... [more ▼]

The project, SUSTAIN_GOV, aims at investigating sustainable spatial development policies in the context of governance, both with respect to Luxembourg and, as a comparative ap-proach, to the Swiss planning system and urban transformation processes in the Glattal-Stadt. SUSTAIN_GOV builds directly from the strong conceptual and empirical foundations estab-lished by the “SUSTAINLUX Project” (CO9/SR/01) that has thus far shown that despite the intense urbanization pressure, the strong strains on land resources and infrastructure, and the political dilemmas these issues raise, policy, planning and governance practices in the Grand Duchy remain underdeveloped, particularly in the domain citizen involvement in public deci-sion-making. SUSTAIN_GOV brings into sharper focus a more nuanced scientific under-standing of participation, governance, and integrated sustainable spatial development, and an in-depth evaluation of existing spatial planning, policy, and governance patterns in the Grand Duchy. The proposed research is informed by a robust and contemporary set of conceptual approach, that shape current urban and regional literatures. The research design follows a qualitative methodological approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTransforming Under Growth Pressure: Grassroots Sprawl or Top Down and Smart
Carr, Constance UL; Affolderbach, Julia UL

Presentation (2012, July)

At the turn of the millennium, it was decided that Luxembourg should target four percent economic growth in order to best sustain existing quality of life standards. This target has largely been met as ... [more ▼]

At the turn of the millennium, it was decided that Luxembourg should target four percent economic growth in order to best sustain existing quality of life standards. This target has largely been met as Luxembourg’s growth, which was mainly driven by the financial industry and a non-resident labour force, has averaged around five percent annually. Emerging out of a quasi-rural and industrial landscape, Luxembourg has come under the considerable growth pressures associated with a tertiary economy. It is thus facing particular challenges with respect to sustainable development. As a result, Luxembourg planning officials formulated spatially integrative sustainable development guidelines that postulate a polycentric growth model while targeting sufficient provision of housing, preventing sprawl, preserving green spaces, densifying growth poles, and enhancing public transportation. This research examines these strategies that are designed to manage growth and compares it with existing local land use practices. The small size of the Grand Duchy and narrow functional relationships between the capital city and the rest of the country justify treating the whole country as an integrated city region. The absence of a regional administrative level implies direct and strong policy dependencies between the national political and administrative levels. In this paper, particular attention is given to national policy mechanisms and their translation and implementation at the local level. The analysis reveals a number of challenges particularly with respect to enforcement and interpretation related to existing power relationships and different development visions adopted by the municipalities. Observations of the organization and capital flows of retail and commerce, housing and real estate development patterns, and the governance patterns that structure both illustrate how national smart growth policies of integrated smart growth can turn into grassroots sprawl or a governance of dispersal. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable Spatial Development: Discourse Yes, Implementation Maybe
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2012, June)

This paper presents progress achieved within the context of SUSTAINLUX (a research project funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg) and collaborative studies with the Worcester Polytechnic ... [more ▼]

