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See detailSanté, comportements de santé et violence parmi les immigrants. Rôle des facteurs socioéconomiques chez les adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens ... [more ▼]

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens et non-européens et le rôle des difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Contexte. Cette enquête transversale a été réalisée sur 1559 adolescents des collèges dans le nord-est de la France. Elle est basée sur un auto-questionnaire, rempli en classe sous la surveillance de l’équipe de recherche, concernant le sexe, l’âge, la nationalité, les caractéristiques socioéconomiques (structure familiale, faible éducation parentale (<bac), profession du père et revenu familial insuffisant), consommation durant les 30 derniers jours d’alcool, tabac, cannabis, drogues dures, faible performance scolaire (note moyenne du dernier trimestre < 10/20), mauvais état de santé et faibles relations sociales (échelle de qualité de vie de l’OMS, WHOOoL-Bref), symptômes dépressifs (mesure de Kandel, score>90ème percentile), violence physique/verbales subie, agression sexuelle subie, et implication dans la violence. Les données sont analysées par les modèles de régression logistiques. Résultats. Les problèmes sont fréquents : usage d’alcool (35,2%), tabac (11,2%), cannabis (5,6)%, drogues dures (2,8%), mauvais état de santé (25,8%), symptômes dépressifs (13,3%), être victime de violence physique/verbale (16,2%) ou d’abus sexuel (3,7%) et implication dans la violence (14,6%). Comparés aux français, les immigrés ont un risque accru pour : usage de tabac (odds ratio ajusté sur le sexe et l’âge 2,04), cannabis (2,33), drogues dures (4,18), mauvais état de santé (1,89), violence subie (1,84) et implication dans la violence (1,77). Les situations socioéconomiques expliquaient respectivement 25%, 9%, 13%, 30%, 12% et 39% de ces risques. L’ajout de relations sociales et de la performance scolaire expliquait respectivement 43%, 20%, 29%, 53%, 24% et 61% des risques. Ces problèmes et les contributions des cofacteurs diffèrent beaucoup entre les immigrés européens et non-européens. Conclusions. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. La prévention pour leur intégration sociale devrait traiter ces problèmes. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT 2014: International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Career Attitudes Effect on Happiness and Life Satisfaction by Master Students and Graduates
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Open Journal of Social Sciences (2014), 2

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and ... [more ▼]

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and graduates. In an effort to provide deeper empirical understanding, the relationships between positive career attitudes, health satisfaction, financial situation and happiness and life satisfaction among master students and graduates were analyzed. Method: A link of online questionnaire was sent by mail to all students which independently of their social economic status obtained a financial aid from the government of Luxembourg, and to all master graduates (ex-students) who havebeen finished with their courses for one year. The data was analyzed using bivariate tests, correlation and multiple linear regression models. Result: 455 voluntary postgraduate/master students vs. 144 graduates participated. Students were younger than the graduates (mean age 26 vs. 29 years). Majority was female and had Luxembourgish nationality. Most graduates had a job and lived with their parents. Luxembourg natives were happier, and those who were living with their parents showed higher life satisfaction. For both samples, self-rated health satisfaction was positively associated with happiness and life satisfaction. For the students, the higher career adaptability and career optimism are, the better the happiness and life satisfaction will be. The higher the perception of the household financial situation is, the better the happiness will be. For graduates, the higher career optimism contributed to the better happiness. Conclusion: Happiness and life satisfaction of master students and graduates were affected, related to socioeconomic and perceived health difficulties, and career attitudes. Those indicators could be used routinely to monitor the situation of young people over time and their needs in terms of adaptability and optimism capabilities, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of university and post university interventions aimed at improving happiness and life satisfaction among postgraduate students and ex-students. [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances :les effets d’une dérive…
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les ... [more ▼]

