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See detailNew domains of health capability of family caregivers: An exploratory study using the grounded theory.
Bucki, Barbara; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pascara, Clara (Ed.) Clinical Psychology (2015)

Increased life expectancy, a declining economic growth, and the management of chronic diseases call for inter-generational solidarity but undermine the physical and psychological health of family ... [more ▼]

Increased life expectancy, a declining economic growth, and the management of chronic diseases call for inter-generational solidarity but undermine the physical and psychological health of family caregivers. Their health capability has already been studied through eight domains: physical and psychological functioning, lifestyle value, self-efficacy towards health services, family support, social capital, socioeconomic conditions and access to health services. Our aim was to identify new domains. Methods: A grounded theory method was applied. Family caregivers of stroke victims living at home were recruited in the Lorraine region (France; n=8) and Luxembourg (n=6). Semi-structured interviews were led face-to-face about their health status, how they currently take care of their health, and what internal resources they need to achieve optimal health. Verbatim were open-coded and grouped to form new domains of health capability. Items reflecting the main idea of the categories were formulated. Throughout the analyses, a control process was applied. Items were validated by consensus with an expert group. Results: Seven women and seven men (age 63.6±10.1) participated. Seven new domains emerged: health knowledge, health self-efficacy, health value, life skills, health decision-making, motivation, and attitude towards the future. 76 items were generated: 51 reflected generic abilities while 26 were specific to family caregiving. Discussion: Content analysis of these domains is highly instructive. First, it allows guiding the preparation of innovative supports to promote health capability, and second, this list can serve as a basis to elaborate a guide to which clinicians can refer to orient family caregivers according to their needs. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction, five-years after a coronary angiography, between physical exercise and socio-economic inequalities.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Lorentz, Nathalie et al

in Pracana, Clara (Ed.) Health Psychology (2015)

Five-years after undergoing a coronary angiography, socioeconomic status and health related behaviours are known to affect life satisfaction (LS), but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim ... [more ▼]

Five-years after undergoing a coronary angiography, socioeconomic status and health related behaviours are known to affect life satisfaction (LS), but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim was to analyze patients’ LS and its relationships with cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and preventive behaviours developed in the last 5 years and socioeconomic conditions. Methods: Based on records from the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention in Luxembourg, 3632 survivors who underwent coronary angiography between 2008 and 2009 were contacted in 2013 by letter to complete a self-questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other cofounder factors. Data were analysed via multiple regression models. Results. Life satisfaction of 1289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Majority were men, Luxembourgish, secondary education level, employees and manual workers, and those with an income of 36000 euros or more per year. Being a woman, not living in couple and having a low middle income were negatively associated with the LS level. Patients who suffered in the last 5 years from angina pectoris, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, or who stopped smoking because of the disease were more likely to have lower LS, in contrast to those who participate in regular physical activity or exercise. Conclusions: Patients’ LS indicator was lower than the national life satisfaction in Luxembourg (7.8/10) which was higher than that from the European (7.0 for EU-27). Coaching patients with interventions that foster healthy attitudes can help sustain rehabilitation and enhance life satisfaction, adding beyond a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailUndergraduate students’ life satisfaction, between employability and career capabilities
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara (Ed.) Social Psychology (2015)

Assessment of life satisfaction (LS) is an important issue in the overall preparation of undergraduates towards an employment outcome. The aim of our study is to analyze the associations between LS and ... [more ▼]

Assessment of life satisfaction (LS) is an important issue in the overall preparation of undergraduates towards an employment outcome. The aim of our study is to analyze the associations between LS and socio-demographic factors, career attitudes, employability soft skills, academic work satisfaction and quality of life autonomy. Methods: Undergraduate students were invited to complete a paper pencil questionnaire exploring: Life satisfaction (LS), Dynamic Career Attitudes (DCA), Employability Soft-Skills (ESS-Short), academic Work Satisfaction (WS), Quality Life of Autonomy (QoLA) and socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, educational field, year of study, work experience (less vs. more than 6 months and actual employment). Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression models. Results: 124 volunteers (22.6 years) had LS of 75.4/100. Majority were women, in the first year of Bachelor, and in applied management. Most of them had six months or less of job experiences and were unemployed. Higher the DCA, ESS-Short, QoLA and WS better was the students LS. Conclusions: LS is an indicator related with employability and career capabilities. Supporting students through wellness and career activities program in autonomy-supportive environment, to cope with their stressful period and to enhance their generic employment and career capabilities may allow to the undergraduates to maintain their LS. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction, cardiovascular risk factors, unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic inequality, 5 years after coronary angiography.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Tchicaya, Anastase; Vanderpool, kyle et al

in BMC Public Health (2015), (15), 668-678

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but ... [more ▼]

