References of "Billieux, Joël 50025974"
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See detailWorking towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014).
Griffiths, Mark D.; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel et al

in Addiction (Abingdon, England) (2016), 111(1), 167-75

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See detailPrevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates.
Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Liao, Yan-Hui et al

in BMC psychiatry (2016), 16(1), 408

BACKGROUND: Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current study we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PSU and to screen suitable predictors for PSU among Chinese undergraduates in the framework of the stress-coping theory. METHODS: A sample of 1062 undergraduate smartphone users was recruited by means of the stratified cluster random sampling strategy between April and May 2015. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire was used to identify PSU. We evaluated five candidate risk factors for PSU by using logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic characteristics and specific features of smartphone use. RESULTS: The prevalence of PSU among Chinese undergraduates was estimated to be 21.3%. The risk factors for PSU were majoring in the humanities, high monthly income from the family (>/=1500 RMB), serious emotional symptoms, high perceived stress, and perfectionism-related factors (high doubts about actions, high parental expectations). CONCLUSIONS: PSU among undergraduates appears to be ubiquitous and thus constitutes a public health issue in Mainland China. Although further longitudinal studies are required to test whether PSU is a transient phenomenon or a chronic and progressive condition, our study successfully identified socio-demographic and psychological risk factors for PSU. These results, obtained from a random and thus representative sample of undergraduates, opens up new avenues in terms of prevention and regulation policies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects and risks associated to mephedrone and methylone in humans: A review of the preliminary evidences.
Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël UL; Benyamina, Amine et al

in Brain research bulletin (2016), 126(Pt 1), 61-67

New psychoactive substances have drastically modified the world drug scene. An increasingly popular class comprises synthetic or substituted cathinones (legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts). Among ... [more ▼]

New psychoactive substances have drastically modified the world drug scene. An increasingly popular class comprises synthetic or substituted cathinones (legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts). Among the most common psychoactive constituents of bath salts are mephedrone and methylone. Recent reports on the abuse of novel synthetic cathinone derivatives call attention to the serious physical and psychological risks resulting from their consumption, thereby emphasizing the growing use of these drugs might constitute an important public health issue. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of mephedrone and methylone in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were "mephedrone", "methylone", "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "substance abuse", "substance use disorder", "adverse effects", "fatalities". The literature search was limited to years 2005-2015 and led to the identification of 71 potentially relevant articles. To date, the actual prevalence rates of their use remains difficult to estimate. Important health-related issues have emerged in relation to the somatic, psychiatric, and addictive consequences of their use. The potential chronic health effects of their prolonged use remain to date unknown (e.g., reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential). Treatment for patients with prolonged exposure to synthetic cathinones should ideally include a drug management plan coupled with psychotherapy taking place in a structured program of care. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute and Chronic Altitude-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents.
Rimoldi, Stefano F.; Rexhaj, Emrush; Duplain, Herve et al

in The Journal of pediatrics (2016), 169

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to high altitude induces cognitive dysfunction in young healthy European children and adolescents during acute, short-term exposure to an altitude of 3450 m and in an ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to high altitude induces cognitive dysfunction in young healthy European children and adolescents during acute, short-term exposure to an altitude of 3450 m and in an age-matched European population permanently living at this altitude. STUDY DESIGN: We tested executive function (inhibition, shifting, and working memory), memory (verbal, short-term visuospatial, and verbal episodic memory), and speed processing ability in: (1) 48 healthy nonacclimatized European children and adolescents, 24 hours after arrival at high altitude and 3 months after return to low altitude; (2) 21 matched European subjects permanently living at high altitude; and (3) a matched control group tested twice at low altitude. RESULTS: Short-term hypoxia significantly impaired all but 2 (visuospatial memory and processing speed) of the neuropsychological abilities that were tested. These impairments were even more severe in the children permanently living at high altitude. Three months after return to low altitude, the neuropsychological performances significantly improved and were comparable with those observed in the control group tested only at low altitude. CONCLUSIONS: Acute short-term exposure to an altitude at which major tourist destinations are located induces marked executive and memory deficits in healthy children. These deficits are equally marked or more severe in children permanently living at high altitude and are expected to impair their learning abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in alcohol-dependence.
Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Journal of addictive diseases (2016), 35(4), 238-243

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that ... [more ▼]