This paper presents progress achieved within the context of SUSTAINLUX (a research project funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg) and collaborative studies with the Worcester Polytechnic Institute.The research has aimed at critically examining the approach of sustainable development, in the context of Luxembourg’s urban and regional governance structures (Carr, Hesse, and Schulz 2010), that have transformed and rescaled (Brenner 1999) against tertiarization of the economy, and Europeanization of the political arena (Schulz 2009; Becker forthcoming) – processes that have had significant impact on the affordability of housing and infrastructure for mobility. To date, the research methods have included mapping the literature and actors relevant to the sustainable integrated development discourse in Luxembourg, performing interviews with practitioners in the field and exploring the role and limitations of this normative discourse in Luxembourg’s social spatial transformation (Carr 2011). Particular attention was paid to structures of decision-making and its relationship to the prevailing real estate market. In addition, comparative research was performed in collaboration with Prof. Krueger. This presentation will talk about the results and conceptualize them within the framework of policy mobility, as has been discussed in recent literature such as Ward (2006), Temenos and McCann (forthcoming), and González (2010). In this way, clear barriers to implementation to sustainable development goals can be identified. References Becker, Tom. forthcoming. “Europäisierung der Städtepolitik ? Das Beispiel ‚CIPU’ in Luxemburg.” Europa Regional. Brenner, Neil. 1999. “Global as Reterritorialisation: The Re-Scaling of Urban Governance in the European Union.” Urban Studies 36(3):431-451. Carr, Constance. 2011. “Luxembourg Sustainable Spatial Development Policy: General Milestones and Circuits.” Laboratoire de Géographie et Aménagement du Territoire. Carr, Constance, Markus Hesse, and Christian Schulz. 2010. “Sustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg (SUSTAINLUX).” Laboratoire de Géographie et Aménagement du Territoire. Retrieved (http://wwwen.uni.lu/research/flshase/laboratoire_de_geographie_et_amenagement_du_territoire/research/ongoing_projects). González, Sara. 2010. “Bilbao and Barcelona ‘in Motion’. How Urban Regeneration ‘Models’ Travel and Mutate in the Global Flows of Policy Tourism.” Urban Studies 1-22. Schulz, Christian. 2009. “Luxemburgs Wirtschaft.” Pp. 116-117 in Der Luxemburg Atlas du Luxembourg, edited by Patrick Bousch et al. Calbe: Hermann-Josef Emons Verlag. Temenos, Christina, and Eugene McCann. forthcoming. “The local politics of policy mobility: Learning, persuasion, and the production of a municipal sustainability fix.” Environment and Planning A. Ward, Kevin. 2006. “‘Policies in Motion’, Urban Management and State Restructuring: The Trans-Local Expansion of Business Improvement Districts.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30(1):54-75. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban Development in Luxembourg: sustaining ambiguous fault lines of power
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2012, April)

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See detailLuxembourg Governance through Sustainable Development Policy Mobility
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2012, March)

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See detailUnpacking Luxembourg Governance through Sustainable Development Policy
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2012, February)

Luxembourg has an almost two century history of cross-border political economic interdependence, whether that was through the Zollverein and expansion of the railroads during the 19th century, the steel ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has an almost two century history of cross-border political economic interdependence, whether that was through the Zollverein and expansion of the railroads during the 19th century, the steel industry that remains largely intact, or the banking and related services sector that dominates the Luxembourgish economy today. Luxembourg has also cultivated deep cross-border connections through its role in the European Union, and establishment of itself as one of the centres for important EU institutions. These structures overlay its otherwise feudal and agricultural legacy. This has led to a political structure that some complain is non-transparent and undemocratic, but that others notice is horizontal, direct, and entails shorter power distances. It has also led to a demos whose membership is defined by the usual legal parameters of nationhood, but at the same time is inter-reliant on cross-border competencies and cycles of de- and reinvestment, as well as personal relations. These paths of governance are easily traced through the mobility of Luxembourg’s sustainable development policies. In so doing, it can be seen that the uncertain governance structure that operates simultaneously multi-scalar, cross-national, and informal, which poses many obstructions to the implementation of environmental policy and renders the normative of sustainable development, that permeates all levels of planning in Luxembourg, postpolitical. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations from the Field: A Synthesis Report
Carr, Constance UL

Report (2012)

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See detailMobilizing Sustainability, Fixing Competitiveness: An examination of policy mobility Lux-embourg
Carr, Constance UL; Krueger, Robert; Hesse, Markus UL et al

Presentation (2011, November)

The movement of policies across space, often referred to as policy mobility, has been a vibrant area of discussion in the geographical literature in recent years (c.f. McCann 2011; González 2010; Larner ... [more ▼]