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim is to analyze LS and its relationships with those factors. Methods. Among the 4,391 patients initially contacted, 547 deaths were reported and 209 had an invalid address. In 2013-2014, 3,635 patients who underwent coronary angiography in 2008-2009 at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention in Luxembourg were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other variables. Data were analysed via multiple regression models adjusted initially on age, sex and income, and for a second time with the addition of all CVRF. Results. LS of 1,289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Most were men, Luxembourgish, employees and manual workers, had secondary education and an income of 36,000 euros or more per year. LS was lowest in female patients, and those with a low to middle income. Patients who lived in a couple had the best LS. Patients with a history in the previous 5 years of physical inactivity (regression coefficient: -0.903), angina pectoris (rc -0.843), obesity (rc -0.512), diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to have lower LS. The previous associations were mostly maintained on the second analysis, with the exceptions of diabetes and obesity. In addition, patients who stopped smoking because of peer pressure (rc -0.011) had a lower LS. Conclusions. The finding that LS was lowest among female patients calls for further research on symptoms, and potential risk factors. Also, certain patient profiles are linked with low LS: ‘inclined abstainers’ who intended to modify their behaviours, but could not do so, and ‘disinclined abstainers’ who had no intention of changing and were insufficiently concerned to do so. Patients who stopped smoking and perceived it as unpleasant also had low LS. ‘Disinclined actors’ were those patients who had to adjust their lifestyles, but were ambivalent about their intentions and the behaviour, which they continued. Health promotion programs would benefit from targeting factors that moderate the unfavourable intention-behaviour relationship and can help enhance LS. [less ▲]

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See detailPatients with cardiovascular risk factors were more likely to have lower life satisfaction.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Tchicaya, Anastase

in Circulation (2015), 132

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions but ... [more ▼]

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim is to analyze LS and its relationships with those factors. Methods. Among the 4,391 patients initially contacted, 547 deaths were reported and 209 had an invalid address. 3,635 patients who underwent coronary angiography in 2008-2009 at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention (INCCI) in Luxembourg completed a self-questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other covariates. Data were analysed via multiple regression models adjusted initially on age, sex and income, and for a second time with the addition of all CVRF. Results. LS of 1,289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Most were men, Luxembourgish, employees and manual workers, had secondary education and an income of 36,000 euros or more per year. LS was lowest in female patients, those with a low to middle income. Patients who live in couple had the best LS. Patients with a history in the previous 5 years of physical inactivity (regression coefficient: – 0.903), angina pectoris (rc -0.843), obesity (rc -0.512), diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to have lower LS. The previous associations were mostly maintained on the second analysis, with the exceptions of diabetes and obesity. In addition, patients who stopped smoking because of peer pressure (rc -0.011) had a lower LS. Conclusions. Profiles of patients are linked with least LS: ‘inclined abstainers’ who intended to modify their behaviours, but could not do it, and ‘disinclined abstainers’ who had no intention of changing and were insufficiently concerned to do so. Patients who stopped smoking and perceived it as unpleasant also had the lowest LS. ‘Declined actors’ were those patients who had to adjust their lifestyles, but were ambivalent about their intentions and the behaviour, which they continued. Health promotion programs would benefit from targeting factors that moderate the unfavourable intention-behaviour relationship and can help enhance LS. [less ▲]

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See detailWorries and career employment attitudes: the role of social inequalities of master’s degree students.
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Promotion of Mental Health (2015)

University students' mental health is affected by worries about the employment of their future. Our purpose is to analyze the relationships between traits of worry and career attitudes, happiness and ... [more ▼]

