References of "Billieux, Joël 50025974"
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See detailTrait emotional intelligence and problematic online behaviors among adolescents: The mediating role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Personality and Individual Differences (2019), 139

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of ... [more ▼]

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of mindfulness and rumination on the relationship of trait EI with problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic online gaming (POG) is unclear. Among a sample of 470 adolescents, the present study examined the direct and indirect associations of trait EI with PSMU and POG and the potential mediational role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression while controlling for gender and age. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that trait EI was indirectly associated with PSMU via mindfulness, rumination, and depression, and with POG via mindfulness and rumination. Furthermore, rumination affected PSMU positively. The study provides empirical evidence of the theoretical assumption that different types of specific problematic online behaviors are related to both shared and specific risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing gambling urge as a state construct: Evidence from a sample of community gamblers
Canale, Natale; Cornil, Aurélien; Giroux, Isabelle et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 33(2), 154-161

Little effort has been made to systematically test the psychometric properties of the Gambling Craving Scale (GACS; Young & Wohl, 2009). The GACS is adapted from the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges ... [more ▼]

Little effort has been made to systematically test the psychometric properties of the Gambling Craving Scale (GACS; Young & Wohl, 2009). The GACS is adapted from the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (Tiffany & Drobes, 1991) and thus measures gambling-related urge. Crucially, the validation of scales assessing gambling urge is complex, as this construct is better conceptualized as a state (a transient and context-determined phenomenon). In the present study, we tested the psychometric properties of the French version of the GACS with 2 independent samples of community gamblers following an induction procedure delivered through an audio-guided imagery sequence aimed at promoting gambling urge. This procedure was specifically used to ensure the assessment of gambling urge as a state variable. Participants also completed measures of gambling severity, gambling cognitions and motives, impulsivity, and affect. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the original 3-factor solution (anticipation, desire, relief) did not fit the data well. Additional exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggested instead a 2-factor solution: intention and desire to gamble dimension and a relief dimension. The factorial structure resulting from the EFA was tested with CFA in a second independent sample, resulting in an acceptable fit. The 2 dimensions presented good internal reliability and correlated differentially with the other study’s variables. The current study showed that, similar to what has been reported for substance-related urges, gambling urges are adequately probed with a bidimensional model. The findings suggest that the French GACS has good psychometric properties, legitimizing its use in research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Challenges in the Study of Behavioral Addictions: a Call for High Standard Methodologies
Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Brandt, Dominique; Demetrovics, Zsolt et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(3), 331-337

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes both gambling and gaming disorder as disorders due to addictive behaviors. However, there is less evidence for other putative behavioral addictions. This review focuses on requirements for epidemiological studies of disorders that may be considered as behavioral addictions and compares the current state of research with principles of sound epidemiological research. Recent Findings In studies of behavioral addictions, samples are often quite small, which may lead to increased random error. The lack of sound assessment tools—particularly the lack of agreed-upon diagnostic criteria and standardized diagnostic interviews—may also increase systematic error. Other concerns related to systematic bias include the use of convenience samples, lack of pro-active recruitment, inadequate assessment of confounding variables, and a dearth of representative and longitudinal studies. Summary This review recommends that future studies of putative behavioral addictions should more closely adhere to methodological standards of epidemiological research to reduce random and systematic error. Specific recommendations are detailed to advance epidemiological research in this area with the aim of improving the evidence base and generating more refined public health recommendations and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailTime for a Plot Twist: Beyond Confirmatory Approaches to Binge-Watching Research
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychology of Popular Media Culture (2019), 8(3), 308-318

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one ... [more ▼]

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one session). Binge-watching has now become the new normative way to consume TV shows. Nevertheless, along with its recent massive rise has come concerns about the associated mental and physical health outcomes. Currently available results suggest the potential harmfulness and even addictive nature of binge-watching. The psychological investigation of this behavior, however, is still in its infancy, with most studies using a confirmatory approach and assuming a priori its genuine addictive nature. In contrast, the current perspective paper argues the case for an exploratory approach as an initial step for conducting research on behaviors that − at first sight − look like addiction when applying a symptom-based approach. A qualitative understanding of the phenomenological characteristics of binge-watching as the foundation of an initial comprehensive discussion makes it possible to formulate hypotheses concerning its potentially addictive nature and to emphasize challenges and directions for future research. Here we propose an exploration of the dynamics of binge-watching behavior based on a model involving emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of problem binge-watching. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychosocial factors mediating the relationship between childhood emotional trauma and Internet gaming disorder: A pilot study
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2019), 10

gaming disorder (IGD) has been related to a wide range of detrimental psychological and health consequences. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the direct and indirect relationships ... [more ▼]

