References of "Baumann, Michèle 50000634"
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See detailUndergraduate students’ life satisfaction, between employability and career capabilities
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara (Ed.) Social Psychology (2015)

Assessment of life satisfaction (LS) is an important issue in the overall preparation of undergraduates towards an employment outcome. The aim of our study is to analyze the associations between LS and ... [more ▼]

Assessment of life satisfaction (LS) is an important issue in the overall preparation of undergraduates towards an employment outcome. The aim of our study is to analyze the associations between LS and socio-demographic factors, career attitudes, employability soft skills, academic work satisfaction and quality of life autonomy. Methods: Undergraduate students were invited to complete a paper pencil questionnaire exploring: Life satisfaction (LS), Dynamic Career Attitudes (DCA), Employability Soft-Skills (ESS-Short), academic Work Satisfaction (WS), Quality Life of Autonomy (QoLA) and socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, educational field, year of study, work experience (less vs. more than 6 months and actual employment). Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression models. Results: 124 volunteers (22.6 years) had LS of 75.4/100. Majority were women, in the first year of Bachelor, and in applied management. Most of them had six months or less of job experiences and were unemployed. Higher the DCA, ESS-Short, QoLA and WS better was the students LS. Conclusions: LS is an indicator related with employability and career capabilities. Supporting students through wellness and career activities program in autonomy-supportive environment, to cope with their stressful period and to enhance their generic employment and career capabilities may allow to the undergraduates to maintain their LS. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological Inequalities and Social Inequalities in health
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, September)

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall ... [more ▼]

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall redesign of social policies is at stake. Against this background piecemeal measures are indeed not sufficient to cope with new challenges and paradigm shifts will be needed to deal with environmental problems and their consequences for affected populations. How can we take care of the people who are victims of these environmental risks? Who should finance this? Based on which principles (insurance-based or universal) and by which means? What kind of coverage could be provided by the social protection system (sickness insurance in particular) in different countries with equivalent institutions? How can we at the same time tackle the issue of ‘ecological inequalities’ taking into consideration that in complex environments presenting an accumulation of disadvantages (poor working and living conditions, smoking, alcoholism) it is not easy to isolate the effects of environmental damage as other variables have to be held constant. And how the responsibilities should be shared between stakeholders, social partners and the state when, for instance, people living close to the borders of different countries are affected by the same environmental-related problems? My presentation will therefore be organized as follows: first I will provide a brief overview of challenges (for instance assessing existing and potential damage to the health of affected populations) posed for social protection systems as far as environmental issues are concerned, then I will comment on some of the main key drivers of change I could identify in social policies related to the impact related to environmental problems and possible social policy responses will be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailBesoins des professionnels sociaux et de santé de proximité face aux problèmes de santé mentale des communes rurales du Nord
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, August)

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue ... [more ▼]

