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See detailApprendre à négliger le mauvais côté des choses: La modification des biais cognitifs
Ceschi, Grazia; Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) Interventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive (2015)

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See detailProblematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults.
Mannikko, Niko; Billieux, Joël UL; Kaariainen, Maria

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2015), 4(4), 281-8

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). RESULTS: Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced inhibitory control predicts persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling
Devos, G.; Clark, L.; Maurage, P. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2015), 15(3), 408-421

Impairments in inhibitory control characterize a range of addictive behaviours including gambling disorder. This study investigated the relationship between a neuropsychological measure of inhibitory ... [more ▼]

Impairments in inhibitory control characterize a range of addictive behaviours including gambling disorder. This study investigated the relationship between a neuropsychological measure of inhibitory control and behaviour on a simulated slot machine that included a measure of gambling persistence, in a non-clinical sample of regular gamblers. Regular gamblers (n =  75) performed a laboratory slot machine task for 30 trials where they could win real money, followed by a persistence phase under extinction (i.e. without wins). Participants also completed a stop-signal task, along with measures of gambling-related cognitions, social desirability, and symptoms of disordered gambling. In hierarchical regression models, reduced inhibitory control was found to predict greater persistence and a higher subjective desire to play again after both wins and near-misses (i.e. unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot). These data illustrate the impact of low inhibitory control on relevant behavioural tendencies in a group of regular gamblers. Our results help elucidate a cognitive process that may contribute to problem gambling, with implications for screening and treatment. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there an all-embracing construct of emotion reactivity? Adaptation and validation of the emotion reactivity scale among a French-speaking community sample.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Comprehensive psychiatry (2014), 55(8), 1960-7

BACKGROUND: Emotion reactivity is defined as the extent to which an individual experiences emotions in response to a wide array of stimuli, intensely, and for a prolonged period. This construct is a key ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Emotion reactivity is defined as the extent to which an individual experiences emotions in response to a wide array of stimuli, intensely, and for a prolonged period. This construct is a key psychological factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathological disorders. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a French version of the Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), which gauges three aspects of emotion reactivity: (1) emotional sensitivity, (2) emotional intensity, and (3) emotional persistence. METHOD: The French ERS and both concurrent and divergent validated scales were administered to 258 participants from the community. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good fit indices for: (1) a single-factor model, (2) a three-factor model, and (3) a hierarchical three-factor solution with a single-factor solution as a second-order latent variable for a generic construct of emotion reactivity. The French version of the Emotion Reactivity Scale also exhibits acceptable internal scale score reliability (total scale and subscales). Eventually, meaningful relationships were found between factors of emotion reactivity and depression, distinct aspects of impulsive behaviors, and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. CONCLUSION: Findings of the confirmatory factor analyses are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the ERS is mainly captured by a single major construct of emotion reactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impulsivité: ses facettes, son évaluation et son expression clinique
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial

Book published by Mardaga (2014)

L’impulsivité, définie globalement comme la tendance à exprimer des comportements excessifs et non planifiés, est un concept intégré dans les principaux modèles de la personnalité. L’impulsivité ... [more ▼]

L’impulsivité, définie globalement comme la tendance à exprimer des comportements excessifs et non planifiés, est un concept intégré dans les principaux modèles de la personnalité. L’impulsivité représente également une dimension psychologique importante pour la compréhension et le diagnostic d’un grand nombre de troubles psychopathologiques et neurologiques.  Les recherches récentes s’accordent sur la nécessité de considérer l’impulsivité comme un concept multidimensionnel et d’identifier les mécanismes psychologiques (cognitifs, affectifs, motivationnels) susceptibles de sous-tendre les diverses manifestations impulsives. Ce livre fait le point sur les recherches et les modèles théoriques actuels concernant l’impulsivité. Il vise aussi à décrire une large gamme d’outils validés permettant d’évaluer les différentes facettes de l’impulsivité et les mécanismes psychologiques qui y sont associés. Les outils présentés (avec leurs données normatives) dans cet ouvrage sont en utilisation libre de droits. Ce livre a également pour objectif de faire l’état des connaissances sur le rôle de l’impulsivité dans les troubles psychopathologiques et neurologiques, ainsi que sur les techniques d’intervention psychologique visant les conduites impulsives. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional alterations in alcohol dependence are underpinned by specific executive control deficits.
Maurage, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research (2014), 38(7), 2105-12

