References of "Billieux, Joël 50025974"
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See detailInternet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Van Looy, Jan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences (2017), 71(7), 445-458

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various ... [more ▼]

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various studies aim to validate the proposed diagnostic criteria for IGD and multiple new scales have been introduced that cover the suggested criteria. Using a structured approach, we demonstrate that IGD might be better interpreted as a formative construct, as opposed to the current practice of conceptualizing it as a reflective construct. Incorrectly approaching a formative construct as a reflective one causes serious problems in scale development, including: (i) incorrect reliance on item-to-total scale correlation to exclude items and incorrectly relying on indices of inter-item reliability that do not fit the measurement model (e.g., Cronbach's alpha); (ii) incorrect interpretation of composite or mean scores that assume all items are equal in contributing value to a sum score; and (iii) biased estimation of model parameters in statistical models. We show that these issues are impacting current validation efforts through two recent examples. A reinterpretation of IGD as a formative construct has broad consequences for current validation efforts and provides opportunities to reanalyze existing data. We discuss three broad implications for current research: (i) composite latent constructs should be defined and used in models; (ii) item exclusion and selection should not rely on item-to-total scale correlations; and (iii) existing definitions of IGD should be enriched further. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes the construct of Internet addiction reflect a single entity or a spectrum of disorders?
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Clinical Neuropsychiatry (2017), 14(1), 5-10

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See detailSelf-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2017), 6(2), 168-177

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. [less ▲]

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See detailShoot at First Sight! First Person Shooter Players Display Reduced Reaction Time and Compromised Inhibitory Control in Comparison to Other Video Game Players
Deleuze, Jory; Christiaens, Maxime; Nuyens, Filip et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 72

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and socioprofessional spheres. Both positive and negative outcomes of video game use were linked to their structural characteristics (i.e., features that make the game appealing or are inducements for all gamers to keep playing regularly). The current study tested whether active video gamers from main genres (massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online first person shooter, multiplayer online battle arena) differed in a laboratory task that measured inhibitory control. Eighty-one gamers performed the Hybrid-Stop Task, assessing restraint (go/no-go trials) and cancellation (stop-signal trials) processes of a prepotent response. They completed additional self-reported questionnaires measuring demographics, problematic video game use, impulsivity traits, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that when confounding variables were controlled for, participants whose favorite game is online first person shooter were characterized by accelerated motor responses yet reduced abilities to cancel a prepotent response. No differences between groups were identified regarding the restraint process. The findings of this pilot study might have clear implications for video gaming research by supporting the critical importance of distinguishing between video game genres when considering their specific potential benefits and detrimental effects [less ▲]

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See detailEstablished risk factors for addiction failto discriminate between healthy gamers and gamers endorsing DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder
Deleuze, Jory; Nuyens, Filip; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2017), 6(4), 516-524

Background and aims: The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence supporting their validity remains scarce. The present study compared online gamers who do or do not endorse IGD criteria regarding self-control-related abilities (impulsivity, inhibitory control, and decision making), considered the hallmarks of addictive behaviors. Method: A double approach was adopted to distinguish pathological from recreational gamers in a sample of gamers: The first is the classic DSM-5 approach (≥5 criteria required to endorse the IGD diagnosis), and the second consists in using latent class analysis (LCA) for IGD criteria to distinguish gamers’ subgroups. We computed comparisons separately for each approach. Ninety-seven volunteer gamers from the community were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure demographic and game-related characteristics, problematic online gaming (with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire), impulsivity (with the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), and depression (with the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Experimental tasks were used to measure inhibitory control (Hybrid-Stop Task) and decision-making abilities (Game of Dice Task). Results: Thirty-two participants met IGD criteria (33% of the sample), whereas LCA identified two groups of gamers (pathological [35%] and recreational). Comparisons that used both approaches (DSM-5 and LCA) failed to identify significant differences regarding all constructs except for variables related to actual or problematic gaming behaviors. Discussion: The validity of IGD criteria is questioned, mostly with respect to their relevance in distinguishing high engagement from pathological involvement in video games. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates
Liu, Yueheng; Long, Jiang; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Chinese Journal of Psychiatry (2017), 50(4), 270-275