The movement of policies across space, often referred to as policy mobility, has been a vibrant area of discussion in the geographical literature in recent years (c.f. McCann 2011; González 2010; Larner and Laurie 2010; Peck and Theodore 2010; Ward 2006; Peck 2002). In particular, scholars have brought forth geographical concepts of relationality and territoriality, along with post-structural accounts of the social construction of knowledge and power, to provide sophisticated and complex accounts of the spatial flows of urban policies and their contingent ‘local’ expressions. In the tradition of urban geography and analysis, mobility stories tend to come from paradigmatic cases, such as Barcelona, Vancouver, New York and others. This paper brings to this conversation a policy mobility story from the rather specific, non-paradigmatic case of Luxembourg. In recent years Luxembourg’s welfare state has developed spatial development policies embedded in the rhetoric and practice of sustainability in an attempt to counteract the contradictions of the State’s rapid development. Much of this policy account emerged from the transfer of ideas and practices from neighboring countries and the European Union. While certainly similar to other new economy spaces in terms of tensions, Luxembourg’s unique system of governance and social and cultural context may yield new insights into the policy mobility literature. The paper thus seeks to contribute to the policy mobility literature by bringing into the fold a case study from a somewhat unique urban context, Luxembourg, concerning the under-explored area of policy mobility domain, urban sustainable development. We hypothesize that Luxembourg’s specific urban policy context could reveal limitations of current approaches. Further, by focusing on sustainability as a policy ‘fix’ for spatial planning, we expect to capture additional nuance of the politics of capital accumulation in a highly fragmented, increasingly relational urban and regional setting. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining Sustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Krueger, Robert

Presentation (2011, May)

As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of the European Union (Parliament Secretariat, Court of Justice, the European ... [more ▼]

As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of the European Union (Parliament Secretariat, Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank), and ranked 16th among global financial centers (City of London 2010), Luxembourg’s smallness is enigmatic, but also offers a unique opportunity to study global processes operating within a small frame. This paper presents progress achieved in, and collaborative to, the SUSTAINLUX research project, funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Unlike its neighbouring nations, Luxembourg seems only just entering a post-flexible era (if at all). The financial ruptures since 2008 have had relatively little impact, and as such, Luxembourg grapples with spatial structural changes associated with its post-industrial and prospering tertiary economy. Its comparably young sustainable development policy is primarily challenged by recent demographic changes, and its geographical specificity. Of its 503,000 residents, roughly 200,000 are landed immigrants. On each working day, the nation’s population increases circa 50% as workers from neighbouring nations enter the country and commute to work. Each day, the City of Luxembourg’s population doubles in size – and its nodal position at the crossroads that lead to Cologne, Paris, and Brussels, is continually strengthening in importance. Concurrent pressures on the real estate market rates pose a real barrier to settlement within or near the capital city (Becker and Hesse 2010). There are thus strong impacts at the local level with high pressure on the provision of housing and transportation infrastructure, which result in conflicting trajectories in terms of sustainable land-use. The fields of housing policy and mobility are thus promising case studies towards a more thorough analysis of the significance, policy relevance, barriers, and shortcomings of sustainable spatial development strategies. The research aims at critically examining the approach of sustainable development, in the context of Luxembourg’s urban and regional transformations and corresponding governance structures (Carr, Hesse and Schulz 2010). While city planners are confronted with finding ways to manage growth, the normative of sustainable development permeates all levels of planning. The first part of this paper will map the literature and discourse on sustainable development in Luxembourg, and summarize the role and limitations of this normative discourse in its social spatial transformation. The second part of this paper will introduce the research agenda of Prof. Krueger, who will pursue research collaborative to SUSTAINLUX, adding a comparative dimension to the study. He will describe his aims to: 1) understand the institutional milieu of sustainability governance in Luxembourg and how it compares internationally; 2) develop an understanding of how actors work and how these practices reproduce certain outcomes; 3) understand how actors’ perceptions affect the form and function of sustainability governance; and 4) assemble the data from aims 1-3 to develop a triangulated analysis of institutional change that is both actor-centric and sensitive to the contextual constraints of the system. This comparative approach will be of interest to social scientists who study how actors understand and shape their policy milieus in different political and geographical contexts, in relation to sustainability. References Becker, T. and Hesse. 2010. “Internationalisierung und Steuer metropolitaner Wohnungsmärkte – Das Beispiel Luxemburg” Information zur Raumentwicklung.“ 5: 403-415. Carr, C., Hesse, M., and Schulz, C. 2010. „Sustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg (SUSTAINLUX)” Funded by FNR (CO9/SR/01), Working Paper 1, Laboratoire de Géographie et Aménagement du Territoire City of London (2010) “Global Financial Centres 7.“ City of London. Krueger R. & D. Gibbs. 2007. (ed.), “The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe.” New York: The Guilford Press. [less ▲]