BACKGROUND: Attentional biases and deficits play a central role in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, but the underlying attentional processes accounting for these deficits have been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Attentional biases and deficits play a central role in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, but the underlying attentional processes accounting for these deficits have been very little explored. Importantly, the differential alterations across the 3 attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control) remain unclear in this pathology. METHODS: Thirty recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals and 30 paired controls completed the Attention Network Test, which allow exploring the attentional alterations specifically related to the 3 attentional networks. RESULTS: Alcohol-dependent individuals presented globally delayed reaction times compared to controls. More centrally, they showed a differential deficit across attention networks, with a preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but impaired executive control (p < 0.001). This deficit was not related to psychopathological comorbidities but was positively correlated with the duration of alcohol-dependence habits, the number of previous detoxification treatments and the mean alcohol consumption before detoxification. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that attentional alterations in alcohol dependence are centrally due to a specific alteration of executive control. Intervention programs focusing on executive components of attention should be promoted, and these results support the frontal lobe hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailUn rapport impérieux à l’alcool : réflexion clinique sur le « craving »
de Timary, Philippe; Billieux, Joël UL

in De Timary, Philippe; Toussain, Anne (Eds.) Sortir l'alcoolique de son isolement (2014)

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See detailProbing smoking craving with a multidimensional approach: validation of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges.
Dethier, Vincent; Heeren, Alexandre; Galanti, Laurence et al

in Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment (2014), 10

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12), a widely used multidimensional measure of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12), a widely used multidimensional measure of cigarette craving. METHODS: Daily smokers (n=230) completed the QSU-12, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and items about addiction-related symptoms. Additional participants (n=40) completed the QSU-12 and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and were assessed for expired carbon monoxide. RESULTS: Consistent with studies validating the English version of the scale, confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor solution in the French version of the scale. Good scale and subscales reliabilities were observed, and convergent validity was evidenced through relationships with dependence and addiction-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: The French-language version of the QSU-12 is an adequate instrument to assess the multidimensional construct of craving in both research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.
Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne et al

in Journal of medical Internet research (2014), 16(7), 164

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). METHODS: All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. RESULTS: We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond inhibition: a dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; Billieux, Joël UL; Maurage, Pierre

in Frontiers in human neuroscience (2014), 8

Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge ... [more ▼]

Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviors), but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviors). This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the "continuum hypothesis," suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1) the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2) the systems' interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3) the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade.
Kuss, D. J.; Griffiths, M. D.; Karila, L. et al

in Current pharmaceutical design (2014), 20(25), 4026-52

In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological precision so that ultimately those in need can be helped by translating the scientific evidence established in the context of Internet addiction into actual clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.
Karila, Laurent; Wery, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv et al

in Current pharmaceutical design (2014), 20(25), 4012-20

Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of ... [more ▼]

Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualisation, évaluation et traitement de la dépendance cybersexuelle : Une revue de la littérature
Wéry, A.; Karila, L.; De Sutter, P. et al

in Canadian Psychology (2014), 55(4), 266-281

The purpose of this article is to propose a critical review of current knowledge concerning cybersexual dependence (definition, epidemiology, evaluation and treatment). There is, in fact, a lack of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article is to propose a critical review of current knowledge concerning cybersexual dependence (definition, epidemiology, evaluation and treatment). There is, in fact, a lack of consensus concerning the conceptualization of this disorder. This lack of conceptual clarity is largely due to the existence of a multitude of definitions of the disorder, a significant variety of sexual behaviours concerned and of symptomatologies, and because of methodological problems in the existing research (samples and evaluation tools that are strongly heterogeneous in different studies). Given the context, this article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge concerning cybersexual dependence. We will also make an inventory of empirically validated treatment methods for sexual and cybersexual dependence and we will propose approaches for future research. A non-systematic narrative review was conducted to examine and summarize the English and French literature dealing with cybersexual dependence. That review was carried out using a keyword search for sexual and cybersexual dependence in the data bases of PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Francis. Particular attention was paid to articles evaluating risk factors involved in sexual dependence, as well as articles that suggest treatment approaches for the disorder. © 2014 Canadian Psychological Association. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2014), 3(1), 78-81

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. METHODS: This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collection of data on socio-demographics, method of referral, specific Internet usage, psychiatric diagnosis, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores. Treatment consisted of individual psychotherapeutic sessions. RESULTS: Of these patients, 98% were male and 37% were 18 years or younger. Most patients were online gamers (46% playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games). The mean IAT score was 52.9 (range 20-90). Sixty-eight percent of patients had a co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, with social phobia being the most prevalent (17.8%). Patients who remained in treatment (dropout rate 24%) showed an overall improvement of symptoms: 38.6% showed significant or average improvement on their CGI score, 26.3% showed minimal improvement, and 14% showed no change. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that there are specific types of Internet use, with online gaming mainly affecting young male patients. As Internet addiction is not yet an official diagnosis, better instruments are needed to screen patients and to avoid false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Successful care should integrate the treatment of co-morbid symptoms and involve families and relatives in the therapeutic process. [less ▲]

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See detailTrauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood.
Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël UL; Hearn, Melissa et al

in European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2014), 5

BACKGROUND: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. OBJECTIVE: Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. METHODS: Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. RESULTS: Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet gaming addiction: The case of massively multiplayer online role playing games
Billieux, Joël UL; Deleuze, Jory; Griffiths, Mark et al

in El-Guebaly, N.; Galanter, M.; Carrá, G. (Eds.) The Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives (2014)

Internet gaming disorder is one of the main types of Internet-related disorders. Recently, and despite inconsistencies in classification and limited data regarding the etiology of the condition, Internet ... [more ▼]