University students' mental health is affected by worries about the employment of their future. Our purpose is to analyze the relationships between traits of worry and career attitudes, happiness and autonomy in their quality of life among postgraduates. Method: Independent of their socioeconomic status, all students obtained financial aid from the government of Luxembourg. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to their home address. The instrument assessed: Penn-State-Worry scale, Career dimensions (adaptability, optimism, knowledge and planning), Happiness and Quality of Life Autonomy scores, and sociodemographic characteristics. Bivariate-tests, correlations and multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. Results: A majority of the 481 volunteers (26.4 years; SD=5.5) were women and unemployed. Sociodemographical factors such as European or non-EU nationality (vs. Luxembourgish), possession of an internship employment contract (vs. fixed-term and permanent contract) and being a part of social and humanity sciences domain were related with high worries. Lower adaptability (β= -2.271; p< 0.001) and optimism career attitudes (β= -2.162; p= 0.002), low happiness (β= -1.518; p= 0.039) and autonomy in their quality of life (β= -0.669; p= 0.004), respectively, were affected by higher worry score. Conclusion: Worry indicator could be observed routinely to monitor students’ career adaptability and optimism. University career employment workshops may help to increase the individual capabilities to improve and/or to maintain their well-being. Nationality, employment contract status and chosen academic field had generated mental health inequalities that must be considered in consultations, counseling and implementation of prevention and promotion programs. [less ▲]

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See detailA social gradient in fatal opioids and cocaine related overdoses?
Origer, Alain; Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in PLoS ONE (2015), 4(10(5)),

To determine the existence of a social gradient in fatal overdose cases related to non-prescribed opioids and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. METHODS: Overdose cases were ... [more ▼]

To determine the existence of a social gradient in fatal overdose cases related to non-prescribed opioids and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. METHODS: Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls in a nested case-control study design, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. The study sample, composed of 272 cases and 1,056 controls, was stratified according to a Social Inequality Accumulation Score (SIAS), based on educational attainment, employment, income, financial situation of subjects and the professional status of their father or legal guardian. Least squares linear regression analysis on overdose mortality rates and ridit scores were applied to determine the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) of the study sample. RESULTS: A negative linear relationship between the overdose mortality rate and the relative socioeconomic position was observed. We found a difference in mortality of 29.22 overdose deaths per 100 drug users in the lowest socioeconomic group compared to the most advantaged group. In terms of the Relative Inequality Index, the overdose mortality rate of opioid and cocaine users with lowest socioeconomic profiles was 9.88 times as high as that of their peers from the highest socioeconomic group (95% CI 6.49-13.26). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the existence of a marked social gradient in opioids and cocaine related overdose fatalities. Harm reduction services should integrate socially supportive offers, not only because of their general aim of social (re)integration but crucially in order to meet their most important objective, that is to reduce drug-related mortality [less ▲]

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See detailNeeds the Integration Contract Services of Luxembourg Should Cover, for the Successful Integration of Non-EU Citizens
Odero, Angela UL; Karathanasi, Chrysoula UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Migration and Integration (2015)

Integration of the foreign communities has been a forefront issue in Luxembourg for some time now. With a population of approximately 563,000, Luxembourg is a kaleidoscopic of cultures, comprising over ... [more ▼]

