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See detailNeeds the Integration Contract Services of Luxembourg Should Cover, for the Successful Integration of Non-EU Citizens
Odero, Angela UL; Karathanasi, Chrysoula UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Migration and Integration (2015)

Integration of the foreign communities has been a forefront issue in Luxembourg for some time now. With a population of approximately 563,000, Luxembourg is a kaleidoscopic of cultures, comprising over ... [more ▼]

Integration of the foreign communities has been a forefront issue in Luxembourg for some time now. With a population of approximately 563,000, Luxembourg is a kaleidoscopic of cultures, comprising over 170 nationalities. The country’s continued progress depends largely on the successful assimilation of immigrants. To better understand what constitutes the best integration, the European Investment Fund for Non-EU nationals, together with the Welcome and Integration office of Luxembourg, funded this project. The aim of our study was to explore the definition of the integration according to Non-EU citizens residing in Luxembourg, and to evaluate the services of the integration contract of Luxembourg (CAI) which should cover their needs. Eleven focus group discussions with 50 volunteers (32 women, 18 men) recruited from among 233 Non-EU beneficiaries of the CAI were held. Semi-structured discussions (4 to 8 people) were facilitated in English, French, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian or Chinese and lasted between 1.5 to 2.5 hours. Encouraged, they delved into detailed explanations of the difficulties and challenges they face, their expectations upon arrival; considering the multicultural nature of Luxembourg, the differences between these expectations and the reality, their needs, both met and unmet, and their perceptions. To grasp the requirements covered or not covered by the CAI, and the problems faced by Non-EU citizens, eight questions exploring the contract were posed. To direct these discussions were four main guidelines: (1) The quality of services and activities proposed, (2) the organization (3) the availability of the personnel and (4) the utility of the information received. Transcriptions were analysed with the help of NVivo 10. A systematic and reiterative analysis of decomposing and reconstituting the data was conducted following three main steps. (1). Identification in the transcriptions were read in order to identify potential answers to the aims of the research and main categories (difficulties, challenges and integration needs). These informed subsequent analyses (2). Similar verbatim regrouped in category and an item was formular. (3). Categories were regrouped together in dimension. Three dimensions were identified professional career, linguistic acquisitionand socio-cultural activities or events which are two core elements essential to the success of the immigrant’s integration – recognition of the role of time in the process, and deliberate effort on the part of the immigrants, the society around and the formal institutions charged with the responsibility of helping with integration. Further, there was a majority consensus on good quality of services in at least one of the components of CAI, and on the availability of the personnel. The organisation and content utility was suitable for some, but maladapted to the needs of others, since they did not address their current concerns. The one fits all structure of the CAI, would need revision through considering smaller groups with specific needs separately. [less ▲]

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See detailWorries and career employment attitudes: the role of social inequalities of master’s degree students.
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Promotion of Mental Health (2015)

University students' mental health is affected by worries about the employment of their future. Our purpose is to analyze the relationships between traits of worry and career attitudes, happiness and ... [more ▼]

University students' mental health is affected by worries about the employment of their future. Our purpose is to analyze the relationships between traits of worry and career attitudes, happiness and autonomy in their quality of life among postgraduates. Method: Independent of their socioeconomic status, all students obtained financial aid from the government of Luxembourg. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to their home address. The instrument assessed: Penn-State-Worry scale, Career dimensions (adaptability, optimism, knowledge and planning), Happiness and Quality of Life Autonomy scores, and sociodemographic characteristics. Bivariate-tests, correlations and multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. Results: A majority of the 481 volunteers (26.4 years; SD=5.5) were women and unemployed. Sociodemographical factors such as European or non-EU nationality (vs. Luxembourgish), possession of an internship employment contract (vs. fixed-term and permanent contract) and being a part of social and humanity sciences domain were related with high worries. Lower adaptability (β= -2.271; p< 0.001) and optimism career attitudes (β= -2.162; p= 0.002), low happiness (β= -1.518; p= 0.039) and autonomy in their quality of life (β= -0.669; p= 0.004), respectively, were affected by higher worry score. Conclusion: Worry indicator could be observed routinely to monitor students’ career adaptability and optimism. University career employment workshops may help to increase the individual capabilities to improve and/or to maintain their well-being. Nationality, employment contract status and chosen academic field had generated mental health inequalities that must be considered in consultations, counseling and implementation of prevention and promotion programs. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction, cardiovascular risk factors, unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic inequality, 5 years after coronary angiography.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Tchicaya, Anastase; Vanderpool, kyle et al

in BMC Public Health (2015), (15), 668-678

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but ... [more ▼]

Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim is to analyze LS and its relationships with those factors. Methods. Among the 4,391 patients initially contacted, 547 deaths were reported and 209 had an invalid address. In 2013-2014, 3,635 patients who underwent coronary angiography in 2008-2009 at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention in Luxembourg were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other variables. Data were analysed via multiple regression models adjusted initially on age, sex and income, and for a second time with the addition of all CVRF. Results. LS of 1,289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Most were men, Luxembourgish, employees and manual workers, had secondary education and an income of 36,000 euros or more per year. LS was lowest in female patients, and those with a low to middle income. Patients who lived in a couple had the best LS. Patients with a history in the previous 5 years of physical inactivity (regression coefficient: -0.903), angina pectoris (rc -0.843), obesity (rc -0.512), diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to have lower LS. The previous associations were mostly maintained on the second analysis, with the exceptions of diabetes and obesity. In addition, patients who stopped smoking because of peer pressure (rc -0.011) had a lower LS. Conclusions. The finding that LS was lowest among female patients calls for further research on symptoms, and potential risk factors. Also, certain patient profiles are linked with low LS: ‘inclined abstainers’ who intended to modify their behaviours, but could not do so, and ‘disinclined abstainers’ who had no intention of changing and were insufficiently concerned to do so. Patients who stopped smoking and perceived it as unpleasant also had low LS. ‘Disinclined actors’ were those patients who had to adjust their lifestyles, but were ambivalent about their intentions and the behaviour, which they continued. Health promotion programs would benefit from targeting factors that moderate the unfavourable intention-behaviour relationship and can help enhance LS. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological Inequalities and Social Inequalities in health
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, September)

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall ... [more ▼]

Taking into account the growing number of people exposed to environmental risks in the EU member countries and the budgetary constraints weighing on their respective social protection systems, an overall redesign of social policies is at stake. Against this background piecemeal measures are indeed not sufficient to cope with new challenges and paradigm shifts will be needed to deal with environmental problems and their consequences for affected populations. How can we take care of the people who are victims of these environmental risks? Who should finance this? Based on which principles (insurance-based or universal) and by which means? What kind of coverage could be provided by the social protection system (sickness insurance in particular) in different countries with equivalent institutions? How can we at the same time tackle the issue of ‘ecological inequalities’ taking into consideration that in complex environments presenting an accumulation of disadvantages (poor working and living conditions, smoking, alcoholism) it is not easy to isolate the effects of environmental damage as other variables have to be held constant. And how the responsibilities should be shared between stakeholders, social partners and the state when, for instance, people living close to the borders of different countries are affected by the same environmental-related problems? My presentation will therefore be organized as follows: first I will provide a brief overview of challenges (for instance assessing existing and potential damage to the health of affected populations) posed for social protection systems as far as environmental issues are concerned, then I will comment on some of the main key drivers of change I could identify in social policies related to the impact related to environmental problems and possible social policy responses will be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailBesoins des professionnels sociaux et de santé de proximité face aux problèmes de santé mentale des communes rurales du Nord
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, August)

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue ... [more ▼]