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See detailReview “Nations of Flesh and Blood by Jackie Hogan”
Carr, Constance UL

in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2011), 35(1), 217-218

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See detailSustainability
Carr, Constance UL

in Morris, A. (Ed.) Encylopedia of Energy (2011)

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See detailSustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg: Conflicting trajectories of Housing and Mobility
Becker, Tom UL; Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2010, September)

At the “heart of Europe” lies an often overlooked and little nation: Luxembourg. As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of ... [more ▼]

At the “heart of Europe” lies an often overlooked and little nation: Luxembourg. As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of the European Union (Parliament Secretariat, Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank), and ranked 16th among global financial centers (City of London 2010), it is by no means insignificant. Luxembourg’s smallness is in many ways enigmatic. Yet at the same time, it offers scholars of urban studies a unique laboratory in which to study global processes operating within a small frame. This paper presents the recently started research project entitled Sustainable Development in Luxembourg, which has been funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche. The project aims at assessing the current efforts and national and local policy instruments in with regards to their contribution to sustainability goals in spatial development. Unlike its neighbouring nations, Luxembourg seems only just entering a post-flexible era (if at all). The financial ruptures since 2008 have had relatively little impact, and as such, Luxembourg continues to grapple with spatial structural changes associated with its post-industrial and prospering tertiary economy. Its comparably young sustainable development policy is primarily challenged by recent demographic changes, and its geographical specificity. Of its 503 000 residents, roughly 200 000 are landed immigrants. On each working day, the nation’s population increases circa 50% as workers from Lorraine, Wallonia, Saarland, and Rhineland-Palatinate enter the country and commute to work. Each day, the City of Luxembourg’s population doubles in size – and its nodal position in an ever growing Grand Region at the crossroads that lead to Cologne, Paris, and Brussels, is continually strengthening in importance. Concurrent pressures on the real estate market and low rental vacancy rates pose a real barrier to settlement within or near the capital city. Rising of real estate prices, and rapid land-use changes have led to fast growth of outlying municipalities inside and outside of its national borders. There are thus strong impacts at the local level in terms of urban development, with high pressure on the provision of housing and transportation infrastructure, and result in conflicting trajectories in terms of sustainable land-use objectives and the preservation of green spaces within the country. The fields of housing policy and mobility are thus promising case studies towards a more thorough analysis of the significance, policy relevance, barriers, and shortcomings of sustainable spatial development strategies. This research aims at critically examining the discourse of sustainable development, in the context of Luxembourg’s urban and regional transformations and corresponding governance structures. And while sustainable development and sustainability remain highly contested concepts just as they are more ubiquitous than ever as urban planning tools (e.g. Krueger and Gibbs 2007; Newig et. al 2007), the case of an Luxembourg poses questions concerning management within and across borders and thus possible stories of insiders and outsiders, winners and losers. References Becker, T. and Hesse. 2010. “Internationalisierung und Steuer metropolitaner Wohnungsmärkte – Das Beispiel Luxemburg” Information zur Raumentwicklung.“ 5: 403-415. City of London (2010) “Global Financial Centres 7.“ City of London. Krueger R. & D. Gibbs. 2007. (ed.), “The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe.” New York: The Guilford Press. Newig, J., Voß, J.-P. & J. Monstadt. 2007. “Governance for Sustainable Development in the Face of Ambivalence, Uncertainty and Distributed Power: an Introduction.” Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 9 (3-4), 185-192 [less ▲]

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