Internet gaming disorder is one of the main types of Internet-related disorders. Recently, and despite inconsistencies in classification and limited data regarding the etiology of the condition, Internet gaming disorder has been included in Sect. 3 (research appendix) of the DSM-5. The focus of the current chapter was the dysfunctional involvement in a specific type of video game which has some inherent characteristics reinforcing its addictive nature: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). MMORPGs are indeed one of the most recent and popular types of video games played worldwide, and problematic and uncontrolled involvement in playing MMORPGs is the most frequently reported activity by people seeking help for an Internet-related problem. In this chapter, we first described the specific structural characteristics of MMORPGsthemselves (e.g., permanent world, reinforcement schedule, advancement systems, interface favoring social exchanges) and explained how they can increase their “addictive potential”. Then, the main psychological factors (motives to play, impulsivity traits) were reviewed alongside neurobiological features (e.g., changes in neural circuitry involved in controlled regulation of behavior and reward drive) related to the development and maintenance of MMORPG addiction. The few available studies having tested the efficacy of treatments targeting Internet and video game addictions were also briefly considered. Limitations of existing data are emphasized, and avenues for further research proposed (both at the theoretical and clinical levels). [less ▲]

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See detailLa collaboration entre cliniciens et chercheurs : une co-construction
Billieux, Joël UL; Jacques, H; de Timary, P. et al

in Zech, E.; de Timary, P.; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) et al Articulations clinique-recherche: autour de la psychopathologie et de la psychiatrie (2013)

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See detailFactorial structure and psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in non-clinical participants
Larøi, F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Defeldre, A.-C. et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2013), 63(4), 203-208

Introduction The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for assessing dissociation. However, there is disagreement regarding the internal structure of the DES and scores tend to ... [more ▼]

Introduction The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for assessing dissociation. However, there is disagreement regarding the internal structure of the DES and scores tend to be highly skewed. Objective The present study was designed to test the psychometric properties of a French version of the DES in non-clinical participants, in addition to applying a response scale as recommended by Wright and Loftus (1999) in order to resolve the problem of skewed scores. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (computed in two independent samples) suggested a two-factor solution, which seem to represent two forms of dissociation ("automatic pilot" related dissociation episodes and "defensive" dissociation episodes). Results also revealed high internal consistency, and satisfactory results in terms of skewness and floor effects. Finally, significant associations with other measures (anxiety, depression, traumatic experiences) indicate good concurrent validity. Conclusions This study offers evidence that the present version of the French adaptation of the DES reveals good psychometric properties. Analyses of the internal structure of the DES suggest that two types of dissociative experiences are being measured: automatic pilot-related dissociation episodes (e.g., associated with different types of cognitive failures) and defensive dissociation episodes that may act as defensive mechanisms, especially in persons who have been traumatized (e.g., the avoidance of a memory related to a traumatic event). © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.; Achab, S. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29(1), 103-109

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play ... [more ▼]

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play MMORPGs are heterogeneous (e.g. achievement, socialisation, immersion in virtual worlds). This study investigates in detail the relationships between self-reported motives and actual in-game behaviours. We recruited a sample of 690 World of Warcraft players (the most popular MMORPG) who agreed to have their avatar monitored for 8 months. Participants completed an initial online survey about their motives to play. Their actual in-game behaviours were measured through the game's official database (the Armory website). Results showed specific associations between motives and in-game behaviours. Moreover, longitudinal analyses revealed that teamwork- and competition-oriented motives are the most accurate predictors of fast progression in the game. In addition, although specific associations exist between problematic use and certain motives (e.g. advancement, escapism), longitudinal analyses showed that high involvement in the game is not necessarily associated with a negative impact upon daily living. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailArticulations clinique-recherche: autour de la psychopathologie et de la psychiatrie
Zech, E.; de Timary, P.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

Book published by Presses universitaires de Louvain (2013)

Un des objectifs du Centre de recherches en santé et développement psychologique (CSDP) de l'Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) est de promouvoir les échanges et les collaborations entre chercheurs et ... [more ▼]

Un des objectifs du Centre de recherches en santé et développement psychologique (CSDP) de l'Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) est de promouvoir les échanges et les collaborations entre chercheurs et cliniciens. Cet ouvrage publie les premiers travaux du Centre sur cette thématique. Les six chapitres publiés montrent plusieurs articulations possibles entre les pratiques cliniques et de recherche. Ils amènent à réfléchir sur la nature des potentielles relations entre approches cliniques et démarches de recherche. Nous avons cherché à évaluer comment des hypothèses issues de travaux empiriques peuvent se mettre en place sur le terrain, et inversement, comment les cliniciens à partir de leur pratique peuvent interroger les chercheurs pour mettre en place des projets de recherche. En d’autres termes, il s’agissait de construire des « ponts à double voie » entre la recherche et la pratique clinique, ceux-ci étant synthétisés et discutés en conclusion de l’ouvrage [less ▲]

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