Integration of the foreign communities has been a forefront issue in Luxembourg for some time now. With a population of approximately 563,000, Luxembourg is a kaleidoscopic of cultures, comprising over 170 nationalities. The country’s continued progress depends largely on the successful assimilation of immigrants. To better understand what constitutes the best integration, the European Investment Fund for Non-EU nationals, together with the Welcome and Integration office of Luxembourg, funded this project. The aim of our study was to explore the definition of the integration according to Non-EU citizens residing in Luxembourg, and to evaluate the services of the integration contract of Luxembourg (CAI) which should cover their needs. Eleven focus group discussions with 50 volunteers (32 women, 18 men) recruited from among 233 Non-EU beneficiaries of the CAI were held. Semi-structured discussions (4 to 8 people) were facilitated in English, French, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian or Chinese and lasted between 1.5 to 2.5 hours. Encouraged, they delved into detailed explanations of the difficulties and challenges they face, their expectations upon arrival; considering the multicultural nature of Luxembourg, the differences between these expectations and the reality, their needs, both met and unmet, and their perceptions. To grasp the requirements covered or not covered by the CAI, and the problems faced by Non-EU citizens, eight questions exploring the contract were posed. To direct these discussions were four main guidelines: (1) The quality of services and activities proposed, (2) the organization (3) the availability of the personnel and (4) the utility of the information received. Transcriptions were analysed with the help of NVivo 10. A systematic and reiterative analysis of decomposing and reconstituting the data was conducted following three main steps. (1). Identification in the transcriptions were read in order to identify potential answers to the aims of the research and main categories (difficulties, challenges and integration needs). These informed subsequent analyses (2). Similar verbatim regrouped in category and an item was formular. (3). Categories were regrouped together in dimension. Three dimensions were identified professional career, linguistic acquisitionand socio-cultural activities or events which are two core elements essential to the success of the immigrant’s integration – recognition of the role of time in the process, and deliberate effort on the part of the immigrants, the society around and the formal institutions charged with the responsibility of helping with integration. Further, there was a majority consensus on good quality of services in at least one of the components of CAI, and on the availability of the personnel. The organisation and content utility was suitable for some, but maladapted to the needs of others, since they did not address their current concerns. The one fits all structure of the CAI, would need revision through considering smaller groups with specific needs separately. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological Inequalities and Social Inequalities in health
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, September)

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall ... [more ▼]

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall redesign of social policies is at stake. Against this background piecemeal measures are indeed not sufficient to cope with new challenges and paradigm shifts will be needed to deal with environmental problems and their consequences for affected populations. How can we take care of the people who are victims of these environmental risks? Who should finance this? Based on which principles (insurance-based or universal) and by which means? What kind of coverage could be provided by the social protection system (sickness insurance in particular) in different countries with equivalent institutions? How can we at the same time tackle the issue of ‘ecological inequalities’ taking into consideration that in complex environments presenting an accumulation of disadvantages (poor working and living conditions, smoking, alcoholism) it is not easy to isolate the effects of environmental damage as other variables have to be held constant. And how the responsibilities should be shared between stakeholders, social partners and the state when, for instance, people living close to the borders of different countries are affected by the same environmental-related problems? My presentation will therefore be organized as follows: first I will provide a brief overview of challenges (for instance assessing existing and potential damage to the health of affected populations) posed for social protection systems as far as environmental issues are concerned, then I will comment on some of the main key drivers of change I could identify in social policies related to the impact related to environmental problems and possible social policy responses will be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailBesoins des professionnels sociaux et de santé de proximité face aux problèmes de santé mentale des communes rurales du Nord
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, August)

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue ... [more ▼]