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link ... [more ▼]

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link between PSU and psychopathological symptoms (anxiety and depression). [Methods] A total of 1 205 undergraduates from 35 classes of 8 universities or colleges, stratified with different school levels, were selected using the cluster random sampling strategy. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ) was used to identify problematic use of smartphone use, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. [Results] The prevalence of PSU among undergraduates was estimated to be 20.6% (207/1 006). There were significant differences between PSU and non-PSU on their major of either science category or humanities category (χ2=11.424 ,P<0.01), grade (χ2=5.868 ,P<0.05), monthly living expense supported by their family (χ2=12.713 ,P<0.01), daily time spent on their smartphones (χ2=20.052, P<0.01), frequency of changing the mobile phones (χ2=14.511 ,P<0.01) and monthly smartphone bill (χ2=13.107, P< 0.01). Furthermore, the self rated anxiety (34.8% (72/207) vs. 14.6% (117/799),χ2=43.704, P<0.01) and depression (36.2%(75/207) vs. 15.4%(123/799), χ2=45.159,P<0.01) were both found more elevated in PSU than non-PSU. [Conclusion] Some common sociodemographic variables and smartphone usage patterns were identified in undergraduates displaying PSU. Moreover, PSU is associated with more elevated anxiety and depression symptoms. Problematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates (Article in Chinese). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318762637_Problematic_smartphone_use_and_its_relation_with_anxiety_and_depression_a_survey_in_a_large_sample_of_undergraduates_Article_in_Chinese [accessed Aug 2, 2017]. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity traits and gambling cognitions associated with gambling preferences and clinical status
Navas, J. F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Perandrés-Gómez, A. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 102-124

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling preferences and clinical status have never been dissociated. The current study applied a data-driven strategy to identify gambling preferences, based on gambling frequency in several modalities. The two resulting factors were used to classify gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and non-problem recreational gamblers (RGs) into Type I (preferring cards, casino games and skill-based bets) and Type II (preferring slot machines, lotteries/pools and bingo). Participants were assessed in impulsivity, delay discounting, reward/punishment sensitivity, gambling-related cognitions, gambling severity, gambling frequency and average amount gambled per episode. GDPs scored higher than RGs in positive and negative urgency, delay discounting, reward sensitivity and intensity of gambling-related cognitions, but less in lack of perseverance. Additionally, Type II gamblers had greater difficulties delaying gratification, whereas Type I gamblers showed higher cognitive distortion and reward sensitivity levels. In practical terms, the finding that some characteristics are equally pervasive in disordered gamblers independently of their preferences (affect-driven impulsivity), whereas others (distorted cognitions, reward sensitivity, delay discounting) are more prominent in one type or the other, provides a basis to establish targets’ priority in therapy. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation and validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F) in a sample of French-speaking gamblers
Devos, G.; Challet-Bouju, G.; Burnay, J. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 87-101

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for ... [more ▼]

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for these motives. The present study aimed to offer a French validation of the latest version of this scale, the GMQ-Financial (GMQ-F), which measures four distinct motives (enhancement, social, coping, financial). The French GMQ-F was completed by 278 gamblers from the community and 22 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, along with scales assessing gambling cognitions, impulsivity, disordered gambling symptoms and psychopathological symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected four-factor model. The GMQ-F subscales have good internal reliability. Validity of the GMQ-F is supported by specific correlations with the other constructs measured. Pathological gamblers differed from gamblers from the community on all but one (social) of the GMQ-F subscales. The French GMQ-F presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a reliable instrument for measuring gambling motives in research and clinical practice. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.
Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