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals. One hundred recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (29 females; mean age = 49.51-years-old) recruited during the 3rd week of their treatment in a detoxification center were compared to 100 healthy controls (29 females; mean age = 48.51-years-old) recruited in the experimenters' social network, matched at the group level for age, gender, and educational level. All participants completed the Mini Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale measuring abstract/analytic and concrete/experiential repetitive thinking modes as well as complementary psychopathological measures (Beck Depression Inventory and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory). Alcohol-dependent individuals have similar levels of concrete repetitive thinking as controls but report significantly higher levels of abstract repetitive thinking (p < 0.001; d = 1.28). This effect remains significant after controlling for depression and anxiety. Relative to healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients report more frequent use of abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, with preserved concrete/experiential thinking. Despite the cross-sectional nature of the study, the frequent use of abstract repetitive thinking thus appears to constitute a main feature of alcohol-dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of a documentary film about schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation.
Thonon, Benedicte; Pletinx, Amandine; Grandjean, Allison et al

in Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry (2016), 50

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to develop interventions aiming to prevent, reduce or eliminate such stereotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a documentary film on schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation. METHODS: Forty-nine participants were assessed on measures of stereotypes and social distance, and on the Model of Stereotype Content, which includes measures of stereotypes, emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies. Participants were randomly assigned into either a condition in which they viewed the documentary film (Film group), or into a control condition in which no intervention was conducted (Control group). RESULTS: Only participants in the Film group revealed a significant decrease of negative stereotypes (Dangerousness and Unpredictability) and desired Social distance, and a significant increase in the perception of sociability in persons with schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and its reduced generalizability are the main limitations in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a promising tool to prevent and reduce stigmatisation regarding schizophrenia.. [less ▲]

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See detailCapitalizing upon the Attractive and Addictive Properties of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games to Promote Wellbeing.
Thorens, Gabriel; Billieux, Joël UL; Megevand, Pierre et al

in Frontiers in Psychiatry (2016), 7

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See detailOnline sexual activities: An exploratory study of problematic and non-problematic usage patterns in a sample of men
Wéry, A.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 56

Involvement in online sexual activities (OSAs) is ubiquitous, especially in males, and can under certain circumstances become problematic. The risk factors associated with problematic OSAs remain, however ... [more ▼]

Involvement in online sexual activities (OSAs) is ubiquitous, especially in males, and can under certain circumstances become problematic. The risk factors associated with problematic OSAs remain, however, poorly explored. The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics, usage patterns, and motives for men to engage in OSAs and to disentangle the risk factors associated with problematic OSAs. To this end, 434 men completed an online survey measuring socio-demographic information, OSAs consumption habits, motives for engaging in OSAs, symptoms of problematic OSAs, and sexual dysfunctions. Results showed that watching pornography is the most prevalent OSA, and sexual gratification is the most frequent motive for OSAs involvement. Additional multiple regression analyses indicated that the following characteristics are associated with problematic use of OSAs: (a) partnered-arousal activities (e.g., sex chat) and solitary-arousal activities (e.g., pornography); (b) anonymous fantasizing and mood regulation motives; and (c) higher sexual desire, lower overall sexual satisfaction, and lower erectile function. This study sheds new light on the characteristics, motives, and sexual function of men involved in OSAs, emphasizing that problematic OSAs are heterogeneous and depend on interrelated factors. The findings support tailoring of preventive actions and clinical interventions to both OSA type and individual risk factors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBinge drinking is characterized by decisions favoring positive and discounting negative consequences  
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël UL; Landrø, Nils Inge

in Addiction Research & Theory (2016), 24(6), 499-506

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See detailA Mindfulness-Based Group Intervention for Enhancing Self-Regulation of Emotion in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A Pilot Study
Deplus, S.; Billieux, Joël UL; Scharff, C. et al

in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (2016), 14(5), 775-790

Emotion dysregulation is strongly implicated in the development of psychological problems during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention ... [more ▼]

Emotion dysregulation is strongly implicated in the development of psychological problems during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention for enhancing self-regulation of emotion in adolescents, adapted from Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy. We studied the impact of the intervention on depressive symptoms, as well as on transdiagnostic psychological processes related to emotional regulation, namely impulsivity and ruminative thinking. Twenty-one participants aged between 11 and 19 years were offered a nine-session group intervention. Adolescents completed standardized questionnaires before and after the training. This intervention was found to increase self-reported mindfulness and was well-accepted by adolescents, as estimated by the low dropout rate. As expected, a decrease was observed in depressive symptoms, in specific impulsivity facets (urgency and lack of perseverance), and in internal-dysfunctional strategies of emotion regulation (especially in unconstructive repetitive thoughts). The present findings provide preliminary support for a group intervention for adolescents characterized by emotion regulation difficulties, targeting transdiagnostic psychological processes (impulsivity and ruminative thinking). Furthermore, by potentially enhancing self-regulation skills, this intervention might constitute an effective method for general prevention of psychological disorders in late childhood and adolescence. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich facets of impulsivity predict binge drinking?
Bø, R.; Billieux, Joël UL; Landrø, N. I.

