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See detailArabic validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Atwi, Khodor et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2011), 6

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). METHODS: The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed. RESULTS: As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use. [less ▲]

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See detailLa contribution de la psychopathologie cognitive à l’intervention psychologique
Van der Linden, Martial; Billieux, Joël UL

in Monzée, Joel (Ed.) Ce que le cerveau a dans la tête : Perception, apparences et personnalité (tome 2) (2011)

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See detailThe potential interest of topiramate in addictions
Thorens, G.; Billieux, Joël UL; Manghi, R. et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2011), 17(14), 1410-1415

Topiramate is one of the currently most promising compounds in the field of addiction medicine. This paper discusses its potential utility related to a phase model of addiction development, focusing on ... [more ▼]

Topiramate is one of the currently most promising compounds in the field of addiction medicine. This paper discusses its potential utility related to a phase model of addiction development, focusing on the assumption that addiction is a continuous process involving different neurobiological pathways, depending on the stage of addiction. A specific emphasis will be made on the development of dysfunctional automatic behaviors in the late stage of addiction and the central role of glutamate and AMPA receptors. The aim is to propose that if too broad an effect of anti-addiction medication is expected (such as anti-craving, anti-relapse and preventive effects), the results might be disappointing. The speculative specific efficacy of topiramate in addiction is described. ©2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailHow impulsivity relates to compulsive buying and the burden perceived by caregivers after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.
Rochat, Lucien; Beni, Catia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Psychopathology (2011), 44(3), 158-64

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the study is to investigate how a specific dimension of impulsivity, namely urgency (the tendency to act ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the study is to investigate how a specific dimension of impulsivity, namely urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), might shed new light on the aetiology of compulsive buying proneness in patients with TBI and to explore how urgency and compulsive buying relate to the burden perceived by the caregivers. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Caregivers of 74 patients with TBI were given 3 questionnaires in order to assess their subjective burden as well as patients' impulsivity and compulsive buying proneness. RESULTS: Both urgency and compulsive buying tendencies significantly increased after TBI. Furthermore, path analyses revealed that current urgency was both directly and indirectly related to the subjective burden perceived by the caregivers, and this indirect pathway was mediated by compulsive buying. CONCLUSION: Urgency plays a central role in understanding specific problematic behaviours after TBI and their impact on caregivers. These findings are discussed in light of the cognitive processes underlying the urgency component of impulsivity in relation to the occurrence of compulsive buying behaviours after TBI. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP): development and preliminary validation.
Billieux, Joël UL; Khazaal, Yasser; Oliveira, Sandrine et al

in European addiction research (2011), 17(5), 225-30

This study describes a new database of alcohol-related pictures: The Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP). 60 alcohol-related pictures (beverages, drinking-related behaviors, alcohol-related cues ... [more ▼]

This study describes a new database of alcohol-related pictures: The Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP). 60 alcohol-related pictures (beverages, drinking-related behaviors, alcohol-related cues) were presented to 101 participants (ranging from social drinkers to problem drinkers), who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA[-]NIMH), 2002). Participants were also screened with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Normative ratings for valence, arousal and dominance of the pictures are provided separately for problem/risky users (n = 49) and non-risky drinkers (n = 52). The GAAP is a normative database that provides a large number of stimuli for investigators who conduct research on alcohol. [less ▲]

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See detailLifetime exposure to adverse events and reinforcement sensitivity in obsessive-compulsive prone individuals
Ceschi, G.; Hearn, M.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Behaviour Change (2011), 28(2), 75-86

A diathesis-stress perspective of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) predicts that exposure to adverse events and personality dispositions jointly influence OCS. Gray and McNaughton's (2000) model of ... [more ▼]

A diathesis-stress perspective of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) predicts that exposure to adverse events and personality dispositions jointly influence OCS. Gray and McNaughton's (2000) model of personality posits that, faced with challenging circumstances, individuals with a high sensitivity to punishment (SP) will be more prone to OCS because they cannot avoid the downward spiral into anxiety. The current study investigates OCS severity in relation to lifetime exposure to adverse events (AE), SP, and sensitivity to reward (SR) in 122 nonclinical adults. The results indicate that OCS severity is predicted by AE, SP and SR. Interestingly, the impact of adverse experiences is moderated by SR and not SP. These findings suggest that: (1) exposure to adverse events and SP are independent OCS risk factors, and (2) exposure to adverse events is more critical for reward dependent people. This is discussed in light of responsibility and 'not just right experiences' in OCS, along with the role of impulsivity in the obsessivecompulsive disorder spectrum. [less ▲]