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue est liée en partie aux difficultés méthodologiques inhérentes aux recueils de ces données et à la complexité des classifications. Par ailleurs, aucune information sur les besoins locaux des professionnels de première ligne n’existe. Avec l’appui du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), une équipe de l’unité de recherche INSIDE a mis en oeuvre d’un projet innovant, intitulé « diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». Ce diagnostic a eu pour objectifs d’identifier les problèmes de souffrance psychique et sociale des clients des communes rurales, décrits par les professionnels sociaux et de santé de première ligne et de déterminer leurs besoins pour maintenir/améliorer la qualité de leur travail au quotidien et l’efficacité des prises en charge. Cette approche s’inscrit dans une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et l’amplification des souffrances mentales (angoisses permanentes, dépressions, etc.) ainsi que l’accumulation de facteurs psychosociaux (exigences du monde du travail, ruptures familiales, etc.) qui contribuent à leur émergence. Vingt-huit professionnels (médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues) travaillant auprès d’adultes de 18 à 65 ans ont été interrogés. L’analyse des transcriptions de leurs discours met en évidence la nécessiter d’insister sur :1) la mise en place de démarches globales, et sur le fait d’associer les aidants aux échanges sur la connaissance de la maladie et de ses symptômes (lieux de parole, etc.) ; 2) la nécessité de faciliter et d’encourager la consultation médicale ou psychologique ; 3) l’engagement et le développement d’une responsabilisation clients-aidants. Les professionnels proposent également que l’on augmente : 1) les possibilités de rencontres entre les médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues (synthèses, analyses de cas, etc.) qui permettraient à la communication d’être plus efficiente ; 2) la mutualisation des informations entre les professionnels de proximité en créant une plate-forme d’échanges interactifs qui faciliteraient le suivi des parcours ; 3) les formations interdisciplinaires pour actualiser les connaissances (dépression, suicides, etc.), renforcer le respect réciproque clients-aidants-professionnels et la déstigmatisation. ____________________________________ Mental Health & Recovery Luxembourg 23 & 24 Octobre 2014 2 Needs of local social and health professionals addressing the mental health problems of rural communities in the North. The existing mental health indicators remain partially developed in Europe, and Luxembourg’s system of health surveillance does not seem to have escaped. This lack of reliable information is well known partly due to the methodological difficulties inherent to the collections of data and complexity of the classifications. Moreover, any information on the needs of local frontline professionals exists. With the support of RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), a research unit INSIDE team has implemented an innovative project " diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». The aim of this diagnostic was to identify problems of psychic and social suffering of clients in rural towns, described by the social and health frontline professionals, and to define their needs to maintain / improve the quality of their daily work and effectiveness of their care. This approach is part of an understanding of the processes occurring in the construction and amplification of mental suffering (permanent anxiety, depression, etc.) and the accumulation of psychosocial factors (demands of the workforce, family separation, etc.) that contribute to their emergence. Twenty-eight professionals (doctors, social workers, psychologists) working with adults 18 to 65 years were interviewed. The analysis of transcripts highlighted the need to focus on: 1) the development of comprehensive approaches, associating caregivers to exchange knowledge of the disease and its symptoms (place of dialogue, etc.); 2) the need to facilitate and encourage medical or psychological counseling; 3) commitment and a growing accountability of clients -caregivers. The professionals also propose to increase: 1) the possibilities of meetings between the doctors, social workers and psychologists (syntheses, case studies, etc.) allowing communication to be more efficient; 2) the sharing of information between local professionals by creating a platform for interactive exchanges which would facilitate the follow-up of the trajectory ; 3) interdisciplinary training to update knowledge (on depression, suicide, etc.), enhancing mutual client-family caregivers-professional respect and destigmatization. ____________________________________ [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, May)

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la ... [more ▼]

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la recherche du bonheur. Qu’il s’agisse de la fatigue professionnelle ou la fatigue d’être soi, la problématique des souffrances est au cœur des discours et des rapports sociaux. De même, elle est au centre des interventions qui tentent d’y faire face de façon individuelle ou communautaire dans les soins de santé, les soutiens psychologiques, les actions sociales, etc. Le but de cette session qui s’appuyera sur des travaux de recherches empririques, n’est pas de se demander « y a-t-il plus ou moins de souffrance ? », mais plutôt de s’interroger sur l’émergence des souffrances, elles-mêmes produits sociaux, l’identification des facteurs impliqués et la compréhension des processus en jeu. La souffrance est la résultante d’une conduite, elle-même sociale, dont les valeurs culturelles la rendent plus ou moins supportables. Issue d’une vision que l’individu a sur sa propre existence, les déterminants culturels qui contribuent à développer ces souffrances, à les cumuler, les amplifier, les maintenir de génération en génération seront des objectifs auxquels nous chercherons à répondre. Décomposer ces souffrances et comprendre les liens qu’elles peuvent avoir avec une douleur physique, une privation affective, une carence éducative, pourront être des pistes de discussion. Enfin, face aux mobilités, aux multiplicités, nous tenterons de répondre à la question de la souffrance liée au fait de vivre ensemble dans un contexte démographique, économique et politique changeant. [less ▲]

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See detailLes problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge les souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les ... [more ▼]

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les problèmes que rencontrent ces professionnels des communes rurales du nord pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Career Attitudes Effect on Happiness and Life Satisfaction by Master Students and Graduates
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Open Journal of Social Sciences (2014), 2

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and ... [more ▼]

