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See detailMaladaptive player-game relationships in problematic gaming and gaming disorder: A systematic review.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Perales, Jose C. et al

in Clinical psychology review (2019), 73

While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive playerxgame relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1 ... [more ▼]

While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive playerxgame relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1) identify game types associated with GD symptomatology; and (2) evaluate individual differences (e.g., age, personality, depression) in the relationship between gaming and GD symptomatology. A systematic review of six databases identified 23 studies of the relations between game types and GD, including 13 studies employing multivariate analyses. Player vulnerabilities implicated in GD included impulsivity, risk-taking, psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), and stronger gaming motivations (e.g., escapism, achievement). MMORPG involvement had the strongest positive association with GD. Problematic MMORPG players tend to have a socially anxious profile and may be attracted to the work-like roles and conventions of this genre. Problematic players of shooters tend to score higher on measures of sensation-seeking and impulsivity than other players. These findings suggest that GD may develop more readily and at more severe levels in complex, endless, socially driven games, irrespective of person-level characteristics. Some player vulnerabilities may selectively increase risk of GD for certain game types. Further research should investigate different player-game interactions to refine current models and interventions for GD. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining neural reactivity to gambling cues in the age of online betting
Brevers, Damien UL; Sescousse, Guillaume; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports (2019), 6(3), 59-71

Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant progress toward the understanding of gambling disorder. After having offered a detailed description of experimental paradigms and a comprehensive summary of findings related to gambling cue reactivity, the present review suggests methodological avenues for future research.Recent Findings The fMRI literature on problem gambling has identified the main neural pathways associated with reactivity to gambling cues. Yet, the current knowledge on the key factors underlying cue reactivity in gambling is still very incomplete. Here, we suggest that the recent expansion of online sports betting calls for a new line of research offering a fine-grained and up-to-date approach of neural cue reactivity in gambling disorder.Summary Experimental designs that investigate individual-specific and study-specific factors related to sports betting have the potential to foster progress toward efficient treatment and prevention of gambling disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercoming the unitary exploration of binge-watching: A cluster analytical approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Karila, Laurent et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2019), 8(3), 586-602

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns regarding the potential negative outcomes associated with this habit. However, the investigation of its psychological correlates remains fragmentary, with few initial studies a priori conceptualizing this behavior as a new addictive disorder. This study explored these psychological correlates using cluster analysis of binge-watching behavior based on three key psychological factors: motivations, impulsivity, and emotional reactivity. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 4,039 TV series viewers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the validity of the clusters being finally determined through mutual comparisons with a selection of external correlates. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified: recreational TV series viewers (presenting low involvement in binge-watching), regulated binge-watchers (moderately involved), avid binge-watchers (presenting elevated but non-problematic involvement), and unregulated binge-watchers (presenting potentially problematic involvement associated with negative outcomes). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines the heterogeneous and multidetermined nature of binge-watching. Our findings suggest that high engagement in binge-watching is distinct from problematic binge-watching, thus reinforcing the notion that conceptualizing binge-watching as an addictive disorder is of low relevance and might actually lead to the overpathologization of this highly popular leisure activity. [less ▲]

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See detailTen-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10): Measurement invariance and cross-cultural validation across seven language-based samples
Király, Orsolya; Bothe, Beáta; Ramos-Diaz, Jano et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 33(1), 91-103

The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... [more ▼]

The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM–5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. The present study tested the psychometric properties, including language and gender invariance, in a large international sample of online gamers. In this study, data were collected from 7,193 participants comprising Hungarian (n = 3,924), Iranian (n = 791), English-speaking (n = 754), French-speaking (n = 421), Norwegian (n = 195), Czech (n = 496), and Peruvian (n = 612) online gamers via gaming-related websites and gaming-related social-networking-site groups. A unidimensional factor structure provided a good fit to the data in all language-based samples. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. The proportions of each sample that met the cut-off score on the IGDT-10 varied between 1.61% and 4.48% in the individual samples, except for the Peruvian sample (13.44%). The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. [less ▲]