gaming disorder (IGD) has been related to a wide range of detrimental psychological and health consequences. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the direct and indirect relationships between IGD and emotional trauma, body image dissatisfaction, social anxiety, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem. A total of 242 online gamers completed a survey comprising a comprehensive battery of psychometric self-report scales concerning aforementioned variables. Results indicated that IGD was significantly correlated with all the variables except for body image dissatisfaction. Path analysis indicated an indirect relationship between childhood emotional trauma and IGD through depressive symptoms, while adjusting for gender, age, and number of hours gaming. The findings of the present study indicate that online gamers with a history of emotional abuse and/or neglect have higher levels of depressive symptoms, and that depressive symptoms are important risk factors of IGD. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh involvement versus pathological involvement in video games: A crucial distinction for ensuring the validity and utility of gaming disorder
Billieux, Joël UL; Flayelle, Maèva UL; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(3), 323-330

Purpose of review. The year 2018 was marked by the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a mental condition with its inclusion in the proposed eleventh edition of the International ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review. The year 2018 was marked by the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a mental condition with its inclusion in the proposed eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Recently, a group of scholars has repeatedly criticized the notion of GD proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), arguing that its inclusion in ICD-11 will pathologize highly involved but healthy gamers. It is therefore of crucial importance to clarify the characteristics of high involvement versus pathological involvement in video games, the boundaries between these constructs, and the implementation of screening and diagnostic GD tools that distinguish the two. Recent findings. Increasing evidence supports the view that intense video game playing may involve patterns of gaming that are characterized by high involvement but that are non-pathological. Furthermore, some criteria for addictive and related disorders may reflect peripheral features that are not necessarily indicative of pathology, whereas others may reflect core features that are more likely to adequately identify pathological behavior and so have diagnostic validity. Finally, it is key to assess functional impairment associated with gaming, so that a GD diagnosis has clinical utility. Summary. Available evidence supports the crucial need to distinguish between high and pathological involvement in videogames, in order to avoid over-diagnosis and pathologization of normal behavior. The definition of GD adopted in ICD-11 has clinical utility and diagnostic validity since it explicitly mentions the functional impairment caused by problem gaming and its diagnostic guidelines refer to core addiction features, reflecting pathological involvement. [less ▲]

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See detailLogic, evidence and consensus: Towards a more constructive debate on gaming disorder.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Potenza, Marc N. et al

in The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (2019), 53(11), 1047-1049

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See detailThe gambling craving experience questionnaire: Psychometric properties of a new scale based on the elaborated intrusion theory of desire
Cornil, Aurélien; Long, Jiang; Rothen, Stéphane et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 95

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire ... [more ▼]

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al., 2014), which is the best established measure of craving theoretically anchored in the EIT. An online survey that included the gambling CEQ (g-CEQ) and a craving induction procedure was administered to 274 community participants involved in gambling at least a few times a year. Concurrent and convergent validity were explored through correlations with a scale that measured gambling urge and with a series of questionnaires that measured disordered gambling symptoms, gambling cognitions, and gambling motives. The confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the expected three-factor model of the “strength” and “frequency” forms of the g-CEQ and showed better model fit than a one-factor solution, corroborating the initial structure of the CEQ. Furthermore, the scale has good internal consistency and its validity is supported by correlations with gambling-related constructs. The g-CEQ is thus a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to measure gambling craving based on the EIT. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercoming the unitary exploration of binge-watching: A cluster analytical approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Karila, Laurent et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2019), 8(3), 586-602

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns regarding the potential negative outcomes associated with this habit. However, the investigation of its psychological correlates remains fragmentary, with few initial studies a priori conceptualizing this behavior as a new addictive disorder. This study explored these psychological correlates using cluster analysis of binge-watching behavior based on three key psychological factors: motivations, impulsivity, and emotional reactivity. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 4,039 TV series viewers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the validity of the clusters being finally determined through mutual comparisons with a selection of external correlates. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified: recreational TV series viewers (presenting low involvement in binge-watching), regulated binge-watchers (moderately involved), avid binge-watchers (presenting elevated but non-problematic involvement), and unregulated binge-watchers (presenting potentially problematic involvement associated with negative outcomes). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines the heterogeneous and multidetermined nature of binge-watching. Our findings suggest that high engagement in binge-watching is distinct from problematic binge-watching, thus reinforcing the notion that conceptualizing binge-watching as an addictive disorder is of low relevance and might actually lead to the overpathologization of this highly popular leisure activity. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development of the « Watching TV Series Motives » and the « Binge-Watching Engagement » questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2018), 7 (Suppl.1)

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See detailDisentangling the role of users' preferences and impulsivity traits in problematic Facebook use.
Rothen, Stephane; Briefer, Jean-Francois; Deleuze, Jory et al

in PloS one (2018), 13(9), 0201971

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the ... [more ▼]