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and graduates. In an effort to provide deeper empirical understanding, the relationships between positive career attitudes, health satisfaction, financial situation and happiness and life satisfaction among master students and graduates were analyzed. Method: A link of online questionnaire was sent by mail to all students which independently of their social economic status obtained a financial aid from the government of Luxembourg, and to all master graduates (ex-students) who havebeen finished with their courses for one year. The data was analyzed using bivariate tests, correlation and multiple linear regression models. Result: 455 voluntary postgraduate/master students vs. 144 graduates participated. Students were younger than the graduates (mean age 26 vs. 29 years). Majority was female and had Luxembourgish nationality. Most graduates had a job and lived with their parents. Luxembourg natives were happier, and those who were living with their parents showed higher life satisfaction. For both samples, self-rated health satisfaction was positively associated with happiness and life satisfaction. For the students, the higher career adaptability and career optimism are, the better the happiness and life satisfaction will be. The higher the perception of the household financial situation is, the better the happiness will be. For graduates, the higher career optimism contributed to the better happiness. Conclusion: Happiness and life satisfaction of master students and graduates were affected, related to socioeconomic and perceived health difficulties, and career attitudes. Those indicators could be used routinely to monitor the situation of young people over time and their needs in terms of adaptability and optimism capabilities, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of university and post university interventions aimed at improving happiness and life satisfaction among postgraduate students and ex-students. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between health-related quality of life and being an immigrant among adolescents, and the role of socioeconomic and health-related difficulties
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Kénora

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2014), 10(1),

To develop satisfactorily, adolescents require a good health-related quality of life (QOL, including physical health, psychological health, social relationships and living environment). However, for ... [more ▼]

To develop satisfactorily, adolescents require a good health-related quality of life (QOL, including physical health, psychological health, social relationships and living environment). However, for poorly understood reasons, it is often lacking, especially among immigrants with lower family and socioeconomic resources. This study assessed health-related QOL of European and non-European immigrant adolescents and the contributions of socioeconomic difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and violence. It included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3; 1451 French adolescents, 54 European immigrants and 54 non-European immigrants), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including sex, age, socioeconomic characteristics (family structure, parents’ education, occupation, and income), unhealthy behaviors (uses of tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drugs, obesity, and involvement in violence), having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and the four QOL domains measured with the World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF (poor: score<25PthP percentile). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment affected more European immigrants (26% to 35%) and non-European immigrants (43% to 54%) than French adolescents (21% to 26%). European immigrants had a higher risk of poor physical health and living environment (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 2.00 and 1.88, respectively) while non-European immigrants had a higher risk for all poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment (3.41, 2.07, 3.25, and 3.79, respectively). Between 20% and 58% of these risks were explained by socioeconomic difficulties, parts of which overlapped with unhealthy behaviors and violence. The associations between the two sets of covariates greatly differed among French adolescents and immigrants. Poor QOL was more common among European and non-European immigrants due to socioeconomic difficulties and associated unhealthy behaviors and violence. The different risk patterns observed between French adolescents and immigrants may help prevention. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of life and positive person-centred rehabilitation.
Baumann, Michèle UL

in Positive Psychology and Well-being (2014)

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality ... [more ▼]

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of life (newsqol) domains, socioeconomic factors and satisfaction with information and home-care services were analysed. This problem remains partially addressed though positive and optimal supports may improve post-stroke’ quality of life. Methods. Stroke-survivors admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg 18 months or more previously were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed. Ninety four patients aged 65 years and living at home were interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics and satisfaction with information and home-care services, and newsqol assessing 11 scores. Data were analyzed using multiple linear sex-age-adjusted regression models. Results. About 50% of patients had low education and lower income. Functional impairments were common: sensory (45%), motor (35%), memory (32%), language (31%), and vision (20%). Patients with education (<12th grade) or lower income had low values for most newsqol domains. In opposite, patients who were working had better values for pain, mental feelings and sleep domains than did retired people. The self-rate quality of life was markedly low, especially for the domains of interpersonal relationship, sleep, cognition, mental feelings, and pain. Patients who were dissatisfied with information and home-care received had rather low values for several newsqol domains. Dissatisfaction with accuracy of information received, information about stroke and its consequences/change over time; help received, lack of coordination between services, and possibility of receiving help when necessary were related with low values for most domains. Dissatisfaction with the possibility of receiving help was also associated with mobility and self-care. Dissatisfaction with information about consequences/change over time of stroke linked with the vision domain. Dissatisfaction with information received about help correlated with mental feelings, interpersonal relationships, emotion, and fatigue. Being confident about where to get information about stroke, looking after someone who has had a stroke if needed, or about financial help, and being confident about who to contact from community services if needed were slightly associated with communication, mental feelings and interpersonal relationships only. Conclusions. Post-stroke patients had major alterations in quality of life that reflected depressive symptoms, which should be appropriately treated. Our results further raise the question concerning the needs and satisfaction of stroke-survivors living at home in terms of information and care services as well as interactions with social and medical carers according to recovery stage and possible relapse over time. The changing nature of needs at different stages of recovery may not be paid sufficient attention. A telephone service could help. Use of IT technology has been proposed to promote positive person-centred rehabilitation. It has been shown, with Telestroke, that videoconference calls can help to reduce stress, provide reassurance about the secondary effects of treatment, improve compliance with prescriptions, and yield valuable information about services. [less ▲]