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See detailAddictions (Section: Nouveautés en Médecine 2018)
Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Billieux, Joël UL; Achab, Sophia et al

in Revue medicale suisse (2019), 15(N° 632-633), 14-16

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine ... [more ▼]

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine, pathological gambling entered into ICD-11 and vaping, first considered with suspicion, found a place in the pharmacopoeia of the fight against tobacco. That's not all, on the alcohol front, we realized that even a small glass can hurt and the medicine of addictions evolved towards models of recovery that aim to improve quality of life with chronic diseases. Finally, the American opioid prescription epidemic is worrying in Switzerland, even if the situation and the context are very different. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes change in attention control mediate the impact of tDCS on attentional bias for threat? Limited evidence from a double-blind sham-controlled experiment in an unselected sample
Coussement, Charlotte; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2019), 59(1), 16-32

Neurocognitive models of attentional bias for threat posit that attentional bias may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and especially of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC ... [more ▼]

Neurocognitive models of attentional bias for threat posit that attentional bias may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and especially of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC), resulting in an impaired attention control. Consequently, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation reduces attentional bias among both anxious and nonanxious participants. Yet, it is still unclear whether the impact of dlPFC activation on attentional bias is mediated by improvement in attention control. In this experiment, we sought to test this hypothesis in an unselected sample (n = 20). Accordingly, we adopted a double-blind within-subject protocol in which we delivered a single-session of anodal versus sham transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left dlPFC during the completion of a task assessing attention control. We also assessed its subsequent impact on attentional bias. Neither attention control nor attentional bias did significantly improve following anodal tDCS. Although our results did not support our main hypothesis, we believe the present null results to be particularly useful for future meta-research in the field. We also formulated a series of methodological recommendations for future research aiming at testing the tDCS-induced modification of attentional bias. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychosocial factors mediating the relationship between childhood emotional trauma and Internet gaming disorder: A pilot study
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2019), 10

gaming disorder (IGD) has been related to a wide range of detrimental psychological and health consequences. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the direct and indirect relationships ... [more ▼]

gaming disorder (IGD) has been related to a wide range of detrimental psychological and health consequences. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the direct and indirect relationships between IGD and emotional trauma, body image dissatisfaction, social anxiety, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem. A total of 242 online gamers completed a survey comprising a comprehensive battery of psychometric self-report scales concerning aforementioned variables. Results indicated that IGD was significantly correlated with all the variables except for body image dissatisfaction. Path analysis indicated an indirect relationship between childhood emotional trauma and IGD through depressive symptoms, while adjusting for gender, age, and number of hours gaming. The findings of the present study indicate that online gamers with a history of emotional abuse and/or neglect have higher levels of depressive symptoms, and that depressive symptoms are important risk factors of IGD. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy what makes games addictive.
King, Daniel; Koster, Ernst; Billieux, Joël UL

in Nature (2019), 573(7774), 346

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See detailNew synthetic opioids: Part of a new addiction landscape.
Karila, Laurent; Marillier, Maude; Chaumette, Boris et al

in Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews (2019), 106

Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has ... [more ▼]

Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has emerged on the drug market since 2010. North America is currently facing an opioid epidemic of morbi-mortality, caused by over-prescription of opioids, illegally diverted prescribed medicines, the increasing use of heroin, is and the emergence of SO. Furthermore, this opioid crisis is also seen in Europe. SO are new psychoactive substances characterized by different feature such as easy availability on the Internet, low price, purity, legality, and lack of detection in laboratory tests. They have not been approved or are not recommended for human use. Opioid misuse is associated with somatic and psychiatric complications. For many substances, limited pharmacological information is available, increasing the risk of harmful adverse events. Health actors and the general population need to be clearly informed of the potential risks and consequences of the diffusion and use of SO. [less ▲]

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See detailLogic, evidence and consensus: Towards a more constructive debate on gaming disorder.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Potenza, Marc N. et al

in The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (2019), 53(11), 1047-1049

