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See detailGame-Theoretic Recruitment of Sensing Service Providers for Trustworthy Cloud-Centric Internet-of-Things (IoT) Applications
Pouryazdan, Maryam; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Kantarci, Burak et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) Workshops: Fifth International Workshop on Cloud Computing Systems, Networks, and Applications (CCSNA) (2016, December)

Widespread use of connected smart devices that are equipped with various built-in sensors has introduced the mobile crowdsensing concept to the IoT-driven information and communication applications ... [more ▼]

Widespread use of connected smart devices that are equipped with various built-in sensors has introduced the mobile crowdsensing concept to the IoT-driven information and communication applications. Mobile crowdsensing requires implicit collaboration between the crowdsourcer/recruiter platforms and users. Additionally, users need to be incentivized by the crowdsensing platform because each party aims to maximize their utility. Due to the participatory nature of data collection, trustworthiness and truthfulness pose a grand challenge in crowdsensing systems in the presence of malicious users, who either aim to manipulate sensed data or collaborate unfaithfully with the motivation of maximizing their income. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach for trustworthiness-driven user recruitment in mobile crowdsensing systems that consists of three phases: i) user recruitment, ii) collaborative decision making on trust scores, and iii) badge rewarding. Our proposed framework incentivizes the users through a sub-game perfect equilibrium (SPE) and gamification techniques. Through simulations, we show that the platform utility can be improved by up to the order of 50\% while the average user utility can be increased by at least 15\% when compared to fully-distributed and user-centric trustworthy crowdsensing. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing Performance of Internet of Things-based Mobile Crowdsensing Systems for Sensing as a Service Applications in Smart Cities
Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Franck, Christian UL et al

in 8th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom) (2016, December)

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm makes the Internet more pervasive. IoT devices are objects equipped with computing, storage and sensing capabilities and they are interconnected with communication ... [more ▼]

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm makes the Internet more pervasive. IoT devices are objects equipped with computing, storage and sensing capabilities and they are interconnected with communication technologies. Smart cities exploit the most advanced information technologies to improve public services. For being effective, smart cities require a massive amount of data, typically gathered from sensors. The application of the IoT paradigm to smart cities is an excellent solution to build sustainable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platforms and to produce a large amount of data following Sensing as a Service (S^2aaS) business models. Having citizens involved in the process through mobile crowdsensing (MCS) techniques unleashes potential benefits as MCS augments the capabilities of existing sensing platforms. To this date, it remains an open challenge to quantify the costs the users sustain to contribute data with IoT devices such as the energy from the batteries and the amount of data generated at city-level. In this paper, we analyze existing solutions, we provide guidelines to design a large-scale urban level simulator and we present preliminary results from a prototype. [less ▲]

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See detailSociability-Driven User Recruitment in Mobile Crowdsensing Internet of Things Platforms
Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Kantarci, Burak; Anjomshoa, Fazel et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Washington, DC, USA, 2016 (2016, December)

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm makes the Internet more pervasive, interconnecting objects of everyday life, and is a promising solution for the development of next- generation services. Smart ... [more ▼]

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm makes the Internet more pervasive, interconnecting objects of everyday life, and is a promising solution for the development of next- generation services. Smart cities exploit the most advanced information technologies to improve and add value to existing public services. Applying the IoT paradigm to smart cities is fundamental to build sustainable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platforms. Having citizens involved in the process through mobile crowdsensing (MCS) techniques unleashes potential benefits as MCS augments the capabilities of the platform without additional costs. Recruitment of participants is a key challenge when MCS systems assign sensing tasks to the users. Proper recruitment both minimizes the cost and maximizes the return, such as the number and the accuracy of accomplished tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel user recruitment policy for data acquisition in mobile crowdsensing systems. The policy can be employed in two modes, namely sociability-driven mode and distance-based mode. Sociability stands for the willingness of users in contributing to sensing tasks. Furthermore, we propose a novel metric to assess the efficiency of any recruitment policy in terms of the number of users contacted and the ones actually recruited. Performance evaluation, conducted in a real urban environment for a large number of participants, reveals the effectiveness of sociability-driven user recruitment as the average number of recruited users improves by at least a factor of two. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual Desktop Infrastructures: architecture, survey and green aspects proof of concept
Ibrahim, Abdallah Ali Zainelabden Abdallah UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL et al

in 7th INTERNATIONAL GREEN and SUSTAINABLE COMPUTING CONFERENCE (1st RE-HPC workshop), Hangzhou, China (November 2016) (2016, November 07)