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See detailDifferential impairments across attentional networks in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Moyaerts, Nathalie et al

in Psychopharmacology (2017), 234

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities (particularly memory and executive functions), and uncertainty thus still abounds regarding the integrity of less complex cognitive processes in binge drinking. This is particularly true for attentional abilities, which play a crucial role in behavior regulation and are impaired in other alcohol-related disorders. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To specify the attentional deficits associated with binge drinking, two groups of university students (40 binge drinkers and 40 matched controls) performed the Attention Network Task, a theoretically grounded test assessing three independent attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. RESULTS: Binge drinkers displayed preserved orienting performance but impaired alerting and executive control. Binge drinking is thus not related to a general attentional impairment but rather to specific impairments of the alerting and executive control networks. CONCLUSIONS: These results underline that, beyond the already explored high-level deficits, binge drinking is also related to impairments for attentional abilities. In view of the role played by attentional impairments in alcohol dependence, the present data also suggest that rehabilitation programs should be developed to improve attentional abilities at the early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Qualitative Understanding of Binge-Watching Behaviors: A Focus Group Approach
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2017), 6(4), 457-471

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. The present study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods: A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N=7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, related behaviors). Results: A content analysis identified bingewatching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an “addict.” Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusions: Research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailIs medicine use for nervousness associated with adolescent at-risk or problem gambling ?
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in European Addiction Research (2017), 23(4), 171-176

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents ... [more ▼]

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. Study design: Data from the 2013 to 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey was used for cross-sectional analyses (a sample of 20,791 15-year-old students). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of high-school students. Respondents’ ARPG, use of medicine for nervousness and potential confounding factors were assessed. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between medicine use to treat nervousness and ARPG. Results: The overall prevalence of adolescents reporting medicine use for nervousness in the last month was 6.3%. The odds of ARPG were 3 times higher among adolescents who used medicine for nervousness compared to that among adolescents who did not take such medicine (OR 2.96, 95% CI 2.07–4.25). Importantly, the association between medicine used to treat nervousness and ARPG did not vary significantly when viewed in light of psychological symptoms. Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic Gaming Behaviour in Finnish Adolescents and Young Adults: Relation to Game Genres, Gaming Motives and Self-Awareness of Problematic Use
Männikkö, N.; Billieux, Joël UL; Nordström, T. et al

in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (2017), 15

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and structural factors (game genres) among Finnish adolescents and young adults. A national survey of 271 respondents, aged 13 to 24, participated in the study. The study sample was randomly selected from the Population Register Center. Multiple regression analysis was used as a means of examining links between game genres, gaming motives and PGB. In addition, pairwise comparisons of a non-problematic gaming behavior group and a problematic gaming behavior group were used as a means of examining differences across game genre use and self-awareness of PGB. PGB was particularly associated with the use of a group of games encompassing role-playing, progression (e.g., character development), action and strategy features. The findings indicated that entertainment-achievement, social and escapism motives were associated with PGB. On the whole, this study emphasized that specific game genres and playing motives are involved in problematic use of digital game playing. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York [less ▲]

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See detailDo executive functions predict binge-drinking patterns? Evidence from a longitudinal study in young adulthood
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël UL; Gjerde, Line C. et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is ... [more ▼]

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (the Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs (working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)) were assessed. Eighteen months later, information on alcohol habits for 103 of the participants were gathered. Data were analyzed by means of multilevel regression modeling. Results: Future severity of binge drinking was uniquely predicted by performance on the Information sampling task, assessing risky decision-making (β = -1.86, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.04). None of the study variables predicted severity or change in binge drinking. Conclusion: Future severity of binge was associated with making risky decisions in the prospect for gain, suggesting reward hypersensitivity. Future studies should aim at clarifying whether there is a causal association between decision-making style and binge drinking. Performance on all executive tasks was unrelated to change in binge drinking patterns; however, the finding was limited by overall small changes, and needs to be confirmed with longer follow-up periods. [less ▲]

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See detailThe benefits of using the UPPS model of impulsivity rather than the Big Five when assessing the relationship between personality and problem gambling.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(2), 372-373