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2016), 3

Background: Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important ... [more ▼]

Background: Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important predictors of alcohol use and abuse. Nonetheless, previous research in binge drinking has been confounded by various definitions and cut-off scores, implying that existing studies contributed to limited comprehension on the specific role of different impulsivity facets. The current study thus disentangles the role of impulsivity facets in binge drinking by adopting a dimensional approach, considering the condition on a continuum, to avoid relying on debatable and non-definitive criteria. Methods: 162 students underwent assessment of alcohol consumption, including drinking patterns and impulsive traits, as captured in the UPPS-P framework (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation). Multiple regression analyses were utilized in order to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in binge drinking. Results: Binge drinking was associated with sensation seeking. However, when statistically controlling for gender, age and global alcohol consumption, this effect disappeared, and negative urgency remained the only impulsivity component that significantly predicted binge drinking. Conclusion: We found the severity of binge drinking to be associated with negative urgency, suggesting that the binge drinking pattern is displayed in reaction to negative emotional states, and can be conceptualized as a maladaptive and short-term emotional coping. The study calls for prevention and treatment interventions designed to improve self-control, and more adaptive emotion regulation strategies. © 2016 . [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.
Wery, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaelle et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2016), 5(4), 623-630

Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20-76 years (mean 40.3 +/- 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailThe synthetic cannabinoids phenomenon
Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, L et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2016), 22(42), 6420-6425

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids ... [more ▼]

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at this period Health professionals should take into account that limited scientific evidence is available regarding the effect of synthetic cannabinoids use in humans. It thus urges to launch more systematic epidemiological studies, to develop and validate screening procedures, and to investigate the neurobiological and psychological correlates and risk factors associated to synthetic cannabinoids use and misuse. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere do Gambling and Internet ‘Addictions’ Belong? The Status of ‘Other’ Addictions (volume 2)
Griffiths, Mark; Kuss, Daria; Pontes, Halley et al

in Wolff, K; White, J; Karch, S (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies: Biological Approaches (2016)

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See detailAddiction à Internet – Le cas des jeux vidéo en ligne (chapitre 120)
Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe et al

in Reynaud, M.; Karila, L.; Aubin, H.-A. (Eds.) et al Traité d’Addictologie (2ème édition) (2016)

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See detailImpulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2016), 5(2), 351-6

Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis
Deleuze, J.; Rochat, L.; Romo, L. et al

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2015), 1

While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g ... [more ▼]

While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors.Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience.Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors.The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailThe conceptualization and assessment of problematic mobile phone use
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark et al

in Yan, Z. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Mobile Phone Behavior (Volumes 2) (2015)

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See detailAméliorer la réalisation d’intentions dans l’intervention psychologique: La méthode « si-alors »
Berner-Burkard, C.; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) Interventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive (2015)

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See detailFactor Structure of the Internet Addiction Test in Online Gamers and Poker Players.
Khazaal, Yasser; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in JMIR Mental Health (2015), 2(2), 12

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates comparisons among existing studies. Most previous studies were performed with students or community samples despite the probability of there being more problematic Internet use among users of specific applications, such as online gaming or gambling. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factorial structure of a modified version of the IAT that addresses specific applications, such as video games and online poker. METHODS: Two adult samples-one sample of Internet gamers (n=920) and one sample of online poker players (n=214)-were recruited and completed an online version of the modified IAT. Both samples were split into two subsamples. Two principal component analyses (PCAs) followed by two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were run separately. RESULTS: The results of principal component analysis indicated that a one-factor model fit the data well across both samples. In consideration of the weakness of some IAT items, a 17-item modified version of the IAT was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: This study assessed, for the first time, the factorial structure of a modified version of an Internet-administered IAT on a sample of Internet gamers and a sample of online poker players. The scale seems appropriate for the assessment of such online behaviors. Further studies on the modified 17-item IAT version are needed. [less ▲]

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