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is a new generation of cloud service in which users operating systems execute in a cloud data center. Users can access their desktops and applications by using thin ... [more ▼]

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is a new generation of cloud service in which users operating systems execute in a cloud data center. Users can access their desktops and applications by using thin client devices. This thin client is consisting of only a screen attached with low power CPU. This new paradigm of delivering remote desktop provides benefits in terms of flexibility, cost reduction, data security and energy saving which are the green benefits from using VDI. VDI becomes an important technology in green computing and energy saving. In this paper, we present and review the green benefits for using VDI in large and small organizations. The usefulness and energy-saving features of VDI are also illustrated by some experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Random Process to Chaotic Behavior in Swarms of UAVs
Rosalie, Martin UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Chaumette, Serge et al

in DIVANet '16 Proceedings of the 6th ACM Symposium on Development and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications (2016, November)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) applications have seen an important increase in the last decade for both military and civilian applications ranging from fire and high seas rescue to military surveillance ... [more ▼]

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) applications have seen an important increase in the last decade for both military and civilian applications ranging from fire and high seas rescue to military surveillance and target detection. While this technology is now mature for a single UAV, new methods are needed to operate UAVs in swarms, also referred to as fleets. This work focuses on the mobility management of one single autonomous swarm of UAVs which mission is to cover a given area in order to collect information. Several constraints are applied to the swarm to solve this problem due to the military context. First, the UAVs mobility must be as unpredictable as possible to prevent any UAV tracking. However the Ground Control Station (GCS) operator(s) still needs to be able to forecast the UAVs paths. Finally, the UAVs are autonomous in order to guarantee the mission continuity in a hostile environment and the method must be distributed to ensure fault-tolerance of the system. To solve this problem, we introduce the Chaotic Ant Colony Optimization to Coverage (CACOC) algorithm that combines an Ant Colony Optimization approach (ACO) with a chaotic dynamical system. CACOC permits to obtain a deterministic but unpredictable system. Its performance is compared to other state-of-the art models from the literature using several coverage-related metrics, i.e. coverage rate, recent coverage and fairness. Numerical results obtained by simulation underline the performance of our CACOC method: a deterministic method with unpredictable UAV trajectories that still ensures a high area coverage. [less ▲]

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See detailMetaheuristic Based Clustering Algorithms for Biological Hypergraphs
Changaival, Boonyarit UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Ostaszewski, Marek UL et al

in Proceedings of META’2016, 6th International Conference on Metaheuristics and Nature Inspired computing (2016, October 27)

Hypergraphs are widely used for modeling and representing relationships between entities, one such field where their application is prolific is in bioinformatics. In the present era of big data, sizes and ... [more ▼]

Hypergraphs are widely used for modeling and representing relationships between entities, one such field where their application is prolific is in bioinformatics. In the present era of big data, sizes and complexity of these hypergraphs grow exponentially, it is impossible to process them manually or even visualize their interconnectivity superficially. A common approach to tackle their complexity is to cluster similar data nodes together in order to create a more comprehensible representation. This enables similarity discovery and hence, extract hidden knowledge within the hypergraphs. Several state-of-the-art algorithms have been proposed for partitioning and clustering of hypergraphs. Nevertheless, several issues remain unanswered, improvement to existing algorithms are possible, especially in scalability and clustering quality. This article presents a concise survey on hypergraph-clustering algorithms with the emphasis on knowledge-representation in systems biomedicine. It also suggests a novel approach to clustering quality by means of cluster-quality metrics which combines expert knowledge and measurable objective distances in existing biological ontology. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-evolutionary approach based on constraint decomposition
Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

in Co-evolutionary approach based on constraint decomposition (2016, October)

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See detailSmart Probabilistic Fingerprinting for Indoor Localization over Fog Computing Platforms
Sciarrone, Andrea; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Bisio, Igor et al

in IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet), Pisa, Italy (2016, October)