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See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 90

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation ... [more ▼]

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation, however, remains fragmentary. Based on the previous phenomenological investigation of TV series watching, we developed and validated two original assessment instruments, assessing TV series watching motives and binge-watching engagement and symptoms, respectively. Preliminary items were created for each questionnaire, and a focus group with TV series viewers was conducted and analyzed to generate the final instruments. The questionnaires were then administered via an online survey (N=6556), together with complementary measures of affect, problematic Internet use and substance use. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, along with correlational analyses, were performed to examine both structural and external validity of the scales. The factorial analyses resulted in a 4-factor model (i.e. emotional enhancement, enrichment, coping-escapism and social) for the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ), and in a 7-factor model (i.e. engagement, positive emotions, desire-savoring, pleasure preservation, binge-watching, dependency and loss of control) for the Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire (BWESQ). The results suggest good psychometric properties for both scales. The current study thus provides theoretically-driven and psychometrically sound instruments for further research on binge-watching behaviors [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupted Fear and Sadness Recognition in Binge Drinking: A Combined Group and Individual Analysis
Lannoy, Severine; Benzerouk, Farid; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research (2019), 43(9), 1978-1985

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, associated with cognitive and cerebral impairments. Indeed, various cognitive processes have been identified as disrupted in binge ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, associated with cognitive and cerebral impairments. Indeed, various cognitive processes have been identified as disrupted in binge drinking, ranging from perceptive to executive functions, but emotional processes have conversely been little investigated. Particularly, it is unclear to what extent binge drinkers (BD) present difficulties to recognize and categorize the emotions expressed by other individuals. Such an exploration would, however, offer a more comprehensive view of the deficits associated with alcohol-related disorders and potentially involved in the maintenance of this harmful habit. METHODS: Fifty-two BD and 42 control participants performed an emotional task assessing the ability to recognize 6 basic emotions (i.e., anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness). Accuracy score and detection threshold were collected for each emotion. To explore the extent of emotion recognition difficulties, 2 analyses were conducted: (i) classical repeated measures analyses of variance, to compare groups' performance, and (ii) multiple single-case analyses (i.e., Crawford's t-tests), to determine the percentage of BD presenting genuine emotion recognition deficits. Correlations were also performed between alcohol consumption characteristics and emotional recognition scores. RESULTS: BD presented reduced performance for the recognition of fear and sadness. Multiple single cases highlighted that these deficits respectively concerned 21.15 and 15.38% of the binge drinking sample, and the relation between binge drinking and reduced sadness detection was supported by correlational analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that binge drinking is associated with a disrupted processing of emotional stimuli. By identifying heterogeneity in the impairments presented by BD, the present results also underline the usefulness of a combined group and individual approach. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there room for attentional impairments in binge drinking? A commentary on Carbia et al. (2018).
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Dormal, Valerie et al

in Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews (2019), 98

Binge drinking is an excessive pattern of alcohol use, highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. Several studies have explored the cognitive impairments associated with binge drinking, and Carbia ... [more ▼]

Binge drinking is an excessive pattern of alcohol use, highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. Several studies have explored the cognitive impairments associated with binge drinking, and Carbia et al. (2018) recently proposed a systematic review of these impairments. Although this review offers an insightful and up-to-date synthesis of this research field, the authors concluded that binge drinking is not associated with attentional impairments. We argue that such conclusion is premature. We identified published studies not mentioned by Carbia et al. (2018), which documented attentional impairments in binge drinking. In particular, a differential exploration of attentional networks has suggested that binge drinkers not only exhibit impairments for the executive control of attention, but also for its alerting network. We thus recommend a better consideration of attention in future experimental and translational research agendas. [less ▲]

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See detailTime for a Plot Twist: Beyond Confirmatory Approaches to Binge-Watching Research
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychology of Popular Media Culture (2019), 8(3), 308-318

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one ... [more ▼]