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See detailAddictions et mécanismes d'autorégulation : Pour une approche multifactorielle et dynamique
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.

in Psychotropes (2010), 16(1), 45-56

Self regulation has traditionally been a central concept in many theoretical models of addictive behaviors, whether related to substance use or not. Although numerous studies have established a clear ... [more ▼]

Self regulation has traditionally been a central concept in many theoretical models of addictive behaviors, whether related to substance use or not. Although numerous studies have established a clear relationship between low self-regulation (lack of impulse control) and addictive behaviours, few have been based on a specific theoretical rational which considers the multifaceted nature of selfregulation and its related psychological mechanisms. The present article emphasizes the necessity to propose an integrative approach taking into account the specific contribution of the various facets of impulsivity in addictive behaviours. We also discuss the limitations of conceptualizing addictive behaviours by focusing solely on individual differences in self-regulation abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of urgency and its underlying psychological mechanisms in problematic behaviours.
Billieux, Joël UL; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Behaviour research and therapy (2010), 48(11), 1085-96

The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive ... [more ▼]

The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive and negative urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 807-828], has been related to a wide range of maladaptive behaviours. The present study further investigates the role of urgency in problematic behaviours by considering distinct psychological mechanisms that may underlie this component of impulsivity. With this aim, 95 volunteer participants were screened with self-reported questionnaires assessing urgency and three problematic behaviours (compulsive buying, excessive mobile phone use, excessive Internet use). They performed two laboratory tasks: a stop-signal task designed to assess the capacity to inhibit prepotent responses in response to both neutral and emotional stimuli; and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measuring the ability to take into account the future consequences of an action. A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses in the emotional condition of the stop-signal task was found to predict more disadvantageous choices in the IGT, which ultimately results in higher urgency and more problematic behaviours. These findings shed new light on the construct of urgency, its related psychological mechanisms, and its role in problematic behaviours. [less ▲]

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See detailA measure of dysfunctional eating-related cognitions in people with psychotic disorders.
Khazaal, Yasser; Billieux, Joël UL; Fresard, Emmanuelle et al

in The Psychiatric quarterly (2010), 81(1), 49-56

Obesity and binge eating disorder are common in individuals with psychotic disorders. Eating and weight-related cognitions are known to influence eating behaviors. The study was designed to assess the ... [more ▼]

Obesity and binge eating disorder are common in individuals with psychotic disorders. Eating and weight-related cognitions are known to influence eating behaviors. The study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Questionnaire (MAC-R) in patients with psychotic disorders. Binge eating disorder (BED), body mass index (BMI), the MAC-R and the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) were assessed in 125 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Whereas the MAC-R has not acceptable psychometric properties, a brief version of the MAC-R (BMAC) has good psychometrical properties and is correlated with TFEQ and BMI. Binge eating disorder is also correlated to the Rigid Weight Regulation and Fear of Weight Gain subscale. The BMAC is a useful brief measure to assess eating and weight related cognitions in people with psychotic disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of inhibitory control predicts cigarette smoking dependence: evidence from a non-deprived sample of light to moderate smokers.
Billieux, Joël UL; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Drug and alcohol dependence (2010), 112(1-2), 164-7

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prepotent inhibition capacities and cigarette dependence in a sample of non-deprived light to moderate smokers. METHODS: Fifty volunteer smokers were ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prepotent inhibition capacities and cigarette dependence in a sample of non-deprived light to moderate smokers. METHODS: Fifty volunteer smokers were screened with a laboratory go-stop paradigm, and self-reports of cigarette dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, FTND) and cigarette craving (revised Questionnaire on Smoking Urge, QSU-12). RESULTS: Correlation and regression analyses showed that lower prepotent inhibition capacities predict higher levels of cigarette dependence when individual differences in processing speed, craving states, and age were controlled for. In addition, lower inhibition capacity is associated with a higher number of cigarettes smoked per day. CONCLUSIONS: A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses seems to be one of the individual factors related to cigarette smoking dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mécanismes psychologiques impliqués dans le jeu problématique/pathologique
Van der Linden, Martial; Billieux, Joël UL

in Dunand, C.; Rihs-Middel, M.; Simon, O. (Eds.) Prévenir le jeu excessif dans une société addictive : D’une approche bio-psycho-sociale à la définition d’une politique de santé publique (2010)

