References of "Billieux, Joël 50025974"
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See detailEmotionally laden impulsivity interacts with affect in predicting addictive use of online sexual activity in men
Wéry, Aline; Deleuze, Jory; Canale, Natale et al

in Comprehensive Psychiatry (2018), 80

The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an ... [more ▼]

The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N = 182; age, M = 29.17), building upon a theoretically driven model that distinguishes the various facets of impulsivity. Results showed that negative urgency (an impulsivity trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in negative emotional states) and negative affect interact in predicting addictive OSA use. These results highlight the pivotal role played by negative urgency and negative affect in addictive OSA use, supporting the relevance of psychological interventions that focus on improving emotional regulation (e.g., to reduce negative affect and learn healthier coping strategies) to mitigate excessive use of OSA. [less ▲]

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See detailSelfitis, selfie addiction, Twitteritis: Irresistible appeal of medical terminology for problematic behaviours in the digital age
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL; Schimmenti, Adriano

in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2018), 52(5), 408-409

Behaviours that are performed compulsively and repetitively and are associated with certain negative consequences have been a conceptual challenge for psychopathology. They are usually labelled as ... [more ▼]

Behaviours that are performed compulsively and repetitively and are associated with certain negative consequences have been a conceptual challenge for psychopathology. They are usually labelled as behavioural addictions, although this term has been vague, misused and applied to an exceptionally wide variety of activities (Starcevic, 2016). A similar trend to medicalise problematic behaviours has appeared more recently, with an emergence of ‘selfitis’ (Balakrishnan and Griffiths, in press). This article draws attention to these troublesome tendencies and aims to shed more light on their origin and implications. [less ▲]

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See detailLe jeu pathologique: un trouble des processus impliqués dans la prise de décision?
Brevers, Damien; Billieux, Joël UL

in Strowel, Alain; Philippe, Denis; Schamps, Geneviève (Eds.) Droit des jeux de hasard (2018)

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See detailElectrophysiological correlates of emotional crossmodal processing in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valerie et al

in Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience (2018), 18(6), 1076-1088

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in ... [more ▼]

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in binge drinking-an excessive alcohol consumption pattern associated with psychological and cerebral deficits-crossmodal integration is preserved at the behavioral level. Although some studies have suggested brain modifications during affective processing in binge drinking, nothing is known about the cerebral correlates of crossmodal integration. In the current study, we asked 53 university students (17 binge drinkers, 17 moderate drinkers, 19 nondrinkers) to perform an emotional crossmodal task while their behavioral and neurophysiological responses were recorded. Participants had to identify happiness and anger in three conditions (unimodal, crossmodal congruent, crossmodal incongruent) and two modalities (face and/or voice). Binge drinkers did not significantly differ from moderate drinkers and nondrinkers at the behavioral level. However, widespread cerebral modifications were found at perceptual (N100) and mainly at decisional (P3b) stages in binge drinkers, indexed by slower brain processing and stronger activity. These cerebral modifications were mostly related to anger processing and crossmodal integration. This study highlights higher electrophysiological activity in the absence of behavioral deficits, which could index a potential compensation process in binge drinkers. In line with results found in severe alcohol-use disorders, these electrophysiological findings show modified anger processing, which might have a deleterious impact on social functioning. Moreover, this study suggests impaired crossmodal integration at early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity traits and gambling cognitions associated with gambling preferences and clinical status
Navas, J. F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Perandrés-Gómez, A. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 102-124

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling preferences and clinical status have never been dissociated. The current study applied a data-driven strategy to identify gambling preferences, based on gambling frequency in several modalities. The two resulting factors were used to classify gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and non-problem recreational gamblers (RGs) into Type I (preferring cards, casino games and skill-based bets) and Type II (preferring slot machines, lotteries/pools and bingo). Participants were assessed in impulsivity, delay discounting, reward/punishment sensitivity, gambling-related cognitions, gambling severity, gambling frequency and average amount gambled per episode. GDPs scored higher than RGs in positive and negative urgency, delay discounting, reward sensitivity and intensity of gambling-related cognitions, but less in lack of perseverance. Additionally, Type II gamblers had greater difficulties delaying gratification, whereas Type I gamblers showed higher cognitive distortion and reward sensitivity levels. In practical terms, the finding that some characteristics are equally pervasive in disordered gamblers independently of their preferences (affect-driven impulsivity), whereas others (distorted cognitions, reward sensitivity, delay discounting) are more prominent in one type or the other, provides a basis to establish targets’ priority in therapy. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation and validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F) in a sample of French-speaking gamblers
Devos, G.; Challet-Bouju, G.; Burnay, J. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 87-101

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for ... [more ▼]