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue est liée en partie aux difficultés méthodologiques inhérentes aux recueils de ces données et à la complexité des classifications. Par ailleurs, aucune information sur les besoins locaux des professionnels de première ligne n’existe. Avec l’appui du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), une équipe de l’unité de recherche INSIDE a mis en oeuvre d’un projet innovant, intitulé « diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». Ce diagnostic a eu pour objectifs d’identifier les problèmes de souffrance psychique et sociale des clients des communes rurales, décrits par les professionnels sociaux et de santé de première ligne et de déterminer leurs besoins pour maintenir/améliorer la qualité de leur travail au quotidien et l’efficacité des prises en charge. Cette approche s’inscrit dans une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et l’amplification des souffrances mentales (angoisses permanentes, dépressions, etc.) ainsi que l’accumulation de facteurs psychosociaux (exigences du monde du travail, ruptures familiales, etc.) qui contribuent à leur émergence. Vingt-huit professionnels (médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues) travaillant auprès d’adultes de 18 à 65 ans ont été interrogés. L’analyse des transcriptions de leurs discours met en évidence la nécessiter d’insister sur :1) la mise en place de démarches globales, et sur le fait d’associer les aidants aux échanges sur la connaissance de la maladie et de ses symptômes (lieux de parole, etc.) ; 2) la nécessité de faciliter et d’encourager la consultation médicale ou psychologique ; 3) l’engagement et le développement d’une responsabilisation clients-aidants. Les professionnels proposent également que l’on augmente : 1) les possibilités de rencontres entre les médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues (synthèses, analyses de cas, etc.) qui permettraient à la communication d’être plus efficiente ; 2) la mutualisation des informations entre les professionnels de proximité en créant une plate-forme d’échanges interactifs qui faciliteraient le suivi des parcours ; 3) les formations interdisciplinaires pour actualiser les connaissances (dépression, suicides, etc.), renforcer le respect réciproque clients-aidants-professionnels et la déstigmatisation. ____________________________________ Mental Health & Recovery Luxembourg 23 & 24 Octobre 2014 2 Needs of local social and health professionals addressing the mental health problems of rural communities in the North. The existing mental health indicators remain partially developed in Europe, and Luxembourg’s system of health surveillance does not seem to have escaped. This lack of reliable information is well known partly due to the methodological difficulties inherent to the collections of data and complexity of the classifications. Moreover, any information on the needs of local frontline professionals exists. With the support of RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), a research unit INSIDE team has implemented an innovative project " diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». The aim of this diagnostic was to identify problems of psychic and social suffering of clients in rural towns, described by the social and health frontline professionals, and to define their needs to maintain / improve the quality of their daily work and effectiveness of their care. This approach is part of an understanding of the processes occurring in the construction and amplification of mental suffering (permanent anxiety, depression, etc.) and the accumulation of psychosocial factors (demands of the workforce, family separation, etc.) that contribute to their emergence. Twenty-eight professionals (doctors, social workers, psychologists) working with adults 18 to 65 years were interviewed. The analysis of transcripts highlighted the need to focus on: 1) the development of comprehensive approaches, associating caregivers to exchange knowledge of the disease and its symptoms (place of dialogue, etc.); 2) the need to facilitate and encourage medical or psychological counseling; 3) commitment and a growing accountability of clients -caregivers. The professionals also propose to increase: 1) the possibilities of meetings between the doctors, social workers and psychologists (syntheses, case studies, etc.) allowing communication to be more efficient; 2) the sharing of information between local professionals by creating a platform for interactive exchanges which would facilitate the follow-up of the trajectory ; 3) interdisciplinary training to update knowledge (on depression, suicide, etc.), enhancing mutual client-family caregivers-professional respect and destigmatization. ____________________________________ [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, May)

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la ... [more ▼]

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la recherche du bonheur. Qu’il s’agisse de la fatigue professionnelle ou la fatigue d’être soi, la problématique des souffrances est au cœur des discours et des rapports sociaux. De même, elle est au centre des interventions qui tentent d’y faire face de façon individuelle ou communautaire dans les soins de santé, les soutiens psychologiques, les actions sociales, etc. Le but de cette session qui s’appuyera sur des travaux de recherches empririques, n’est pas de se demander « y a-t-il plus ou moins de souffrance ? », mais plutôt de s’interroger sur l’émergence des souffrances, elles-mêmes produits sociaux, l’identification des facteurs impliqués et la compréhension des processus en jeu. La souffrance est la résultante d’une conduite, elle-même sociale, dont les valeurs culturelles la rendent plus ou moins supportables. Issue d’une vision que l’individu a sur sa propre existence, les déterminants culturels qui contribuent à développer ces souffrances, à les cumuler, les amplifier, les maintenir de génération en génération seront des objectifs auxquels nous chercherons à répondre. Décomposer ces souffrances et comprendre les liens qu’elles peuvent avoir avec une douleur physique, une privation affective, une carence éducative, pourront être des pistes de discussion. Enfin, face aux mobilités, aux multiplicités, nous tenterons de répondre à la question de la souffrance liée au fait de vivre ensemble dans un contexte démographique, économique et politique changeant. [less ▲]

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See detailLes problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge les souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les ... [more ▼]

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les problèmes que rencontrent ces professionnels des communes rurales du nord pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between Psycho-Educational Determinants and Dynamic Career Attitudes among undergradutes students
Karavdic, Senad UL; Karathanasi, Chrysoula UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in Pracana, Clara (Ed.) Psychology Applications & Developments - Advances in Psychology and Psychological Trends Series (2014)

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal services ... [more ▼]