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les facteurs psychosociaux qui contribuent à l’émergence des souffrances, et participent à leur maintien ou leur développement, et de déterminer leurs besoins et les actions qui pourraient être entreprises pour y répondre. Notre problématique s’inscrit une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et la reconstruction des souffrances des clients des services sociaux et de santé. Comme aucune information n’existe sur l’accès aux soins en milieu rural, notre étude a tenté d’aborder les mécanismes de la souffrance décrits par les professionnels de proximité. Notre approche a été guidée par les questions suivantes: si la souffrance résulte d’une vision de l’individu sur sa propre existence, quelles valeurs entrent en jeu ? Si la souffrance est appréhendée comme la résultante d’une conduite particulière, dans quelle mesure est-elle aussi un produit social ? Quelles sont les interventions qui couvriraient les besoins de cette clientèle ? Quelles sont les actions qui les amèneraient à acquérir des capacités personnelles et des capabilités sociales pour s’opposer aux effets des souffrances ? Comment lorsque les souffrances interagissent de concert dans des contextes qui leur sont propices, mènent-elles les personnes aux dérives d’un état psychique qui se détériore ? La liste des professionnels de première ligne travaillant auprès de personnes âgées de 18 à 65 ans issues des communes rurales a été établie avec l’aide du comité de pilotage du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD). Un entretien semi-structuré d’une durée de plus d’une heure a été mené en face à face. A partir des retranscriptions des discours des professionnels, une analyse de contenu a été menée. Les professionnels de proximité ayant participé à l’enquête (sept médecins généralistes, trois psychiatres, neuf assistants sociaux, trois psychologues et sept travailleurs sociaux ; moyenne d’âge 42 ans, dont les femmes sont légèrement plus nombreuses) décrivent les effets d’une dérive en montrant comment les mécanismes en jeu produisent des processus d’amplification des problèmes neuropsychiatriques et d’accumulation des facteurs psychosociaux, et comment ces souffrances peuvent aboutir à des états de santé mentale critiques. Dans cette logique de gradation, les problèmes de santé mentale viennent s’agréger à un ensemble de comportements délétères. Cette gradation illustre un état que les clients atteignent lorsque les sphères intime et sociale se dégradent de concert. Elle représente cet état au cours duquel les personnes semblent avoir comme perdu face à leurs souffrances et ne parviennent plus à s’en relever. Car la di fficulté majeure rencontrée par leurs clients ne réside pas tant dans l’existence avérée d’une souffrance, mais dans l’incapacité à la surmonter. La souffrance dite « émotionnelle » désigne le caractère privé de l’existence et concerne les aspects tels que les comportements liés à l’addiction, aux troubles neuropsychiatriques et psychologiques, aux anxiétés existentielles profondes, et aux conséquences que ces problèmes engendrent sur le bien-être mental via les maladies mentales, font ici sens au regard d’une souffrance, à tout le moins personnelle. La détresse d’ordre psychique agit alors comme le révélateur de la souffrance vécue lorsque la sphère intime de leur existence se dégrade. Quant à a souffrance dite « sociale » est le résultat de l’angoisse perçue quant à la dégradation de leur qualité de vie. Elle se réfère aux conditions psychologiques de vie ainsi qu’aux conditions matérielles de l’e xistence telles que le travail, le logement, le revenu, autant de facteurs qui, lorsque leur pérennité devient incertaine, et affecte la satisfaction à l’égard de la vie des personnes et de son entourage. La mise en avant d’une interaction résultant du choc des sphères émotionnelle et sociale montre qu’un problème survient rarement seul. La question qui demeure, est celle de comprendre si la présence simultanée de divers problèmes découle d’un effet en cascade, du glissement d’un problème vers un autre ou de la présence de facteurs de risque communs à l’apparition de cette souffrance. Dans la mesure où les souffrances sont multiples et s’interpénètrent, les observations des professionnels ont tenté de mettre au jour l’attention particulière qu’il est nécessaire de porter au développement conjoint des diverses trajectoires problématiques, et de leurs comorbidités. Les pistes d’action vers lesquels aboutissent nos résultats s’inscrivent dans les objectifs [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of life and positive person-centred rehabilitation.
Baumann, Michèle UL

in Positive Psychology and Well-being (2014)

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality ... [more ▼]