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See detailCan the distinction between intentional and unintentional interference control help differentiate varieties of impulsivity?
Gay, Philippe; Courvoisier, D. S.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Research in Personality (2010), 44(1), 46-52

It has recently been shown that perseverance specifically relates to resisting proactive interference [Gay, P., Rochat, L., Billieux, J., d'Acremont, M., & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Heterogeneous ... [more ▼]

It has recently been shown that perseverance specifically relates to resisting proactive interference [Gay, P., Rochat, L., Billieux, J., d'Acremont, M., & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Heterogeneous inhibition processes involved in different facets of self-reported impulsivity: Evidence from a community sample. Acta Psychologica, 129, 332-339]. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend this finding by investigating the relationships between unintentional control of interference (in a recent-negatives task), intentional control of interference (in a directed-forgetting task), and the four facets of impulsivity. The performance of 71 volunteers indicated that the relevant variables of the two tasks shared very little or no variance. In particular, regression analyses showed that lower perseverance (i.e., higher impulsivity on this facet) predicted more interference-related errors in both tasks and less time dedicated to resolving proactive interference; however, lower perseverance did not predict directed-forgetting cost. Higher urgency predicted higher interference time due to response-conflict. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of impulsivity after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.
Rochat, Lucien; Beni, Catia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Neuropsychological rehabilitation (2010), 20(5), 778-97

The aim of the study was to develop and validate a short questionnaire assessing four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking) in patients with ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to develop and validate a short questionnaire assessing four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To this end, 82 patients with TBI and their caregivers completed a short questionnaire adapted from the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale designed to assess impulsivity changes after TBI. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) performed on the version of the scale completed by the relatives revealed that a hierarchical model holding that lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance are facets of a higher order construct (lack of conscientiousness), with urgency and sensation seeking as separate correlated factors, fit the data best. Urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance increased after the TBI, whereas sensation seeking decreased. CFA failed to reveal a satisfactory model in the version of the scale completed by the patients. The psychological processes related to these impulsivity changes and the discrepancy observed between self-report and informant-report are discussed. This short questionnaire opens up interesting prospects for better comprehension and assessment of behavioural symptoms of TBI. [less ▲]

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See detailA French adaptation of the internal and external encoding style questionnaire and its relationships with impulsivity
Billieux, Joël UL; D'Argembeau, A.; Lewicki, P. et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2009), 59(1), 3-8

Recent research has revealed the existence of individual differences in how preexisting schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the ... [more ▼]

Recent research has revealed the existence of individual differences in how preexisting schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the internal and external encoding style questionnaire (ESQ) [Lewicki, P. Internal and External Encoding Style and Social Motivation. In: J. P. Forgas, K. D. Williams, S. M. Laham, (Eds.), Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Psychology Press, New York (2005). pp. 194-209]. The present study was designed to (1) test the psychometric properties of a French version of the ESQ and (2) explore in-depth its relationship with impulsivity - a trait of central importance in the understanding of emotional psychopathology, and which has been previously related to the internal encoding style. Sixty-three participants were tested using the French versions of the ESQ and the UPPS impulsive behavior scale. The UPPS identifies four distinct facets of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The results showed (1) that the French version of the ESQ has good psychometric properties and (2) that consistent with theoretical considerations, internal encoding style is related to two specific out of the four components of impulsivity: high urgency and low perseverance. © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity
Van der Linden, Martial; Billieux, Joël UL

in Sander, D.; Scherer, K.R. (Eds.) The Oxford Companion to Affective Sciences. An encyclopaedic dictionary for the Affective Sciences (2009)

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See detailMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS): Psychometric properties of the French translation and exploration of its relations with emotion regulation strategies.
Jermann, Francoise; Billieux, Joël UL; Laroi, Frank et al

in Psychological assessment (2009), 21(4), 506-14

Over the past few years, several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was created to specifically capture attention and awareness in ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was created to specifically capture attention and awareness in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2003). In this article, we present a French adaptation of the MAAS. In the 1st study, we explored the psychometric properties of this adaptation. In the 2nd study, we investigated its relation to cognitive emotion regulation and depressive symptomatology using path analysis. As in the original version of the MAAS, the French adaptation has a strong 1-factor structure. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between the MAAS and the severity of depressive symptoms, both directly and indirectly. The indirect pathway was mediated by the nonadaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy of self-blame and the adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy of positive reappraisal. In conclusion, this questionnaire represents a valid mindfulness measure for French-speaking clinicians and researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailSwiss psychiatrists' beliefs and attitudes about internet addiction.
Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in The Psychiatric quarterly (2009), 80(2), 117-23