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal services proposed by universities which may enhance students’ generic career capabilities. Our study explored the relationships between the psycho-educational and socio-demographic factors, and the perception of their career attitudes. Bachelor students in social sciences, engineering, applied management from University of Luxembourg were invited to complete a paper pencil questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression models. Of 278 students, 124 participated. The majority studied applied management, were women, unemployed and with six months or less of job experiences. The search for work self-efficacy score is linked to the employability soft-skills and job search techniques scores which are, in parallel, with the quality of life autonomy associated to the dynamic career attitudes. Greater are employability, search for work and quality of life autonomy, the higher are dynamic career attitudes. Students who were in their final academic year also had greater career capabilities. These findings may help to elaborate interventions aiming at improving psycho-educational determinants. It must be stimulated at the entry to university with appropriately collaborative supports, pedagogical workshops and interpersonal trainings. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT 2014: International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of life and positive person-centred rehabilitation.
Baumann, Michèle UL

in Positive Psychology and Well-being (2014)

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality ... [more ▼]

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of survivors living at home, two years after stroke onset. The associations between Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of life (newsqol) domains, socioeconomic factors and satisfaction with information and home-care services were analysed. This problem remains partially addressed though positive and optimal supports may improve post-stroke’ quality of life. Methods. Stroke-survivors admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg 18 months or more previously were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed. Ninety four patients aged 65 years and living at home were interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics and satisfaction with information and home-care services, and newsqol assessing 11 scores. Data were analyzed using multiple linear sex-age-adjusted regression models. Results. About 50% of patients had low education and lower income. Functional impairments were common: sensory (45%), motor (35%), memory (32%), language (31%), and vision (20%). Patients with education (<12th grade) or lower income had low values for most newsqol domains. In opposite, patients who were working had better values for pain, mental feelings and sleep domains than did retired people. The self-rate quality of life was markedly low, especially for the domains of interpersonal relationship, sleep, cognition, mental feelings, and pain. Patients who were dissatisfied with information and home-care received had rather low values for several newsqol domains. Dissatisfaction with accuracy of information received, information about stroke and its consequences/change over time; help received, lack of coordination between services, and possibility of receiving help when necessary were related with low values for most domains. Dissatisfaction with the possibility of receiving help was also associated with mobility and self-care. Dissatisfaction with information about consequences/change over time of stroke linked with the vision domain. Dissatisfaction with information received about help correlated with mental feelings, interpersonal relationships, emotion, and fatigue. Being confident about where to get information about stroke, looking after someone who has had a stroke if needed, or about financial help, and being confident about who to contact from community services if needed were slightly associated with communication, mental feelings and interpersonal relationships only. Conclusions. Post-stroke patients had major alterations in quality of life that reflected depressive symptoms, which should be appropriately treated. Our results further raise the question concerning the needs and satisfaction of stroke-survivors living at home in terms of information and care services as well as interactions with social and medical carers according to recovery stage and possible relapse over time. The changing nature of needs at different stages of recovery may not be paid sufficient attention. A telephone service could help. Use of IT technology has been proposed to promote positive person-centred rehabilitation. It has been shown, with Telestroke, that videoconference calls can help to reduce stress, provide reassurance about the secondary effects of treatment, improve compliance with prescriptions, and yield valuable information about services. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between quality of life and socioeconomic factors, functional impairments and dissatisfaction with received information and home-care services among survivors living at home two years after stroke onset
Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Chau, Kénora et al

in BMC Neurology (2014), 14

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of stroke-survivors living at home. This study explores the associations between QoL and socioeconomic factors ... [more ▼]

Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of stroke-survivors living at home. This study explores the associations between QoL and socioeconomic factors, functional impairments and self-reported dissatisfaction with received information and home-care services among survivors two years after stroke onset. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal information and services may improve survivors' QoL. Methods Stroke-survivors admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg 18 months or more previously were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed. Ninety four patients aged 65 years and living at home were interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics, functional impairments, dissatisfaction with information and home-care services, and QoL (using the Newcastle Stroke-Specific QoL, newsqol) assessing 11 domains. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Results About 50% of survivors had low education and lower income. Functional impairments were common: sensory (45%), motor (35%), memory (32%), language (31%), and vision (20%). Survivors with education (<12th grade) or lower income had low values for most newsqol domains (sex-age-adjusted regression coefficient saRC, i.e. mean difference, between -23 and -8). Patients who were working had better values for pain, mental feelings and sleep domains than did retired people (saRC between -3.9 and 4.2). Various functional impairments were associated with markedly low values of nearly all domains (saRC between -33.5 and -7.5) and motor, language, memory and sensory impairments had the highest impact. The survivors' perceived QoL was markedly low, especially for the domains of interpersonal relationship, sleep, cognition, mental feelings, and pain. Various QoL domains were strongly related to dissatisfaction with information about stroke and its consequences/changes over time, accuracy of information obtained, help received, coordination between services, and the possibility of receiving help when necessary (saRC reaching -30). Conclusions Stroke-survivors had major alterations in QoL that reflected depressive symptoms, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of public policies aiming at improving QoL among stroke survivors. The newsqol could be used routinely to measure the recovery of survivors over time and their needs in terms of information, help and care services [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between health-related quality of life and being an immigrant among adolescents, and the role of socioeconomic and health-related difficulties
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Kénora

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2014), 10(1),

To develop satisfactorily, adolescents require a good health-related quality of life (QOL, including physical health, psychological health, social relationships and living environment). However, for ... [more ▼]

To develop satisfactorily, adolescents require a good health-related quality of life (QOL, including physical health, psychological health, social relationships and living environment). However, for poorly understood reasons, it is often lacking, especially among immigrants with lower family and socioeconomic resources. This study assessed health-related QOL of European and non-European immigrant adolescents and the contributions of socioeconomic difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and violence. It included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3; 1451 French adolescents, 54 European immigrants and 54 non-European immigrants), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including sex, age, socioeconomic characteristics (family structure, parents’ education, occupation, and income), unhealthy behaviors (uses of tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drugs, obesity, and involvement in violence), having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and the four QOL domains measured with the World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF (poor: score<25PthP percentile). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment affected more European immigrants (26% to 35%) and non-European immigrants (43% to 54%) than French adolescents (21% to 26%). European immigrants had a higher risk of poor physical health and living environment (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 2.00 and 1.88, respectively) while non-European immigrants had a higher risk for all poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment (3.41, 2.07, 3.25, and 3.79, respectively). Between 20% and 58% of these risks were explained by socioeconomic difficulties, parts of which overlapped with unhealthy behaviors and violence. The associations between the two sets of covariates greatly differed among French adolescents and immigrants. Poor QOL was more common among European and non-European immigrants due to socioeconomic difficulties and associated unhealthy behaviors and violence. The different risk patterns observed between French adolescents and immigrants may help prevention. [less ▲]

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See detailInterconfluências: familia, género e saude nas malhas das mudanças
Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Leandro, maria-Engracia; Nogueira, Fernanda; Machado, José Cunha (Eds.) Sauda e Seus Dilemas. Teorias e Praticas Familiares de Saude (2014)

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See detailWhat factors can enhance Dynamic Career Attitudes of University students?
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

In order to develop a University programme to prepare students for the demands of the job market our experimental study analyzes the relationships between the job search capabilities, the employability ... [more ▼]

In order to develop a University programme to prepare students for the demands of the job market our experimental study analyzes the relationships between the job search capabilities, the employability soft-skills, the domain autonomy of the quality of life and the dynamic career attitudes. During a class, 46 undergraduate students were invited to complete a self-administered paper pencil questionnaire that explores the Job search capabilities (JSC=26 items), Employability soft-skills (ESS 32 items), Quality of life autonomy domain (QoLA 4 items), and the Dynamic career attitudes (DCA 16 items). Each instrument was scored from 0 to 100. Correlation and multiple linear regression models were used for the analysis. 43 students have participated. (1) The JSC score is linked to the ESS score (r=0.561; p=0.000). (2) The ESS score, and QoL-autonomy scores are correlated to DCA score (r=0.644, p=0.000; respectively, r=0.595, p=0.000). Enhancing dynamic carrier attitudes could be stimulated with pedagogical workshops and interpersonal trainings developing students’ autonomy and employability abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailOpiate- and Cocaine-Related Fatal Overdoses in Luxembourg from 1985 to 2011: A study on Gender differences
Origer, Alain UL; Lopes da Costa, S; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Addiction Research (2014), 20