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one session). Binge-watching has now become the new normative way to consume TV shows. Nevertheless, along with its recent massive rise has come concerns about the associated mental and physical health outcomes. Currently available results suggest the potential harmfulness and even addictive nature of binge-watching. The psychological investigation of this behavior, however, is still in its infancy, with most studies using a confirmatory approach and assuming a priori its genuine addictive nature. In contrast, the current perspective paper argues the case for an exploratory approach as an initial step for conducting research on behaviors that − at first sight − look like addiction when applying a symptom-based approach. A qualitative understanding of the phenomenological characteristics of binge-watching as the foundation of an initial comprehensive discussion makes it possible to formulate hypotheses concerning its potentially addictive nature and to emphasize challenges and directions for future research. Here we propose an exploration of the dynamics of binge-watching behavior based on a model involving emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of problem binge-watching. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotion-related impulsivity moderates the cognitive interference effect of smartphone availability on working memory.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Doro, Mattia et al

in Scientific reports (2019), 9(1), 18519

Although recent studies suggest that the mere presence of a smartphone might negatively impact on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and attentional processes, less is known about the individual ... [more ▼]

Although recent studies suggest that the mere presence of a smartphone might negatively impact on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and attentional processes, less is known about the individual differences that are liable to moderate this cognitive interference effect. This study tested whether individual differences in emotion-related impulsivity traits (positive urgency and negative urgency) moderate the effect of smartphone availability on cognitive performance. We designed an experiment in which 132 college students (age 18-25 years) completed a laboratory task that assessed visual working memory capacity in three different conditions: two conditions differing in terms of smartphone availability (smartphone turned off and visible, smartphone in silent mode and visible) and a condition in which the smartphone was not available and was replaced by a calculator (control condition). Participants also completed self-reports that assessed their thoughts after the task performance, positive/negative urgency, and problematic smartphone use. The results showed that participants with higher positive urgency presented increased cognitive interference (reflected by poorer task performance) in the "silent-mode smartphone" condition compared with participants in the "turned-off smartphone" condition. The present study provides new insights into the psychological factors that explain how smartphone availability is liable to interfere with high-level cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh involvement versus pathological involvement in video games: A crucial distinction for ensuring the validity and utility of gaming disorder
Billieux, Joël UL; Flayelle, Maèva UL; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(3), 323-330

Purpose of review. The year 2018 was marked by the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a mental condition with its inclusion in the proposed eleventh edition of the International ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review. The year 2018 was marked by the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a mental condition with its inclusion in the proposed eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Recently, a group of scholars has repeatedly criticized the notion of GD proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), arguing that its inclusion in ICD-11 will pathologize highly involved but healthy gamers. It is therefore of crucial importance to clarify the characteristics of high involvement versus pathological involvement in video games, the boundaries between these constructs, and the implementation of screening and diagnostic GD tools that distinguish the two. Recent findings. Increasing evidence supports the view that intense video game playing may involve patterns of gaming that are characterized by high involvement but that are non-pathological. Furthermore, some criteria for addictive and related disorders may reflect peripheral features that are not necessarily indicative of pathology, whereas others may reflect core features that are more likely to adequately identify pathological behavior and so have diagnostic validity. Finally, it is key to assess functional impairment associated with gaming, so that a GD diagnosis has clinical utility. Summary. Available evidence supports the crucial need to distinguish between high and pathological involvement in videogames, in order to avoid over-diagnosis and pathologization of normal behavior. The definition of GD adopted in ICD-11 has clinical utility and diagnostic validity since it explicitly mentions the functional impairment caused by problem gaming and its diagnostic guidelines refer to core addiction features, reflecting pathological involvement. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Challenges in the Study of Behavioral Addictions: a Call for High Standard Methodologies
Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Brandt, Dominique; Demetrovics, Zsolt et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(3), 331-337