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the popular SNS Facebook (FB), our aims in the current study were twofold: First, to explore the heterogeneity of FB usage and determine which kind of FB activity predicts problematic usage; second, to test whether specific impulsivity facets predict problematic use of FB. To this end, a sample of FB users (N = 676) completed an online survey assessing usage preferences (e.g., types of activities performed), symptoms of problematic FB use and impulsivity traits. Results indicated that specific usage preferences (updating one's status, gaming via FB, and using notifications) and impulsive traits (positive and negative urgency, lack of perseverance) are associated to problematic FB use. This study underscores that labels such as FB "addiction" are misleading and that focusing on the actual activities performed on SNSs is crucial when considering dysfunctional usage. Furthermore, this study clarified the role of impulsivity in problematic FB use by building on a theoretically driven model of impulsivity that assumes its multidimensional nature. The current findings have identifiable theoretical and public health implications. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use: Investigating contemporary experiences using a convergent design
Kuss, Daria J.; Harkin, Lydia; Kanjo, Eiman et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2018), 15

Internet-enabled smartphones are increasingly ubiquitous in the Western world. Research suggests a number of problems can result from mobile phone overuse, including dependence, dangerous and prohibited ... [more ▼]

Internet-enabled smartphones are increasingly ubiquitous in the Western world. Research suggests a number of problems can result from mobile phone overuse, including dependence, dangerous and prohibited use. For over a decade, this has been measured by the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPU-Q). Given the rapid developments in mobile technologies, changes of use patterns and possible problematic and addictive use, the aim of the present study was to investigate and validate an updated contemporary version of the PMPU-Q (PMPU-Q-R). A mixed methods convergent design was employed, including a psychometric survey (N = 512) alongside qualitative focus groups (N = 21), to elicit experiences and perceptions of problematic smartphone use. The results suggest the PMPU-Q-R factor structure can be updated to include smartphone dependence, dangerous driving, and antisocial smartphone use factors. Theories of problematic mobile phone use require consideration of the ubiquity and indispensability of smartphones in the present day and age, particularly regarding use whilst driving and in social interactions [less ▲]

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See detailBinge-watching engagement as determined by motivations, impulsivity and emotional reactivity: A cluster analytic approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (2018), 42 (Suppl. 2)

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See detailElectrophysiological correlates of emotional crossmodal processing in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valerie et al

in Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience (2018), 18(6), 1076-1088

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in ... [more ▼]

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in binge drinking-an excessive alcohol consumption pattern associated with psychological and cerebral deficits-crossmodal integration is preserved at the behavioral level. Although some studies have suggested brain modifications during affective processing in binge drinking, nothing is known about the cerebral correlates of crossmodal integration. In the current study, we asked 53 university students (17 binge drinkers, 17 moderate drinkers, 19 nondrinkers) to perform an emotional crossmodal task while their behavioral and neurophysiological responses were recorded. Participants had to identify happiness and anger in three conditions (unimodal, crossmodal congruent, crossmodal incongruent) and two modalities (face and/or voice). Binge drinkers did not significantly differ from moderate drinkers and nondrinkers at the behavioral level. However, widespread cerebral modifications were found at perceptual (N100) and mainly at decisional (P3b) stages in binge drinkers, indexed by slower brain processing and stronger activity. These cerebral modifications were mostly related to anger processing and crossmodal integration. This study highlights higher electrophysiological activity in the absence of behavioral deficits, which could index a potential compensation process in binge drinkers. In line with results found in severe alcohol-use disorders, these electrophysiological findings show modified anger processing, which might have a deleterious impact on social functioning. Moreover, this study suggests impaired crossmodal integration at early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive Impairments in Binge Drinking: Evidence for a Specific Performance-Monitoring Difficulty during Alcohol-Related Processing.
Lannoy, Severine; Maurage, Pierre; D'Hondt, Fabien et al

in European addiction research (2018), 24(3), 118-127

This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No-Go task using pictures of alcohol and soft cans as Go and No-Go targets. This task measures inhibitory control and performance monitoring (i.e., task adjustment through errors and feedback processing) during the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Groups did not significantly differ regarding inhibition abilities. However, BD had poorer performance-monitoring abilities, reflected by a difficulty to adjust after errors, especially when these errors were related to alcohol cues. These findings suggest that the explicit processing of alcohol cues negatively impacts cognitive abilities among BD. [less ▲]

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See detailGame Addiction Scale Assessment Through a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Men: Item Response Theory Graded–Response Modeling
Khazaal, Yasser; Breivik, Kyrre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2018), 20(8), 10058

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary ... [more ▼]