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of life (newsqol) domains, socioeconomic factors and satisfaction with information and home-care services were analysed. This problem remains partially addressed though positive and optimal supports may improve post-stroke’ quality of life. Methods. Stroke-survivors admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg 18 months or more previously were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed. Ninety four patients aged 65 years and living at home were interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics and satisfaction with information and home-care services, and newsqol assessing 11 scores. Data were analyzed using multiple linear sex-age-adjusted regression models. Results. About 50% of patients had low education and lower income. Functional impairments were common: sensory (45%), motor (35%), memory (32%), language (31%), and vision (20%). Patients with education (<12th grade) or lower income had low values for most newsqol domains. In opposite, patients who were working had better values for pain, mental feelings and sleep domains than did retired people. The self-rate quality of life was markedly low, especially for the domains of interpersonal relationship, sleep, cognition, mental feelings, and pain. Patients who were dissatisfied with information and home-care received had rather low values for several newsqol domains. Dissatisfaction with accuracy of information received, information about stroke and its consequences/change over time; help received, lack of coordination between services, and possibility of receiving help when necessary were related with low values for most domains. Dissatisfaction with the possibility of receiving help was also associated with mobility and self-care. Dissatisfaction with information about consequences/change over time of stroke linked with the vision domain. Dissatisfaction with information received about help correlated with mental feelings, interpersonal relationships, emotion, and fatigue. Being confident about where to get information about stroke, looking after someone who has had a stroke if needed, or about financial help, and being confident about who to contact from community services if needed were slightly associated with communication, mental feelings and interpersonal relationships only. Conclusions. Post-stroke patients had major alterations in quality of life that reflected depressive symptoms, which should be appropriately treated. Our results further raise the question concerning the needs and satisfaction of stroke-survivors living at home in terms of information and care services as well as interactions with social and medical carers according to recovery stage and possible relapse over time. The changing nature of needs at different stages of recovery may not be paid sufficient attention. A telephone service could help. Use of IT technology has been proposed to promote positive person-centred rehabilitation. It has been shown, with Telestroke, that videoconference calls can help to reduce stress, provide reassurance about the secondary effects of treatment, improve compliance with prescriptions, and yield valuable information about services. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Career Attitudes : theoretical model and evaluation protocol
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. Our study explored the relationships between the psycho-educational ... [more ▼]

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. Our study explored the relationships between the psycho-educational and socio-demographic factors, and the perception of their dynamic career attitudes (DCA). DCA must be stimulated at the entry to university with appropriately collaborative supports, pedagogical workshops and interpersonal trainings. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological quality of life and employability skills among newly registered first-year students:
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Health (2013), 5(3), 617-626

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the ... [more ▼]

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the acquisition of academic employability skills (AES) among first-year students at the Univer- sity in Luxembourg. At the beginning (2 months in) and the end (9 months) of the academic year, 973 newly registered students participated in this study involving two cross-university sur- veys. Students who redoubled or who had stud- ied at other universities were excluded. Data were collected with an online questionnaire com- prising the psychological Whoqol-bref subscale, AES scale, and questions about other related factors. The AES score decreased from 74.2 to 65.6. At both time points, the psychological Whoqol-bref was positively correlated with en-vironmental and social relations QoL and per- ceived general health. Multiple regression mod-els including interaction terms showed that a higher psychological QoL was associated with better general health (difference satisfied-dis- satisfied 9.44), AES (slope 0.099), social rela- tionships QoL (0.321), and environmental QoL (0.298). No interaction with time effects was sig- nificant, which indicates that the effects remain stable with time. If the university could maintain the QoL indicators at appropriate levels or man- age decreases as they occur, it would have im- plications for health promotion and the crea- tion of new student support systems. The SQA- LES project provides valuable information for universities aiming to develop a European High- er Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents' Dropout regarding Academic Employability Skills and Satisfaction Against
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International psychological Applications and Trends (2013)

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year ... [more ▼]

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year olds with tertiary educational attainment should be at least 40% by 2020. The young Luxembourg University needs to understand why some students choose to leave without a diploma. Our aim was to analyse the relationships between self-perceiving of the academic employability skills (AES), self-related global quality of life (GQoL) and satisfaction towards against university services (SUS) among persisting and non-persisting students. Design: All freshmen (947) from the three Faculties of Luxembourg University (Sciences & Technology, Law & Finances and Social Sciences) were invited to participate to a cross-sectional survey that took place at beginning of the second semester. Methods: The persisting <br />students were requested to complete an online questionnaire and those who had dropped out during the first semester (non-registered for the second semester) were contacted to responding at the same questions including socio-demographics characteristics: age; sex; nationality (yes/no); work (yes/no); father’s and mother's occupational level and education. A discriminant analysis was undertaken using: the AES scale-6 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.81); the level of GQoL (1 item, values from 1 “very bad” to 5 “very good”) and the SUS scale-3 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.74). Findings: 99 persisting students and 68 dropouts have responding. There's no significant age difference between these 2 groups (mean 21.12 years old). Dropouts are more likely young men (55.9% vs. 39.4% persisting, p = 0.036) and have a job (58.2% vs. 3.6% persisting, p = 0.000). Their GQoL is higher (83.3/100 vs. 78.1/100 persisting, p = 0.032), but their AES are lower (55.2/100 vs. 67.3/100 persisting, p°= 0.000). Among them, AES and SUS are positively correlated (correlation 0.414; p = 0.000). Conclusions: Contrary to what described in literature, dropouts are not older than persisting students. They’ve a poorer perception of their employability skills, they're less satisfied with university services (like reputation of university, of faculty and teaching quality). However, they've a better quality of life and much of them have a gainful work. These findings are in line <br />with recent studies suggesting that perceptions of quality of higher education have an impact on students’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Further researches will determine nature of links between academic services, employability skills and dropout. [less ▲]