Indoor navigation and localization are becoming fundamental services nowadays. WiFi-based solutions such as FingerPrinting (FP) are the most widely adopted techniques for positioning and provide better ... [more ▼]

Indoor navigation and localization are becoming fundamental services nowadays. WiFi-based solutions such as FingerPrinting (FP) are the most widely adopted techniques for positioning and provide better results if compared to other approaches. It requires to compare WiFi Received Signal Strength (RSS) with an pre-computed radio map called fingerprint. The recently proposed Smart Probabilistic FingerPrinting (P-FP) algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the traditional FP approach without any accuracy detriment. On the other hand, fog computing has emerged as a new promising paradigm in the recent years, which extends traditional mobile cloud computing capabilities towards the edge of the network and enables location- aware services. In this paper we propose to offload Smart P-FP computation over a fog platform exploiting a novel distributed algorithm. Performance evaluation validates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the analysis of: i) the amount of power saved and ii) the efficiency of candidate selection process for offloading. Having 2 or more devices in the vicinity contributing to the computation makes offloading beneficial from a power standpoint. The offloading effectiveness increases with the number of devices willing to contribute and the amount of data to be transferred. Power savings can be as high as 80% if compared with local computation. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Heterogeneous Multilevel Swarms of UAVs and High-Level Data Fusion to Support Situation Management in Surveillance Scenarios
Bouvry, Pascal UL; Chaumette, Serge; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, MFI 2016 (2016, September 19)

The development and usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) quickly increased in the last decades, mainly for military purposes. This technology is also now of high interest in non-military contexts like ... [more ▼]

The development and usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) quickly increased in the last decades, mainly for military purposes. This technology is also now of high interest in non-military contexts like logistics, environmental studies and different areas of civil protection. While the technology for operating a single UAV is rather mature, additional efforts are still necessary for using UAVs in fleets (or swarms). The Aid to SItuation Management based on MUltimodal, MUltiUAVs, MUltilevel acquisition Techniques (ASIMUT) project which is supported by the European Defence Agency (EDA) aims at investigating and demonstrating dedicated surveillance services based on fleets of UAVs. The aim is to enhance the situation awareness of an operator and to decrease his workload by providing support for the detection of threats based on multi-sensor multi-source data fusion. The operator is also supported by the combination of information delivered by the heterogeneous swarms of UAVs and by additional information extracted from intelligence databases. As a result, a distributed surveillance system increasing detection, high-level data fusion capabilities and UAV autonomy is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailBiobjective VoIP Service Management in Cloud Infrastructure
Cortes-Mendoza, Jorge; Tchernykh, Andrei; Armenta-Cano, Fermin et al

in Scientific Programming (2016), 14(5706790:1-5706790:14),

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows communication of voice and/or data over the internet in less expensive and reliable manner than traditional ISDN systems. This solution typically allows flexible ... [more ▼]

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows communication of voice and/or data over the internet in less expensive and reliable manner than traditional ISDN systems. This solution typically allows flexible interconnection between organization and companies on any domains. Cloud VoIP solutions can offer even cheaper and scalable service when virtualized telephone infrastructure is used in the most efficient way. Scheduling and load balancing algorithms are fundamental parts of this approach. Unfortunately, VoIP scheduling techniques do not take into account uncertainty in dynamic and unpredictable cloud environments. In this paper, we formulate the problem of scheduling of VoIP services in distributed cloud environments and propose a new model for biobjective optimization. We consider the special case of the on-line nonclairvoyant dynamic bin-packing problem and discuss solutions for provider cost and quality of service optimization. We propose twenty call allocation strategies and evaluate their performance by comprehensive simulation analysis on real workload considering six months of the MIXvoip company service. [less ▲]

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See detailA Parallel Cooperative Coevolutionary SMPSO Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimization
Atashpendar, Arash UL; Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing Simulation (HPCS) (2016, July)

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See detailOn Service Level Agreement Assurance in Cloud Computing Data Centers
Ibrahim, Abdallah Ali Zainelabden Abdallah UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in IEEE 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), San Francisco, USA (June 2016) (2016, June 27)

Cloud computing uses internet data centers to host applications and data storage. Cloud computing resources and services are offered to customers on pay-per-use model while the quality of the offered ... [more ▼]