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for these motives. The present study aimed to offer a French validation of the latest version of this scale, the GMQ-Financial (GMQ-F), which measures four distinct motives (enhancement, social, coping, financial). The French GMQ-F was completed by 278 gamblers from the community and 22 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, along with scales assessing gambling cognitions, impulsivity, disordered gambling symptoms and psychopathological symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected four-factor model. The GMQ-F subscales have good internal reliability. Validity of the GMQ-F is supported by specific correlations with the other constructs measured. Pathological gamblers differed from gamblers from the community on all but one (social) of the GMQ-F subscales. The French GMQ-F presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a reliable instrument for measuring gambling motives in research and clinical practice. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailAlcohol-cue exposure decreases response inhibition towards alcohol-related stimuli in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.
Kreusch, Fanny; Billieux, Joël UL; Quertemont, Etienne

in Psychiatry research (2017), 249

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol ... [more ▼]

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol relapse. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the induction of a craving state, using an alcohol cue exposure paradigm, influences response inhibition towards both neutral stimuli and alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were exposed to either their preferred alcoholic beverage or to a glass of water. They then performed a modified stop signal task, which used alcohol-related words, neutral words and non-words, and a lexical decision as the Go response. The alcohol-cue exposure group reported significantly higher alcohol craving and showed higher percentages of commission errors towards alcohol-related words than the control group. All participants, but especially those of the alcohol-cue exposure group, showed also shorter reaction times when alcohol words were used as targets in go trials. The induction of alcohol craving in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients increases the motivational salience value of alcohol stimuli, leading them to automatically approach alcohol-related cues and therefore impairing response inhibition towards those stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.
Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

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See detailAttentional Impairments in Huntington’s Disease: A Specific Deficit for the Executive Conflict
Maurage, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Lahaye, Magali et al

in Neuropsychology (2017), 31(4), 424-436

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined ... [more ▼]

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined attentional tasks, uncertainty still abounds regarding the differential deficit across attentional subcomponents. Likewise, the evolution of these deficits during the successive stages of HD remains unclear. The present study simultaneously explored 3 distinct networks of attention (alerting, orienting, executive conflict) in preclinical and clinical HD. Method: Thirty-eight HD patients (18 preclinical) and 38 matched healthy controls completed the attention network test, an integrated and theoretically grounded task assessing the integrity of 3 attentional networks. Results: Preclinical HD was not characterized by any attentional deficit compared to controls. Conversely, clinical HD was associated with a differential deficit across the 3 attentional networks under investigation, showing preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but massive and specific impairment for the executive conflict network. This indexes an impaired use of executive control to resolve the conflict between task-relevant stimuli and interfering task-irrelevant ones. Conclusion: Clinical HD does not lead to a global attentional deficit but rather to a specific impairment for the executive control of attention. Moreover, the absence of attentional deficits in preclinical HD suggests that these deficits are absent at the initial stages of the disease. In view of their impact on everyday life, attentional deficits should be considered in clinical contexts. Therapeutic programs improving the executive control of attention by neuropsychology and neuromodulation should be promoted. [less ▲]

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See detailSchizotypal personality traits and problematic use of massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
Schimmenti, Adriano; Infanti, Alexandre; Badoud, Déborah et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 74

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in ... [more ▼]

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in MMORPG use is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the potential links between schizotypal traits, motivations for playing MMORPGs, and symptoms of problematic MMORPG use. Eighty-three MMORPG gamers were enrolled in the study. They filled out questionnaires measuring schizotypal personality traits and an adapted version of the same scale designed to measure in-game schizotypal traits. All participants also filled out questionnaires assessing motivations for gaming and disordered use of MMORPGs. Results of the study showed that the disorganized and interpersonal traits of schizotypy decreased when participants were thinking about themselves in the virtual world. Schizotypal traits, together with achievement and immersion motives, predicted problematic use of MMORPGs. The findings of this study may suggest that schizotypal traits and motivations for playing can interact and play a relevant role in the onset and maintenance of problematic gaming [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of social exclusion in social anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study
Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the selfreport and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game (“Cyberball”) during fMRI recording. Participants were frst included by other players, then excluded, and fnally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of fndings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These fndings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential impairments across attentional networks in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Moyaerts, Nathalie et al

in Psychopharmacology (2017), 234

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities (particularly memory and executive functions), and uncertainty thus still abounds regarding the integrity of less complex cognitive processes in binge drinking. This is particularly true for attentional abilities, which play a crucial role in behavior regulation and are impaired in other alcohol-related disorders. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To specify the attentional deficits associated with binge drinking, two groups of university students (40 binge drinkers and 40 matched controls) performed the Attention Network Task, a theoretically grounded test assessing three independent attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. RESULTS: Binge drinkers displayed preserved orienting performance but impaired alerting and executive control. Binge drinking is thus not related to a general attentional impairment but rather to specific impairments of the alerting and executive control networks. CONCLUSIONS: These results underline that, beyond the already explored high-level deficits, binge drinking is also related to impairments for attentional abilities. In view of the role played by attentional impairments in alcohol dependence, the present data also suggest that rehabilitation programs should be developed to improve attentional abilities at the early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailBinging at the campus: motivations and impulsivity influence binge drinking profiles in university students
Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël UL; Poncin, Marie et al

in Psychiatry Research (2017), 250

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were ... [more ▼]