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See detailCanadiens en Europe. Elaboration d'un programme psychosocial d'appui à l'adaptation.
Blackburn, dave; Baumann, Michèle UL

Book published by L'harmattan - Académia (2013)

Les militaires des Forces canadiennes déployés au sein de l’OTAN sont affectés dans 12 pays de l’Europe, et vivent avec leur famille dans plus de 50 lieux différents. Sélectionnés, ils sont tous méritants ... [more ▼]

Les militaires des Forces canadiennes déployés au sein de l’OTAN sont affectés dans 12 pays de l’Europe, et vivent avec leur famille dans plus de 50 lieux différents. Sélectionnés, ils sont tous méritants et aptes. Or des rapatriements prématurés de l’Europe vers le Canada subsistent. Pourquoi leurs capacités à gérer les problèmes quotidiens sont-elles mises à mal ? Quels sont les déterminants culturels, environnementaux, sociaux et psychologiques qui perturbent leur adaptation? Un programme de préparation à la réussite peut-il y remédier? Que nous apprend son évaluation ? Le rapatriement prématuré a des conséquences sociales et économiques qui peuvent être ignorées. L’identification et la compréhension des facteurs impliqués présente donc un intérêt incontestable tant pour la qualité de vie et la santé des « décrocheurs » que pour celles des « nouveaux-arrivants ». A l’aide de plusieurs études de terrain, l’analyse des résultats tente de répondre à ces interrogations. Un programme innovant d’activités pédagogiques a été élaboré. Riche d’enseignements, son évaluation montre qu’il peut servir de modèle à bien d’autres situations sociales et éducatives. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-perceived academic employability skills and physical quality of life on first-year university students’ well-being
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL

in Pracana, L.; Silva, L. (Eds.) INPACT - International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2013)

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the ... [more ▼]

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the relationships between Academic Employability Skills (AES), psychological suffering (General Health Questionnaire) and psychological quality of life (psychological Whoqol-bref) and other physical, social and environmental Whoqol-bref domains and socio-demographic characteristics. Design. Nine months after the start of their first-year at University of Luxembourg, 973 students were invited to participate at a cross-sectional study. Methods. An online questionnaire was proposed in French, German, and English to assess : a) two instruments described the student’s well-being : 1) Whoqol-bref's psychological subscale-6 items (Cronbach's alpha 0.77) with higher the score, higher the psychological quality of live; 2) GHQ-12 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.75) with lower the score, lower the psychological suffering; and one explored the AES-5 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.76) (capacities of drafting, solution problem, team work, supervision / direction of others, and use new technologies). . Data were analysed using logistic models. Findings. 321 first-year students participated in the study Psychological Whoqol-bref’s and AES’s scores are positively correlated. This relation was verified for each item (drafting, critical spirit, solution to problem, team work, and supervision/direction of others) except use new technologies. Between the correlations of the two instruments only 3/6 items of psychological Whoqol-bref (ability to concentrate, satisfaction with self, negative feelings) are correlated with 8/12 items of GHQ-12 (sleep lost, making decisions, feeling under strain, no overcome difficulties, depressed, loosing self-confidence, considering his/her self as a worthless, reasonably happy). A positive effect between the psychological Whoqol-bref and the AES scores was observed, including with physical, social relationships and environmental domains. No connection exists between the AES and the GHQ-12 scores; on the other side the GHQ-12 score has a negative influence on physical Whoqol-bref status. Conclusions. If a wellbeing suffering contributes in less physical quality of life, the better wellbeing, the higher academic employability skills. Campus should care of students ‘wellbeing and implement counselling activities and adapted environmental to improve their sustainable skills for employability. If the university could maintain the well-being indicators at appropriate levels or manage decreases as they occur, it would have implications for health promotion by creation of new student support systems and services developing sustainable conditions for better European Higher Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailOpiate and cocaine related Fatal Overdoses in Luxembourg from 1985 to 2011: a time-stratified
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Health Issues and Populations in Health Promotion (2013)

To describe trends in the national prevalence of fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011. To analyse male/female differences in FOD victims according to various ... [more ▼]