We analyzed gender differences in national Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n=340). Methods Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and ... [more ▼]

We analyzed gender differences in national Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n=340). Methods Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence. Bi-variate and logistic regression analysis of male/female differences according to socio-demographics, forensic evidence and drug use trajectories. Results The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality was higher for men (PMR/100 = 0.55) compared with women (PMR/100 = 0.34). Compared with their male peers, women were younger at the time of death (t=3.274; p=.001) and showed shorter drug use careers (t=2.228; p=.028). Heroin use was recorded more frequently in first drug offences of female victims [AOR=6.59 (95% CI 2.97–14.63)] and according to forensic evidence, psychotropic prescription drugs were detected to a higher degree in females [AOR=2.019 (95% CI 1.065–3.827)]. Conclusion The time window between the onset of illicit drug use and its fatal outcome revealed to be shorter for women versus men included in our study. Early intervention in female drug users, routine involvement of first line general health care providers and increased attention to poly and psychotropic prescription drugs’ use might contribute to prevent premature drug-related death and reduce gendered specificities. [less ▲]

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See detailMigrações Humanas: Teorias e Práticas
Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Silva, Manuel Carlos; Sobral, José Manuel (Eds.) Etnicidade, nacionalismo e racismo: Migrações, minorias étnicas e contextos escolares (2014)

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances :les effets d’une dérive…
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les ... [more ▼]

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les facteurs psychosociaux qui contribuent à l’émergence des souffrances, et participent à leur maintien ou leur développement, et de déterminer leurs besoins et les actions qui pourraient être entreprises pour y répondre. Notre problématique s’inscrit une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et la reconstruction des souffrances des clients des services sociaux et de santé. Comme aucune information n’existe sur l’accès aux soins en milieu rural, notre étude a tenté d’aborder les mécanismes de la souffrance décrits par les professionnels de proximité. Notre approche a été guidée par les questions suivantes: si la souffrance résulte d’une vision de l’individu sur sa propre existence, quelles valeurs entrent en jeu ? Si la souffrance est appréhendée comme la résultante d’une conduite particulière, dans quelle mesure est-elle aussi un produit social ? Quelles sont les interventions qui couvriraient les besoins de cette clientèle ? Quelles sont les actions qui les amèneraient à acquérir des capacités personnelles et des capabilités sociales pour s’opposer aux effets des souffrances ? Comment lorsque les souffrances interagissent de concert dans des contextes qui leur sont propices, mènent-elles les personnes aux dérives d’un état psychique qui se détériore ? La liste des professionnels de première ligne travaillant auprès de personnes âgées de 18 à 65 ans issues des communes rurales a été établie avec l’aide du comité de pilotage du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD). Un entretien semi-structuré d’une durée de plus d’une heure a été mené en face à face. A partir des retranscriptions des discours des professionnels, une analyse de contenu a été menée. Les professionnels de proximité ayant participé à l’enquête (sept médecins généralistes, trois psychiatres, neuf assistants sociaux, trois psychologues et sept travailleurs sociaux ; moyenne d’âge 42 ans, dont les femmes sont légèrement plus nombreuses) décrivent les effets d’une dérive en montrant comment les mécanismes en jeu produisent des processus d’amplification des problèmes neuropsychiatriques et d’accumulation des facteurs psychosociaux, et comment ces souffrances peuvent aboutir à des états de santé mentale critiques. Dans cette logique de gradation, les problèmes de santé mentale viennent s’agréger à un ensemble de comportements délétères. Cette gradation illustre un état que les clients atteignent lorsque les sphères intime et sociale se dégradent de concert. Elle représente cet état au cours duquel les personnes semblent avoir comme perdu face à leurs souffrances et ne parviennent plus à s’en relever. Car la di fficulté majeure rencontrée par leurs clients ne réside pas tant dans l’existence avérée d’une souffrance, mais dans l’incapacité à la surmonter. La souffrance dite « émotionnelle » désigne le caractère privé de l’existence et concerne les aspects tels que les comportements liés à l’addiction, aux troubles neuropsychiatriques et psychologiques, aux anxiétés existentielles profondes, et aux conséquences que ces problèmes engendrent sur le bien-être mental via les maladies mentales, font ici sens au regard d’une souffrance, à tout le moins personnelle. La détresse d’ordre psychique agit alors comme le révélateur de la souffrance vécue lorsque la sphère intime de leur existence se dégrade. Quant à a souffrance dite « sociale » est le résultat de l’angoisse perçue quant à la dégradation de leur qualité de vie. Elle se réfère aux conditions psychologiques de vie ainsi qu’aux conditions matérielles de l’e xistence telles que le travail, le logement, le revenu, autant de facteurs qui, lorsque leur pérennité devient incertaine, et affecte la satisfaction à l’égard de la vie des personnes et de son entourage. La mise en avant d’une interaction résultant du choc des sphères émotionnelle et sociale montre qu’un problème survient rarement seul. La question qui demeure, est celle de comprendre si la présence simultanée de divers problèmes découle d’un effet en cascade, du glissement d’un problème vers un autre ou de la présence de facteurs de risque communs à l’apparition de cette souffrance. Dans la mesure où les souffrances sont multiples et s’interpénètrent, les observations des professionnels ont tenté de mettre au jour l’attention particulière qu’il est nécessaire de porter au développement conjoint des diverses trajectoires problématiques, et de leurs comorbidités. Les pistes d’action vers lesquels aboutissent nos résultats s’inscrivent dans les objectifs [less ▲]