Cloud computing uses internet data centers to host applications and data storage. Cloud computing resources and services are offered to customers on pay-per-use model while the quality of the offered resources and services are defined using service level agreements also known as SLAs. Unfortunately, there is no standard mechanism to verify and assure that services delivered by the cloud provider satisfy the SLA agreement in an automatic way. To fill this gap we propose a framework for SLA assurance, which can be used by both cloud providers and cloud users. The proposed framework assesses performance of cloud applications with and without introducing system and component failures and then helps to resolve or mitigate failures to assure the required quality of cloud applications. The evaluation results obtained through simulations and using testbed experiments demonstrate good agreement with the design objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAmazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) vs. in-House HPC Platform: a Cost Analysis
Emeras, Joseph UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proc. of the 9th IEEE Intl. Conf. on Cloud Computing (CLOUD 2016) (2016, June)

Since its advent in the middle of the 2000’s, the Cloud Computing (CC) paradigm is increasingly advertised as THE solution to most IT problems. While High Performance Computing (HPC) centers continuously ... [more ▼]

Since its advent in the middle of the 2000’s, the Cloud Computing (CC) paradigm is increasingly advertised as THE solution to most IT problems. While High Performance Computing (HPC) centers continuously evolve to provide more computing power to their users, several voices (most probably commercial ones) emit the wish that CC platforms could also serve HPC needs and eventually replace in-house HPC platforms. If we exclude the pure performance point of view where many previous studies highlight a non-negligible overhead induced by the virtualization layer at the heart of every Cloud middleware when submitted to an High Performance Computing (HPC) workload, the question of the real cost-effectiveness is often left aside with the intuition that, most probably, the instances offered by the Cloud providers are competitive from a cost point of view. In this article, we wanted to assert (or infirm) this intuition by evaluating the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of the in- house HPC facility we operate since 2007 within the University of Luxembourg (UL), and compare it with the investment that would have been required to run the same platform (and the same workload) over a competitive Cloud IaaS offer. Our approach to address this price comparison is two-fold. First we propose a theoretical price - performance model based on the study of the actual Cloud instances proposed by one of the major Cloud IaaS actors: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Then, based on our own cluster TCO and taking into account all the Operating Expense (OPEX), we propose a hourly price comparison between our in-house cluster and the equivalent EC2 instances. The results obtained advocate in general for the acquisition of an in-house HPC facility, which balance the common intuition in favor of Cloud Computing (CC) platforms, would they be provided by the reference Cloud provider worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailService Level Agreemnet Assurance between Cloud Services Providers and CLoud Customers
Ibrahim, Abdallah Ali Zainelabden Abdallah UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Butterfield, Evan; Kellenberger, Patrick (Eds.) Proceedings of 16th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud, and Grid Computing CCGrid 2016 (2016, May 19)

Cloud services providers deliver cloud services to cloud customers on pay-per-use model while the quality of the provided services are defined using service level agreements also known as SLAs ... [more ▼]

Cloud services providers deliver cloud services to cloud customers on pay-per-use model while the quality of the provided services are defined using service level agreements also known as SLAs. Unfortunately, there is no standard mechanism which exists to verify and assure that delivered services satisfy the signed SLA agreement in an automatic way. There is no guarantee in terms of quality. Those applications have many performance metrics. In this doctoral thesis, we propose a framework for SLA assurance, which can be used by both cloud providers and cloud users. Inside the proposed framework, we will define the performance metrics for the different applications. We will assess the applications performance in different testing environment to assure good services quality as mentioned in SLA. The proposed framework will be evaluated through simulations and using testbed experiments. After testing the applications performance by measuring the performance metrics, we will review the time correlations between those metrics. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork Coding-based Content Distribution in Cellular Access Networks
Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2016 (2016, May)

Mobile cloud applications have become extremely popular in the last years. Location-based services, navigation, online gaming and social networking are a representative set of “always on” cloud ... [more ▼]