To describe trends in the national prevalence of fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011. To analyse male/female differences in FOD victims according to various time periods. Methods. A triangulation approach was chosen to cross-examining data from national law enforcement sources, the national drug use surveillance system (RELIS) and of forensic and toxicological evidence. Data have been stratified according to 3 time periods covering each 9 successive years in order to increase the visibility of long term variations and trends. Statistical analysis of male/female differences according to socio-demographic and forensic data as well as drug use trajectories was performed. Results. National FOD prevalence has been decreasing from the beginning of this century to reach a historically low rate of 1.71 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2011. The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality showed to be higher for men compared with women. Furthermore, the pathways towards a FOD revealed to be different for male and female victims referred to various aspects including age of decedents, criminal records, drug use trajectories, drug use patterns and the involvement of psychotropic prescription drugs. Conclusions. The time window for intervention between the onset of drug use and its potential fatal outcome might be shorter for women compared with men. Further research should address dynamics between socio-economic status of victims and various cultural components to assess their possible impact on drug overdose induced mortality. Early intervention in female drug users and increased attention to poly and psychotropic prescription drugs use should be considered in health promotion programmes and relevant research outcomes routinely provided to first line general health care providers to accelerate access to appropriate treatment if required and eventually contribute to prevent premature death and reduce gender inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-perceived academic employability skills and physical quality of life on first-year university students’ wellbeing
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Pracana, lara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2013)

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the ... [more ▼]

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the relationships between Academic Employability Skills (AES), psychological suffering (General Health Questionnaire) and psychological quality of life(psychological Whoqol-bref) and other physical, social and environmental Whoqol-bref domains and socio-demographic characteristics. Design: Nine months after the start of their first-year at University of Luxembourg, 973 students were invited to participate at a cross-sectional study. Methods: An online questionnaire was proposed in French, German, and English to assess : a) two instruments described the student’s well-being : 1) Whoqol-bref's psychological subscale-6 items (Cronbach's alpha 0.77) with higher the score, higher the psychological quality of live; 2) GHQ-12 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.75) with lower the score, lower the psychological suffering; and one explored the AES-5 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.76) (capacities of drafting, solution problem, team work, supervision / direction of others, and use new technologies). Data were analysed using logistic models. Findings: 321 first-year students participated in the study Psychological Whoqol-bref’s and AES’s scores are positively correlated. This relation was verified for each item (drafting, critical spirit, solution to problem, team work, and supervision/direction of others) except use new technologies. Between the correlations of the two instruments only 3/6 items of psychological Whoqol-bref (ability to concentrate, satisfaction with self, negative feelings) are correlated with 8/12 items of GHQ-12 (sleep lost, making decisions, feeling under strain, no overcome difficulties, depressed, loosing self-confidence, considering his/her self as a worthless, reasonably happy). A positive effect between the psychological Whoqol-bref and the AES scores was observed, including with physical, social relationships and environmental domains. No connection exists between the AES and the GHQ-12 scores; on the other side the GHQ-12 score has a negative influence on physical Whoqol-bref status. Conclusions: If a wellbeing suffering contributes in less physical quality of life, the better wellbeing, the higher academic employability skills. Campus should care of students ‘wellbeing and implement counselling activities and adapted environmental to improve their sustainable skills for employability. If the university could maintain the well-being indicators at appropriate levels or manage decreases as they occur, it would have implications for health promotion by creation of new student support systems and <br />services developing sustainable conditions for better European Higher Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic inequities patterns of multi-morbidity in early adolescence.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2013), 12

Background: Multi-morbidity such as cumulating mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties (consumptions of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs, obesity, depressive symptoms, suicide ... [more ▼]