AIMS: To investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Swiss general psychiatrists toward Internet addiction. METHODS: Ninety-fourth Swiss psychiatrists filled out a questionnaire at a conference of general ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Swiss general psychiatrists toward Internet addiction. METHODS: Ninety-fourth Swiss psychiatrists filled out a questionnaire at a conference of general psychiatry assessing their views on the concept of Internet addiction, their evaluation methods and treatment procedures they use. RESULTS: A cluster analysis revealed three groups: DISBELIEVERS (N = 20) rejected the concept of Internet addiction and its importance, not considering it a real clinical problem and consequently not considering the existence of a specific treatment. The NOSOLOGY BELIEVERS (N = 66) and NOSOLOGY/TREATMENT BELIEVERS (N = 8) assumed that Internet addiction is a real problem. While NOSOLOGY/TREATMENT BELIEVERS asserted the availability of effective treatment (mainly psychological), NOSOLOGY BELIEVERS were less affirmative regarding treatment. CONCLUSION: Thought the concept of Internet addiction is largely acknowledged as a clinical reality by Swiss psychiatrists, routine screening and treatment remain uncommon, mainly due to the belief that efficient treatment is still lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailBrief DISCERN, six questions for the evaluation of evidence-based content of health-related websites.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie et al

in Patient education and counseling (2009), 77(1), 33-7

OBJECTIVE: To extract and to validate a brief version of the DISCERN which could identify mental health-related websites with good content quality. METHOD: The present study is based on the analysis of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To extract and to validate a brief version of the DISCERN which could identify mental health-related websites with good content quality. METHOD: The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which used DISCERN and a standardized tool for the evaluation of content quality (evidence-based health information) of 388 mental health-related websites. After extracting the Brief DISCERN, several psychometric properties (content validity through a Factor analysis, internal consistency by the Cronbach's alpha index, predictive validity through the diagnostic tests, concurrent validity by the strength of association between the Brief DISCERN and the original DISCERN scores) were investigated to ascertain its general applicability. RESULTS: A Brief DISCERN composed of two factors and six items was extracted from the original 16 items version of the DISCERN. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were more than acceptable for the complete questionnaire (alpha=0.74) and for the two distinct domains: treatments information (alpha=0.87) and reliability (alpha=0.83). Sensibility and specificity of the Brief DISCERN cut-off score > or =16 in the detection of good content quality websites were 0.357 and 0.945, respectively. Its predictive positive and negative values were 0.98 and 0.83, respectively. A statistically significant linear correlation was found between the total scores of the Brief DISCERN and those of the original DISCERN (r=0.84 and p<0.0005). CONCLUSION: The Brief DISCERN seems to be a reliable and valid instrument able to discriminate between websites with good and poor content quality. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The Brief DISCERN is a simple tool which could facilitate the identification of good information on the web by patients and general consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired inhibition of proactive interference in abstinent individuals with alcoholism.
Noel, Xavier; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology (2009), 31(1), 57-64

Cognitive impairment has been associated with higher risk of alcoholism and relapse. Recent theoretical refinements have separated inhibition of dominant response and inhibition of proactive interference ... [more ▼]

Cognitive impairment has been associated with higher risk of alcoholism and relapse. Recent theoretical refinements have separated inhibition of dominant response and inhibition of proactive interference. We assessed the latter using a directed-forgetting procedure in 38 recently detoxified individuals with alcoholism and in 26 controls. On this task, memory performance of letter trigrams was compared when presented alone, followed by a second trigram to be recalled, then a second trigram to be forgotten (directed-forgetting condition). Individuals with alcoholism recalled more letters to be forgotten and performed worse than controls in the directed-forgetting condition, which significantly correlated with the duration of alcoholism. [less ▲]

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See detailUne approche cognitive, affective et motivationnelle de l’impulsivité
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia (Eds.) Traité de psychopathologie cognitive : bases théoriques (tome 1) (2008)

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