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary conditions for consideration by item response theory (IRT) modeling remains unknown. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recently proposed criteria, in its section 3, to define internet gaming disorder (IGD) to promote research on this possible condition. Objective: The objective of our study was to (1) analyze GAS in the context of IRT (graded-response) modeling; (2) investigate differential item functioning (DIF), a feature of IRT modeling, in 2 subsamples; and (3) contribute to the ongoing (IGD) debate related to the validity of the DSM-5 criteria using GAS items as a proxy. Methods: We assessed 2 large representative samples of Swiss men (3320 French-speaking and 2670 German-speaking) with GAS. Results: All items comprised high discrimination parameters. GAS items such as relapse, conflict, withdrawal, and problems (loss of interests) were endorsed more frequently in more severe IGD stages, whereas items related to tolerance, salience (preoccupation), and mood modification (escape) were endorsed more widely among participants (including in less severe IGD stages). Several DIF effects were found but were classified as negligible. Conclusions: The results of the analyses partly support the relevance of using IRT to further establish the psychometric properties of the GAS items. This study contributes to testing the validity of the IGD criteria, although cautious generalization of our findings is required with GAS being only a proxy of the IGD criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Correlates of Problematic Online Gaming: a Systematic Review of the Evidence Published in Chinese
Long, Jiang; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Yueheng et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2018), 5(3), 359-371

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In this systematic review, we summarize the numerous results related to POG published in Chinese in order to make them more accessible to the international community. Recent Findings We identified 36 relevant studies published in Chinese (7 epidemiological, 21 related to psychological factors, and 8 related to neurocognitive exploration, involving 362,328 participants in total). According to the literature, the prevalence rates of POG in China range from 3.5 to 17%, which is higher than those reported worldwide. Overall, the data published in Chinese are consistent with the international literature. Some distinctive findings emerged, however, in particular in relation to familial, scholastic, and social factors; cognitive impairments; and functional changes in neural circuits. Summary This review is the first to render available articles on POG in Chinese for the international community, which could contribute to the current debate on the status of POG as a genuine mental health condition. Crucially, findings from the Chinese literature often resulted from studies conducted on large random or clinical samples. This is important because a repeated criticism about the recognition of POG as a genuine disorder is the fact that the evidence-based results rely heavily on convenience samples of nonclinical participants. [less ▲]

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See detailInduced sadness increases persistence in a simulated slot machine task among recreational gamblers
Devos, Gaëtan; Clark, Luke; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2018), 32(3), 383-388

Gambling may constitute a strategy for coping with depressive mood, but a direct influence of depressive mood on gambling behaviors has never been tested via realistic experimental designs in gamblers ... [more ▼]

Gambling may constitute a strategy for coping with depressive mood, but a direct influence of depressive mood on gambling behaviors has never been tested via realistic experimental designs in gamblers. The current study tested whether experimentally induced sadness increases persistence on a simulated slot machine task using real monetary reinforcement in recreational gamblers. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (sadness induction) or control (no emotional induction) condition, and then performed a slot machine task consisting of a mandatory phase followed by a persistence phase. Potential confounding variables (problem gambling symptoms, impulsivity traits, gambling cognitions) were measured to ensure that the experimental and control groups were comparable. The study showed that participants in the sadness condition displayed greater gambling persistence than control participants (p = .011). These data support the causal role of negative affect in decisions to gamble and persistence, which bears important theoretical and clinical implications [less ▲]

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See detailTechnology-mediated addictive behaviors constitute a spectrum of related yet distinct conditions: A network perspective
Baggio, Stéphanie; Starcevic, Vladan; Studer, Joseph et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2018), 32(5), 564-572

An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technologymediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology ... [more ▼]

An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technologymediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology-mediated behaviors could be conceptualized as a spectrum of related, yet distinct disorders (spectrum hypothesis), using the network approach that considers disorders as networks of symptoms. We used data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use and Risk Factors (C-SURF), with a representative sample of young Swiss men (subsample of participants engaged in technology-mediated behaviors, n=3,404). Four technology-mediated addictive behaviors were investigated using symptoms derived from the DSM-5 and the component model of addiction: Internet, smartphone, gaming, and cybersex. Network analyses included network estimation and visualization, community detection tests, and centrality indices. The network analysis identified four distinct clusters corresponding to each condition, but only Internet addiction had numerous relationships with the other behaviors. This finding, along with the finding that there were few relationships between the other behaviors, suggests that smartphone addiction, gaming addiction, and cybersex addiction are relatively independent constructs. Internet addiction was often connected with other conditions through the same symptoms, suggesting that it could be conceptualized as an “umbrella construct,” i.e., a common vector that mediates specific online behaviors. The network analysis thus provides a preliminary support to the spectrum hypothesis and the focus on the specific activities performed online, while showing that the construct of “Internet addiction” is inadequate. [less ▲]

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