Background: Multi-morbidity such as cumulating mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties (consumptions of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs, obesity, depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, involvement in violence, and low school performance) is common in early adolescence and can be favored by a number of socioeconomic factors (gender, age, nationality, family structure, parents’ education, father’ occupation, and income). This study assessed the concurrent roles of various socioeconomic factors in multi-morbidity defined as cumulated number of difficulties (CD) which has been partially documented. Methods: Adolescents from middle schools in north-eastern France (N = 1,559) completed a questionnaire measuring socioeconomic characteristics and mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Alcohol use affected 35.2% of subjects, tobacco use 11.2%, cannabis use 5.6%, hard drugs use 2.8%, obesity 10.6%, depressive symptoms 13.3%, suicide attempts 9.9%, involvement in violence 10.3%, and low school performance 8.2%. Insufficient income and non-intact families impacted most mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties with adjusted odds ratios (ORa) between 1.51 and 3.72. Being immigrant impacted illicit drugs use and low school performance (ORa 2.31-4.14); low parents’ education depressive symptoms (1.42) and school performance (3.32); and manual-worker/inactive offspring low school performance (2.56-3.05). Multi-morbidity was very common: CD0 44.1%, CD1 30.8%, CD2-3 18.4%, and CD ≥ 4 6.7%. Insufficient income, divorced/separated parents, reconstructed families, and single parents played impressive roles with strong ORa gradients (reaching 4.86) from CD1 to CD ≥ 4. Being European immigrant, low parents’ education, and low fathers’ occupations had significant gender-age-adjusted odds ratios for CD2-3 and CD ≥ 4, but these became non-significant when adjusted for all socioeconomic factors. Older adolescents had higher risks for multi-morbidity which did not change when adjusting for all socioeconomic factors. Conclusions: Multi-morbidity including a wide range of mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties was common in early adolescence. Insufficient income and non-intact families played impressive roles. Being immigrant, low parents’ education, and low fathers’ occupations also played strong roles but these were explained by insufficient income and non-intact families. Prevention against multi-morbidity should be designed to help adolescents to solve their difficulties, especially among adolescents with socioeconomic difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo years post-stroke: the effects of dissatisfaction with services and quality of information on patients’ quality of life in Luxembourg
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Nearkasen

in Best Investissements for Health (2013)

Stroke is the second cause of death and helps from socio-medical services and information are crucial for promoting post-stroke patient’s quality of life. We analysed the impact of dissatisfaction with ... [more ▼]

Stroke is the second cause of death and helps from socio-medical services and information are crucial for promoting post-stroke patient’s quality of life. We analysed the impact of dissatisfaction with these services and information on post-stroke patient’s quality of life taking into account socioeconomic factors and functional impairments, which remains little documented. Methods: All 2-year post-stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. Clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. Ninety four patients living at home (mean age 65.5) were face-to-face interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, nationality, family structure, education, occupation, income and residence place) and to measure quality of life (using the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life measure, noted Newsqol (assessing mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, vision, communication, feelings, relationships, emotion, sleep and fatigue) and dissatisfaction with various services and information. Data were analysed using multiple regression models. Results: Most functional impairments impacted multiple Newsqol dimensions. Language impairment related to most Newsqol dimensions (mobility, self-care, cognition, vision, communication, feelings, relationships, sleep and fatigue); memory impairment to pain, cognition, feeling, emotion, and sleep; motor impairment to mobility, self-care, pain, feeling and fatigue; visual impairment to relationships in addition to vision; sensory impairment to pain, communication, emotion and sleep. Controlling for all socioeconomic factors and functional impairments evidenced that dissatisfactions with helps and information about helps from community services were strongly associated with all Newsqol dimensions including mainly self-care, communication, mental feeling, relationships, emotion and sleep. Lack of information about stroke was associated with relationships and sleep. Conclusion: Improving help services and information about helps and cerebrovascular disease in chronic phase should highly impact patients’ quality of life. It is important to promote patient-centred care focusing on information need, financial need, and medical, technical and personal aids. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicide attempts prior to fatal drug overdose in Luxembourg from 1994 to 2011
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Moussaoui, Driss; Figueira, Maria Luisa (Eds.) The bio-psycho-social model: The future of psychiatry. (2013)

Educational Objectives: This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicidal behavior that should be assessed or monitored in the context of substance use. Purpose: To assess the ... [more ▼]

Educational Objectives: This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicidal behavior that should be assessed or monitored in the context of substance use. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts in opiate and cocaine related (FOD) cases. To analyze associations between suicide attempts and socio-demographic, life and substance use profiles of FOD victims . Methods: A triangulation approach allowed to cross-examining data from national law enforcement sources, the national drug use surveillance system (RELIS) and of forensic and toxicological evidence. Bivariate statistical analysis was performed by means of Chi-square χ² tests as well as logistic regression analysis of the association between suicide attempts and selected variables. Results: Prior to death, 16.8% of FOD victims reported a single suicide attempt, 37% multiple attempts and 46.2% declared none. No associations were found between suicide attempts and the following variables: sex, age, nationality, penal past (including prison stays), educational, occupational status and income of victims, occupational status of parents and detection of psychotropic prescription drugs in post mortem toxicological analysis. After adjustment for sex and age, FOD victims who showed one or more lifetime suicide attempts were more likely to have experienced non-fatal overdoses [AOR = 5.755 (95% CI 1.633 – 20.278), and (licit or illicit) substance abuse of one or both parents [AOR = 2.859 (95% CI 1.250 – 6.539), p=0.013]. The greater likelihood of unmarried FOD victims to witness suicide attempts (χ²:4.573; p=0.032), compared with married decedents, was no longer observed after sex-age adjustment. Conclusion: Suicide attempts are frequent in fatal drug overdose victims and a strong association has been observed between the former and the frequency of non-fatal overdoses experienced by decedents included in our sample. Family contexts may be at stake when it comes to explain the likelihood of suicide attempts in victims of fatal drug overdose. The fact that substance abuse in parents was positively linked to suicide attempts in FOD victims suggest that increased attention should be paid to family histories in the prevention of drug overdoses and suicide, and the link between both. Our findings could inspire further research, building upon bigger study samples and prospective cohort designs, allowing to collecting more in-depth data on the social and family support experienced by FOD victims. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of unhealthy Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms with School Difficulties and Role of Socioeconomics Factors in Early Adolescence
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2013)

Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive ... [more ▼]

Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive functions. These factors can thus favor persistent school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors are known to favor unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms as well as school difficulties. This study assessed the associations of unhealthy and depressive symptoms with learning difficulty, low school performance, and school dropout ideation, and the confounding roles of socioeconomic factors in early adolescence. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, socioeconomic factors (father’s socioeconomic category, family structure, parents’ education, parent death, nationality, family income, and social supports), last-30-day alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale, score>90th percentile), learning difficulty, low school performance (last-trimester mark <10/20), and school dropout ideation at 16 years (school is compulsory until this age). Learning difficulty was measured using an 8-item scale including lesson comprehension, concentration/lesson learning, keeping up the pace/constraint, relaxing/rest, class atmosphere, home learning atmosphere, teacher pressure, and parent pressure; Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.81, score>90th percentile). The school difficulties were chosen to measure various difficulty levels. Data were analyzed using logistic models to compute gender-age-grade-adjusted odds ratios (OR1) and the contributions of socioeconomic factors. Findings: Learning difficulty, low school performance, and school dropout ideation affected respectively 14.1%, 8.2%, and 3.8% of students. These school difficulties were linked with alcohol use: OR1 1.72 (95%CI 1.26-2.33), 1.51 (1.03-2.21), and 3.43 (1.96-6.01), respectively. Higher OR1 were found for tobacco use: 3.82 (2.64-5.52), 5.81 (3.83-8.82), and 6.31 (3.53-11.28), respectively; cannabis use: OR1 3.61 (2.23-5.86), 4.12 (2.41-7.04), and 6.89 (3.45-13.76), respectively; hard drugs uses: OR1 6.37 (3.41-11.89), 5.05 (2.53-10.08), and 10.85 (4.99-23.55), respectively; and depressive symptoms: OR1 7.21 (5.06-10.27), 1.84 (1.16-2.93), 3.14 (1.64-6.03), respectively. The socioeconomic factors considered explained respectively <4%, 15-37%, 10%-31%, 20%-43%, and 20%-68% of the associations of school difficulties with alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors highly confounded their associations. Public policy to improve school achievement, and thus community participation in adulthood, should focus on unhealthy behaviors and mental disorders, especially among students with socioeconomic difficulties. Causal relationships could not be advanced (study cross-sectional nature). [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of socioeconomic, Family, School, Behavioral and Mental Difficulties on Suicide attempts in Youth
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in The bio-psycho-social model: the futur of psychiatry (2013)

This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicide attempt which have to be assessed/monitored in boys and girls. Purpose: To assess the impacts of socioeconomic factors, alcohol ... [more ▼]