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See detailProblematic cybersex: Conceptualization, assessment, and treatment.
Wery, A.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive Behaviors (2017), 64

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To ... [more ▼]

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To date, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the conceptualization and labeling of this disorder, or of its diagnosis and assessment (e.g., screening questionnaires and diagnostic criteria). Through a systematic examination of the literature, we emphasize that problematic cybersex is an umbrella construct that regroups various types of distinct dysfunctional online behaviors. Despite a considerable increase in studies on problematic cybersex, no clear diagnostic guidelines exist for clinicians and researchers. Moreover, the factors involved in the development and maintenance of the disorder remain poorly examined, and the evidence regarding valid assessment and treatment are lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014).
Griffiths, Mark D.; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel et al

in Addiction (Abingdon, England) (2016), 111(1), 167-75

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See detailWhich facets of impulsivity predict binge drinking?
Bø, R.; Billieux, Joël UL; Landrø, N. I.

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2016), 3

Background: Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important ... [more ▼]

Background: Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important predictors of alcohol use and abuse. Nonetheless, previous research in binge drinking has been confounded by various definitions and cut-off scores, implying that existing studies contributed to limited comprehension on the specific role of different impulsivity facets. The current study thus disentangles the role of impulsivity facets in binge drinking by adopting a dimensional approach, considering the condition on a continuum, to avoid relying on debatable and non-definitive criteria. Methods: 162 students underwent assessment of alcohol consumption, including drinking patterns and impulsive traits, as captured in the UPPS-P framework (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation). Multiple regression analyses were utilized in order to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in binge drinking. Results: Binge drinking was associated with sensation seeking. However, when statistically controlling for gender, age and global alcohol consumption, this effect disappeared, and negative urgency remained the only impulsivity component that significantly predicted binge drinking. Conclusion: We found the severity of binge drinking to be associated with negative urgency, suggesting that the binge drinking pattern is displayed in reaction to negative emotional states, and can be conceptualized as a maladaptive and short-term emotional coping. The study calls for prevention and treatment interventions designed to improve self-control, and more adaptive emotion regulation strategies. © 2016 . [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in alcohol-dependence.
Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Journal of addictive diseases (2016), 35(4), 238-243

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that ... [more ▼]

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals. One hundred recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (29 females; mean age = 49.51-years-old) recruited during the 3rd week of their treatment in a detoxification center were compared to 100 healthy controls (29 females; mean age = 48.51-years-old) recruited in the experimenters' social network, matched at the group level for age, gender, and educational level. All participants completed the Mini Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale measuring abstract/analytic and concrete/experiential repetitive thinking modes as well as complementary psychopathological measures (Beck Depression Inventory and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory). Alcohol-dependent individuals have similar levels of concrete repetitive thinking as controls but report significantly higher levels of abstract repetitive thinking (p < 0.001; d = 1.28). This effect remains significant after controlling for depression and anxiety. Relative to healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients report more frequent use of abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, with preserved concrete/experiential thinking. Despite the cross-sectional nature of the study, the frequent use of abstract repetitive thinking thus appears to constitute a main feature of alcohol-dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of a documentary film about schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation.
Thonon, Benedicte; Pletinx, Amandine; Grandjean, Allison et al

in Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry (2016), 50

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to develop interventions aiming to prevent, reduce or eliminate such stereotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a documentary film on schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation. METHODS: Forty-nine participants were assessed on measures of stereotypes and social distance, and on the Model of Stereotype Content, which includes measures of stereotypes, emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies. Participants were randomly assigned into either a condition in which they viewed the documentary film (Film group), or into a control condition in which no intervention was conducted (Control group). RESULTS: Only participants in the Film group revealed a significant decrease of negative stereotypes (Dangerousness and Unpredictability) and desired Social distance, and a significant increase in the perception of sociability in persons with schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and its reduced generalizability are the main limitations in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a promising tool to prevent and reduce stigmatisation regarding schizophrenia.. [less ▲]

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