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See detailSanté, comportements de santé et violence parmi les immigrants. Rôle des facteurs socioéconomiques chez les adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens ... [more ▼]

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens et non-européens et le rôle des difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Contexte. Cette enquête transversale a été réalisée sur 1559 adolescents des collèges dans le nord-est de la France. Elle est basée sur un auto-questionnaire, rempli en classe sous la surveillance de l’équipe de recherche, concernant le sexe, l’âge, la nationalité, les caractéristiques socioéconomiques (structure familiale, faible éducation parentale (<bac), profession du père et revenu familial insuffisant), consommation durant les 30 derniers jours d’alcool, tabac, cannabis, drogues dures, faible performance scolaire (note moyenne du dernier trimestre < 10/20), mauvais état de santé et faibles relations sociales (échelle de qualité de vie de l’OMS, WHOOoL-Bref), symptômes dépressifs (mesure de Kandel, score>90ème percentile), violence physique/verbales subie, agression sexuelle subie, et implication dans la violence. Les données sont analysées par les modèles de régression logistiques. Résultats. Les problèmes sont fréquents : usage d’alcool (35,2%), tabac (11,2%), cannabis (5,6)%, drogues dures (2,8%), mauvais état de santé (25,8%), symptômes dépressifs (13,3%), être victime de violence physique/verbale (16,2%) ou d’abus sexuel (3,7%) et implication dans la violence (14,6%). Comparés aux français, les immigrés ont un risque accru pour : usage de tabac (odds ratio ajusté sur le sexe et l’âge 2,04), cannabis (2,33), drogues dures (4,18), mauvais état de santé (1,89), violence subie (1,84) et implication dans la violence (1,77). Les situations socioéconomiques expliquaient respectivement 25%, 9%, 13%, 30%, 12% et 39% de ces risques. L’ajout de relations sociales et de la performance scolaire expliquait respectivement 43%, 20%, 29%, 53%, 24% et 61% des risques. Ces problèmes et les contributions des cofacteurs diffèrent beaucoup entre les immigrés européens et non-européens. Conclusions. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. La prévention pour leur intégration sociale devrait traiter ces problèmes. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical and mental health, substance abuse and preventive behaviour: disparities between Central/Eastern versus Western European first-year university students in social sciences
Ionescu, Ion; Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza". Sectiunea Sociologie si Asistenta Sociala = Scientific Annals of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University. Sociology and Social Work Section (2014), 7(1), 96-115

Background: Students at many European universities are in poor health and have unhealthy lifestyles. This study assessed and compared physical and mental health, substance use and preventive behaviour ... [more ▼]