This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicide attempt which have to be assessed/monitored in boys and girls. Purpose: To assess the impacts of socioeconomic factors, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, and involvement in violence on suicide attempt among boys and girls in early adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school students from north-eastern France (778 boys and 781 girls, mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, father’s occupation, parents’ education, nationality, income, social supports (9-item scale), and lifetime history reconstruction of parents’ separation/divorce/death, alcohol/tobacco/ cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence (20-item scale), sexual abuse, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), involvement in violence (11-item scale), and suicide attempts. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. Results: Lifetime suicide attempt affected 7.2% of boys and 12.5% of girls (p<0.001). Among boys, the factors with significant crude hazard ratio cHR were: insufficient income (2.29), alcohol use (2.33), tobacco use (3.76), hard drugs use (4.48), depressive symptoms (3.60), sustained physical/verbal violence (2.72), sexual abuse (4.30), involvement in violence (3.16), and lack of social support (2.64 for score 1-2, 3.08 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Full model including all factors retained only insufficient income (adjusted hazard ratio aHR 2.11), alcohol use (1.99), depressive symptoms (3.29), and involvement in violence (2.64). Among girls, the factors with significant cHR were: parents’ separation/divorce (2.44), insufficient income (2.23), low parents’ education (1.86), repeating a school-year (2.56), alcohol use (2.04), tobacco use (5.19), cannabis use (3.72), hard drugs use (11.65), depressive symptoms (3.51), sustained physical/verbal violence (1.71), sexual abuse (8.09), involvement in violence (2.04), and lack of social support (3.46 for score 1-2, 6.92 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Full model retained only parents’ separation/divorce (aHR 1.56), repeating a school-year (1.98), alcohol use (1.58), tobacco use (3.60), depressive symptoms (1.86), sexual abuse (6.60), and lack of social support (2.62 for score 1-2 and 4.38 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Compared with boys, girls had a significant cHR of 1.74 which decreased to 1.57 when controlling for all covariates (contribution 23%). Conclusion: This study has achieved our objectives to identify a wide range of socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties generating suicide attempt among boys and girls in early adolescence. Our findings are original. They reported their causal relationships, the knowledge of which may help public policy preventing suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of socioeconomic, family, school, behavioural and mental difficulties on involvement in violence in boys and girls
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications and Trends (2013)

Involvement in violence is common and may result from a number of deleterious socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties, and sustained violence in early adolescence. The roles of ... [more ▼]

Involvement in violence is common and may result from a number of deleterious socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties, and sustained violence in early adolescence. The roles of these factors remain partially addressed because few of them have been investigated with often unknown chronologies. Preventing these issues is crucial to promote health and school achievement. This study assessed their impacts on involvement in violence among boys and girls. Design: Cross-sectional study with lifetime history reconstruction of life events. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (778 boys and 781 girls, mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, father’s occupation, parents’ education, nationality, income, social supports, and lifetime history reconstruction of parents’ separation/divorce/death, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), suicide attempts, and involvement in violence. Involvement in violence was measured with an 11-item scale on fights in group or not, verbal violence, racial actions, taking something of others/shop, set fire, using weapon,damaging public/private property, in school, in school neighborhood, at home, and elsewhere (Cronbach's alpha 0.82, score>90th percentile). Social support was measured using a 9-item scale concerning relationships with people round about (Cronbach's alpha 0.56, score>90th percentile). Data were analyzed using Cox models including all factors to compute adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Findings: Involvement in violence affected 10.3% of adolescents (14.3% in boys, 6.4% in girls, p<0.001). Among boys, involvement in violence was influenced by being inactive (unemployed/retired) offspring (aHR 2.63, 95%CI 1.48-4.69), alcohol use (1.76, 1.11-2.79), tobacco use (2.71, 1.56-4.69), hard drugs use (3.46, 1.73-6.91), suicide attempt (2.05, 1.05-3.97), sustained physical/verbal violence (1.63, 1.02-2.62), and poor social support (2.64, 1.67-4.16 for score 1-2 and 2.80, 1.64-4.78 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Among girls, involvement in violence was influenced by being inactive offspring (2.39, 95%CI 1.09-5.27), tobacco use (3.57, 1.46-8.72), cannabis use (4.45, 1.36-14.55), depressive symptoms (8.88, 3.01-26.20), and poor social support (9.38, 2.80-31.43 for score 1-2 and 14.23, 4.11-49.23 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Boys had a much higher risk than girls (crude hazard ratio 3.57, 95%CI 2.56-5.00) which did not change when adjusting for all factors studied. Conclusions: Living difficulties highly and similarly enough impacted on involvement in violence among boys and girls in early adolescence. Our findings call for measures preventing and monitoring these difficulties in this crucial life period. [less ▲]

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See detailLifestyle as a Health Risk for Family Caregivers with Least Life Satisfaction, in Home-Based Post-Stroke Caring
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara UL

in Healthcare Policy (2013), 9

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to ... [more ▼]

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to determine the social and emotional repercussions of the event on family caregivers. Family caregivers living at home with stroke survivors were identified by a national survey. The Life Satisfaction (LS) national indicator for Luxembourg is 7.9/10, while in Canada it stands at 7.7. Caregivers with a LS level ≤ 7 were more likely to care for survivors affected by motor, sensory and memory neurological impairments. For a great majority, these impairments led to serious upheaval among families, and for spouses it was “a drama.” For family caregivers with a least life satisfaction, their lifestyle poses a real health risk. [less ▲]

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