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers. Hazardous binge drinkers were characterized by strong drinking motives but moderate impulsivity. Binge drinking should thus no more be considered as a unitary drinking pattern but rather as a habit encompassing a variety of psychological profiles. Moreover, risky drinking habits in young people might be mainly related to disproportionate drinking motives. Future studies should thus consider binge drinking heterogeneity, and prevention programs focusing on drinking motivations should be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailDo executive functions predict binge-drinking patterns? Evidence from a longitudinal study in young adulthood
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël UL; Gjerde, Line C. et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is ... [more ▼]

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (the Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs (working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)) were assessed. Eighteen months later, information on alcohol habits for 103 of the participants were gathered. Data were analyzed by means of multilevel regression modeling. Results: Future severity of binge drinking was uniquely predicted by performance on the Information sampling task, assessing risky decision-making (β = -1.86, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.04). None of the study variables predicted severity or change in binge drinking. Conclusion: Future severity of binge was associated with making risky decisions in the prospect for gain, suggesting reward hypersensitivity. Future studies should aim at clarifying whether there is a causal association between decision-making style and binge drinking. Performance on all executive tasks was unrelated to change in binge drinking patterns; however, the finding was limited by overall small changes, and needs to be confirmed with longer follow-up periods. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Van Looy, Jan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences (2017), 71(7), 445-458

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various ... [more ▼]

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various studies aim to validate the proposed diagnostic criteria for IGD and multiple new scales have been introduced that cover the suggested criteria. Using a structured approach, we demonstrate that IGD might be better interpreted as a formative construct, as opposed to the current practice of conceptualizing it as a reflective construct. Incorrectly approaching a formative construct as a reflective one causes serious problems in scale development, including: (i) incorrect reliance on item-to-total scale correlation to exclude items and incorrectly relying on indices of inter-item reliability that do not fit the measurement model (e.g., Cronbach's alpha); (ii) incorrect interpretation of composite or mean scores that assume all items are equal in contributing value to a sum score; and (iii) biased estimation of model parameters in statistical models. We show that these issues are impacting current validation efforts through two recent examples. A reinterpretation of IGD as a formative construct has broad consequences for current validation efforts and provides opportunities to reanalyze existing data. We discuss three broad implications for current research: (i) composite latent constructs should be defined and used in models; (ii) item exclusion and selection should not rely on item-to-total scale correlations; and (iii) existing definitions of IGD should be enriched further. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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See detailUrgency
Billieux, Joël UL

in Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Shackelford, Todd K. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (2017)

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See detailImpact of transcranial direct current stimulation on attentional bias for threat: a proof-of-concept study among individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Social cognitive and affective neuroscience (2017), 21

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC). Accordingly, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation decreases AB in non-anxious control participants. Yet, none of these studies focused on SAD. This is especially unfortunate as SAD constitutes the main target for which a genuine reduction of AB may be most appropriate. In this experiment, we sought to investigate the causal influence of left dlPFC neuromodulation on AB among 19 female individuals with a DSM-5 diagnosis of SAD. We adopted a double-blind within-subject protocol in which we delivered a single-session of anodal versus sham transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left dlPFC during the completion of a probe discrimination task assessing AB. Consistent with our hypothesis, participants demonstrated a significant decrease in AB during the anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC relative to the sham stimulation. These findings value tDCS as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity influences betting under stress in laboratory gambling
Canale, Natale; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Vieno, Alessio et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested ... [more ▼]

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested whether impulsivity traits and acute stress differentially influence the way in which a prior feedback is incorporated into further decisions involving ambiguity. Sixty college students (50% male; aged 18–25 years) were randomly assigned to a stress versus a non-stress condition before completing a laboratory gambling task. The results revealed that independently of the stress condition, subjects behaved as if the odds of winning increase after a single loss. Additionally, stress effects varied as a function of impulsivity traits. Individuals who lacked perseverance (i.e., had difficulty focusing on a difficult or boring task) gambled more after experiencing a loss in the stress condition than did those in the control condition. The present study supports that impulsivity traits can explain the differential effect of stress on the relationship between prior feedback and choices made under ambiguity [less ▲]

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