Background: Students at many European universities are in poor health and have unhealthy lifestyles. This study assessed and compared physical and mental health, substance use and preventive behaviour among Polish and Romanian students versus students from France, a longer-standing member of the European Union. Methods: Four months after the beginning of the academic year, 934 French (Metz), 480 Polish (Katowice), and 195 Romanian (Iasi) first-year students of human and social sciences volunteered to complete an online self-reported questionnaire in their native language. The data were analysed using the age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) computed with logistic models and analysis of variance controlling for age and sex. Results: 41.9% of French students, 79.2% of Polish students and 48.2% of Romanian students were aged 20 years or over, and 58%, 82% and 87% respectively were female. Compared with French students, Romanian and Polish students experienced more stress/psychological distress, received less social support, and smokers smoked more intensively (ORs about 2.3). Drunkenness, impaired physical health or morale and suicidal ideation were more frequent (ORs 1.5-1.8) while tobacco use was less frequent (0.34) among Polish than among French students. Being uneasy, wanting to cry, having financial problems, and impaired physical health or morale were more frequent (ORs 1.5-4.9) among Romanian than among French students, in contrast to drunkenness (0.43). Both not using a motorcycle/cycle helmet and drink driving were less frequent among Polish students (ORs 0.06 and 0.47, respectively). Romanian students less frequently used tranquillisers (0.07) but were more likely not to use a condom during sexual intercourse (2.06). Finally, French students more frequently reported feeling isolated or dissatisfied with their integration into university. Conclusion: Poor health, substance use and lack of support were common but the risks greatly differed between Polish, Romanian and French students. There is a need to help students solve their integration problems and material difficulties. Health promotion on campus should provide appropriate advice, particularly for individuals at risk that takes account of the socio-economic and cultural context. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily caregivers’ health capability: Contribution of, and relations between its dimensions
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Health Psychologist (The) (2014)

Background. Being family caregiver poses certain risks for physical, mental and social health. The health capability paradigm (Ruger, 2010) explores the capacity to achieve one’s optimal health. Family ... [more ▼]

Background. Being family caregiver poses certain risks for physical, mental and social health. The health capability paradigm (Ruger, 2010) explores the capacity to achieve one’s optimal health. Family caregivers’ health capability partly consists of 8 dimensions: physical and psychological functioning, lifestyle value, self-efficacy, family support, social capital, socio-economic conditions and access to health services. Which relations exist between these dimensions, and which ones contribute the most to health capability? Methods. Home-based structured interviews were led among 62 family caregivers living in Luxembourg 2 years after their relatives’ stroke. Twenty items measured the 8 dimensions of health capability. Using a Bayesian approach, a structural equation modelling was applied. Findings. Socio-economic conditions were positively correlated with all the other dimensions. Family caregivers’ fatigue and feeling abandoned by their families impeded their health capability the most. Discussion. Enhancing family caregivers’ well-being involves finding interventions relieving them physically and fostering family networking around the ill, giving priority to the socially disadvantaged. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Career Attitudes Effect on Happiness and Life Satisfaction by Master Students and Graduates
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Open Journal of Social Sciences (2014), 2

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and ... [more ▼]

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and graduates. In an effort to provide deeper empirical understanding, the relationships between positive career attitudes, health satisfaction, financial situation and happiness and life satisfaction among master students and graduates were analyzed. Method: A link of online questionnaire was sent by mail to all students which independently of their social economic status obtained a financial aid from the government of Luxembourg, and to all master graduates (ex-students) who havebeen finished with their courses for one year. The data was analyzed using bivariate tests, correlation and multiple linear regression models. Result: 455 voluntary postgraduate/master students vs. 144 graduates participated. Students were younger than the graduates (mean age 26 vs. 29 years). Majority was female and had Luxembourgish nationality. Most graduates had a job and lived with their parents. Luxembourg natives were happier, and those who were living with their parents showed higher life satisfaction. For both samples, self-rated health satisfaction was positively associated with happiness and life satisfaction. For the students, the higher career adaptability and career optimism are, the better the happiness and life satisfaction will be. The higher the perception of the household financial situation is, the better the happiness will be. For graduates, the higher career optimism contributed to the better happiness. Conclusion: Happiness and life satisfaction of master students and graduates were affected, related to socioeconomic and perceived health difficulties, and career attitudes. Those indicators could be used routinely to monitor the situation of young people over time and their needs in terms of adaptability and optimism capabilities, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of university and post university interventions aimed at improving happiness and life satisfaction among postgraduate students and ex-students. [less ▲]

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