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See detailInterconfluências: familia, género e saude nas malhas das mudanças
Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Leandro, maria-Engracia; Nogueira, Fernanda; Machado, José Cunha (Eds.) Sauda e Seus Dilemas. Teorias e Praticas Familiares de Saude (2014)

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT 2014: International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailSanté, comportements de santé et violence parmi les immigrants. Rôle des facteurs socioéconomiques chez les adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens ... [more ▼]

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens et non-européens et le rôle des difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Contexte. Cette enquête transversale a été réalisée sur 1559 adolescents des collèges dans le nord-est de la France. Elle est basée sur un auto-questionnaire, rempli en classe sous la surveillance de l’équipe de recherche, concernant le sexe, l’âge, la nationalité, les caractéristiques socioéconomiques (structure familiale, faible éducation parentale (<bac), profession du père et revenu familial insuffisant), consommation durant les 30 derniers jours d’alcool, tabac, cannabis, drogues dures, faible performance scolaire (note moyenne du dernier trimestre < 10/20), mauvais état de santé et faibles relations sociales (échelle de qualité de vie de l’OMS, WHOOoL-Bref), symptômes dépressifs (mesure de Kandel, score>90ème percentile), violence physique/verbales subie, agression sexuelle subie, et implication dans la violence. Les données sont analysées par les modèles de régression logistiques. Résultats. Les problèmes sont fréquents : usage d’alcool (35,2%), tabac (11,2%), cannabis (5,6)%, drogues dures (2,8%), mauvais état de santé (25,8%), symptômes dépressifs (13,3%), être victime de violence physique/verbale (16,2%) ou d’abus sexuel (3,7%) et implication dans la violence (14,6%). Comparés aux français, les immigrés ont un risque accru pour : usage de tabac (odds ratio ajusté sur le sexe et l’âge 2,04), cannabis (2,33), drogues dures (4,18), mauvais état de santé (1,89), violence subie (1,84) et implication dans la violence (1,77). Les situations socioéconomiques expliquaient respectivement 25%, 9%, 13%, 30%, 12% et 39% de ces risques. L’ajout de relations sociales et de la performance scolaire expliquait respectivement 43%, 20%, 29%, 53%, 24% et 61% des risques. Ces problèmes et les contributions des cofacteurs diffèrent beaucoup entre les immigrés européens et non-européens. Conclusions. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. La prévention pour leur intégration sociale devrait traiter ces problèmes. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat factors can enhance Dynamic Career Attitudes of University students?
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

In order to develop a University programme to prepare students for the demands of the job market our experimental study analyzes the relationships between the job search capabilities, the employability ... [more ▼]

In order to develop a University programme to prepare students for the demands of the job market our experimental study analyzes the relationships between the job search capabilities, the employability soft-skills, the domain autonomy of the quality of life and the dynamic career attitudes. During a class, 46 undergraduate students were invited to complete a self-administered paper pencil questionnaire that explores the Job search capabilities (JSC=26 items), Employability soft-skills (ESS 32 items), Quality of life autonomy domain (QoLA 4 items), and the Dynamic career attitudes (DCA 16 items). Each instrument was scored from 0 to 100. Correlation and multiple linear regression models were used for the analysis. 43 students have participated. (1) The JSC score is linked to the ESS score (r=0.561; p=0.000). (2) The ESS score, and QoL-autonomy scores are correlated to DCA score (r=0.644, p=0.000; respectively, r=0.595, p=0.000). Enhancing dynamic carrier attitudes could be stimulated with pedagogical workshops and interpersonal trainings developing students’ autonomy and employability abilities. [less ▲]

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