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes both gambling and gaming disorder as disorders due to addictive behaviors. However, there is less evidence for other putative behavioral addictions. This review focuses on requirements for epidemiological studies of disorders that may be considered as behavioral addictions and compares the current state of research with principles of sound epidemiological research. Recent Findings In studies of behavioral addictions, samples are often quite small, which may lead to increased random error. The lack of sound assessment tools—particularly the lack of agreed-upon diagnostic criteria and standardized diagnostic interviews—may also increase systematic error. Other concerns related to systematic bias include the use of convenience samples, lack of pro-active recruitment, inadequate assessment of confounding variables, and a dearth of representative and longitudinal studies. Summary This review recommends that future studies of putative behavioral addictions should more closely adhere to methodological standards of epidemiological research to reduce random and systematic error. Specific recommendations are detailed to advance epidemiological research in this area with the aim of improving the evidence base and generating more refined public health recommendations and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailUnfair play? Video games as exploitative monetized services: An examination of game patents from a consumer protection perspective
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gainsbury, Sally M. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 101

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections related to in-game purchasing by anticipating some of the potential design strategies that might contribute to higher risk consumer behavior. Attention was directed towards the analysis of patents for potential in-game purchasing systems, with 13 identified on Google Patents. The design features were analysed in relation to the consumer rights and guarantees described in the terms of use agreements of the patent assignees. The analysis revealed that some in-game purchasing systems could be characterized as unfair or exploitative. These systems describe tactics that capitalize on informational advantages (e.g., behavioral tracking) and data manipulation (e.g., price manipulation) to optimize offers to incentivize continuous spending, while offering limited or no guarantees or protections (e.g., refund entitlement), with the potential to exploit vulnerable players (e.g., adolescents, problematic gamers). These findings are critically discussed in relation to behavioral economics, addiction psychology, and the clinical conceptualization of gaming disorder. Appropriate policy and consumer protection measures, psychologically informed interventions, and ethical game design guidelines are needed in order to protect the interests and wellbeing of consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailReconsidering the roots, structure, and implications of gambling motives: An integrative approach.
Barrada, Juan R.; Navas, Juan F.; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M. et al

in PloS one (2019), 14(2), 0212695

RATIONALE AND METHOD: Accurately identifying motives to gamble is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE AND METHOD: Accurately identifying motives to gamble is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor structure underlying a pool of motives for gambling, selected from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F), and the Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ), in a sample of regular problem and non-problem gamblers. Additionally, the role of gambling motives in the relationship between root behavioral activation/inhibition systems (BIS/BAS) and gambling severity, frequency, and preferences was explored using structural equation modelling (SEM). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified Social, Financial, and Fun/thrill-related gambling motives factors, but also a fourth factor in which some positive and negative reinforcement-based motives were grouped into a single and broader Affect regulation factor. This Affect regulation factor shared variance both with BIS and BAS-related measures, and was the only direct predictor of disordered gambling symptoms. The Fun/thrill factor was directly related to frequency of participation in high-arousal, skill-based games, and all factors were related to participation in lower-arousal, chance games (with Social motives negatively predicting both participation in the latter and total severity). In the SEM model, measures of BIS/BAS sensitivity were connected to gambling behavior only through gambling motives. Based on measures of items' specificity, a shortened Spanish scale (the brief Gambling Motives Inventory, bGMI) is proposed to assess gambling motives in accordance with the observed 4-factor structure. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait emotional intelligence and problematic online behaviors among adolescents: The mediating role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Personality and Individual Differences (2019), 139

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of ... [more ▼]

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of mindfulness and rumination on the relationship of trait EI with problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic online gaming (POG) is unclear. Among a sample of 470 adolescents, the present study examined the direct and indirect associations of trait EI with PSMU and POG and the potential mediational role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression while controlling for gender and age. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that trait EI was indirectly associated with PSMU via mindfulness, rumination, and depression, and with POG via mindfulness and rumination. Furthermore, rumination affected PSMU positively. The study provides empirical evidence of the theoretical assumption that different types of specific problematic online behaviors are related to both shared and specific risk factors. [less ▲]

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