Mobile cloud applications have become extremely popular in the last years. Location-based services, navigation, online gaming and social networking are a representative set of “always on” cloud applications in which the same or partially overlapping content is delivered to multiple users. Network coding is a well matching solution to improve content delivery. In this paper we propose the vNC-CELL technique, which uses network coding to combine information flows carrying the same or overlapping content that has to be delivered to co-located users. vNC-CELL executes coding functionalities in a mobile cloud through virtualization as these operations are computationally intensive if performed locally at the base station. Performance evaluation obtained from NS-3 simulations confirms vNC-CELL ability to improve network throughput and reduce download times for the users. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Bi-level approach for Scheduling problems
Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

Scientific Conference (2016, April)

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See detailExact and heuristic approaches to solve the Internet shopping optimization problem with delivery costs
Lopez Loces, Mario; Musial, Jedrzej; Pecero, Johnatan UL et al

in International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science (2016), 26

Internet shopping has been one of the most common online activities, carried out by millions of users every day. As the number of available offers grows, the difficulty in getting the best one among all ... [more ▼]

Internet shopping has been one of the most common online activities, carried out by millions of users every day. As the number of available offers grows, the difficulty in getting the best one among all the shops increases as well. In this paper we propose an integer linear programming (ILP) model and two heuristic solutions, the MinMin algorithm and the cellular processing algorithm, to tackle the Internet shopping optimization problem with delivery costs. The obtained results improve those achieved by the state-of-the-art heuristics, and for small real case scenarios ILP delivers exact solutions in a reasonable amount of time. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline Bi-Objective Scheduling for IaaS Clouds Ensuring Quality of Service
Tchernykh, Andrei; Lozano, Luz; Schwiegelshohn, Uwe et al

in Journal of Grid Computing (2016), 14

This paper focuses on a bi-objective experimental evaluation of online scheduling in the Infrastructure as a Service model of Cloud computing regarding income and power consumption objectives. In this ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on a bi-objective experimental evaluation of online scheduling in the Infrastructure as a Service model of Cloud computing regarding income and power consumption objectives. In this model, customers have the choice between different service levels. Each service level is associated with a price per unit of job execution time, and a slack factor that determines the maximal time span to deliver the requested amount of computing resources. The system, via the scheduling algorithms, is responsible to guarantee the corresponding quality of service for all accepted jobs. Since we do not consider any optimistic scheduling approach, a job cannot be accepted if its service guarantee will not be observed assuming that all accepted jobs receive the requested resources. In this article, we analyze several scheduling algorithms with different cloud configurations and workloads, considering the maximization of the provider income and minimization of the total power consumption of a schedule. We distinguish algorithms depending on the type and amount of information they require: knowledge free, energy-aware, and speed-aware. First, to provide effective guidance in choosing a good strategy, we present a joint analysis of two conflicting goals based on the degradation in performance. The study addresses the behavior of each strategy under each metric. We assess the performance of different scheduling algorithms by determining a set of nondominated solutions that approximate the Pareto optimal set. We use a set coverage metric to compare the scheduling algorithms in terms of Pareto dominance. [less ▲]

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See detailReducing Efficiency of Connectivity-Splitting Attack on Newscast via Limited Gossip
Muszynski, Jakub UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proc. of the 19th European Event on Bio-Inspired Computation, EvoCOMNET 2016 (2016, March)

Newscast is aPeer-to-Peer, nature-inspired gossip-based data exchange protocol used for information dissemination and membership management in large-scale, agent-based distributed systems. The model ... [more ▼]

Newscast is aPeer-to-Peer, nature-inspired gossip-based data exchange protocol used for information dissemination and membership management in large-scale, agent-based distributed systems. The model follows a probabilistic scheme able to keep a self-organised, small-world equilibrium featuring a complex, spatially structured and dynamically changing environment. Newscast gained popularity since the early 2000s thanks to its inherent resilience to node volatility as the protocol exhibits strong self-healing properties. However, the original design proved to be surprisingly fragile in a byzantine environment subjected to cheating faults. Indeed, a set of recent studies emphasized the hard-wired vulnerabilities of the protocol, leading to an efficient implementation of a malicious client, where a few naive cheaters are able to break the network connectivity in a very short time. Extending these previous works, we propose in this paper a modification of the seminal protocol with embedded counter-measures, improving the resilience of the scheme against malicious acts without significantly affecting the original Newscast’s proper- ties nor its inherent performance. Concrete experiments were performed to support these claims, using a framework implementing all the solutions discussed in this work. [less ▲]

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