Les indicateurs de santé mentale existants restent partiels en Europe, et le système de surveillance sanitaire du Luxembourg ne semble pas y avoir échappé. Cette carence d’informations fiables bien connue est liée en partie aux difficultés méthodologiques inhérentes aux recueils de ces données et à la complexité des classifications. Par ailleurs, aucune information sur les besoins locaux des professionnels de première ligne n’existe. Avec l’appui du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), une équipe de l’unité de recherche INSIDE a mis en oeuvre d’un projet innovant, intitulé « diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». Ce diagnostic a eu pour objectifs d’identifier les problèmes de souffrance psychique et sociale des clients des communes rurales, décrits par les professionnels sociaux et de santé de première ligne et de déterminer leurs besoins pour maintenir/améliorer la qualité de leur travail au quotidien et l’efficacité des prises en charge. Cette approche s’inscrit dans une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et l’amplification des souffrances mentales (angoisses permanentes, dépressions, etc.) ainsi que l’accumulation de facteurs psychosociaux (exigences du monde du travail, ruptures familiales, etc.) qui contribuent à leur émergence. Vingt-huit professionnels (médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues) travaillant auprès d’adultes de 18 à 65 ans ont été interrogés. L’analyse des transcriptions de leurs discours met en évidence la nécessiter d’insister sur :1) la mise en place de démarches globales, et sur le fait d’associer les aidants aux échanges sur la connaissance de la maladie et de ses symptômes (lieux de parole, etc.) ; 2) la nécessité de faciliter et d’encourager la consultation médicale ou psychologique ; 3) l’engagement et le développement d’une responsabilisation clients-aidants. Les professionnels proposent également que l’on augmente : 1) les possibilités de rencontres entre les médecins, assistants sociaux, psychologues (synthèses, analyses de cas, etc.) qui permettraient à la communication d’être plus efficiente ; 2) la mutualisation des informations entre les professionnels de proximité en créant une plate-forme d’échanges interactifs qui faciliteraient le suivi des parcours ; 3) les formations interdisciplinaires pour actualiser les connaissances (dépression, suicides, etc.), renforcer le respect réciproque clients-aidants-professionnels et la déstigmatisation. ____________________________________ Mental Health & Recovery Luxembourg 23 & 24 Octobre 2014 2 Needs of local social and health professionals addressing the mental health problems of rural communities in the North. The existing mental health indicators remain partially developed in Europe, and Luxembourg’s system of health surveillance does not seem to have escaped. This lack of reliable information is well known partly due to the methodological difficulties inherent to the collections of data and complexity of the classifications. Moreover, any information on the needs of local frontline professionals exists. With the support of RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD), a research unit INSIDE team has implemented an innovative project " diagnostic des professionnels sur les besoins associés à la santé mentale ». The aim of this diagnostic was to identify problems of psychic and social suffering of clients in rural towns, described by the social and health frontline professionals, and to define their needs to maintain / improve the quality of their daily work and effectiveness of their care. This approach is part of an understanding of the processes occurring in the construction and amplification of mental suffering (permanent anxiety, depression, etc.) and the accumulation of psychosocial factors (demands of the workforce, family separation, etc.) that contribute to their emergence. Twenty-eight professionals (doctors, social workers, psychologists) working with adults 18 to 65 years were interviewed. The analysis of transcripts highlighted the need to focus on: 1) the development of comprehensive approaches, associating caregivers to exchange knowledge of the disease and its symptoms (place of dialogue, etc.); 2) the need to facilitate and encourage medical or psychological counseling; 3) commitment and a growing accountability of clients -caregivers. The professionals also propose to increase: 1) the possibilities of meetings between the doctors, social workers and psychologists (syntheses, case studies, etc.) allowing communication to be more efficient; 2) the sharing of information between local professionals by creating a platform for interactive exchanges which would facilitate the follow-up of the trajectory ; 3) interdisciplinary training to update knowledge (on depression, suicide, etc.), enhancing mutual client-family caregivers-professional respect and destigmatization. ____________________________________ [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2014, May)

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la ... [more ▼]

Le thème de la souffrance occupe une place prépondérante dans les approches socio-écologiques, et biopsychosociales actuelles, les réflexions éthiques sur la qualité de vie et le bien-être et sur la recherche du bonheur. Qu’il s’agisse de la fatigue professionnelle ou la fatigue d’être soi, la problématique des souffrances est au cœur des discours et des rapports sociaux. De même, elle est au centre des interventions qui tentent d’y faire face de façon individuelle ou communautaire dans les soins de santé, les soutiens psychologiques, les actions sociales, etc. Le but de cette session qui s’appuyera sur des travaux de recherches empririques, n’est pas de se demander « y a-t-il plus ou moins de souffrance ? », mais plutôt de s’interroger sur l’émergence des souffrances, elles-mêmes produits sociaux, l’identification des facteurs impliqués et la compréhension des processus en jeu. La souffrance est la résultante d’une conduite, elle-même sociale, dont les valeurs culturelles la rendent plus ou moins supportables. Issue d’une vision que l’individu a sur sa propre existence, les déterminants culturels qui contribuent à développer ces souffrances, à les cumuler, les amplifier, les maintenir de génération en génération seront des objectifs auxquels nous chercherons à répondre. Décomposer ces souffrances et comprendre les liens qu’elles peuvent avoir avec une douleur physique, une privation affective, une carence éducative, pourront être des pistes de discussion. Enfin, face aux mobilités, aux multiplicités, nous tenterons de répondre à la question de la souffrance liée au fait de vivre ensemble dans un contexte démographique, économique et politique changeant. [less ▲]

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See detailLes problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge les souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les ... [more ▼]

2ème partie Les problèmes que rencontrent les professionnels pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. _________________________ Les problèmes que rencontrent ces professionnels des communes rurales du nord pour prendre en charge ces souffrances et les recommandations qu’ils préconisent pour répondre à leurs besoins. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical and mental health, substance abuse and preventive behaviour: disparities between Central/Eastern versus Western European first-year university students in social sciences
Ionescu, Ion; Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza". Sectiunea Sociologie si Asistenta Sociala = Scientific Annals of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University. Sociology and Social Work Section (2014), 7(1), 96-115

Background: Students at many European universities are in poor health and have unhealthy lifestyles. This study assessed and compared physical and mental health, substance use and preventive behaviour ... [more ▼]

Background: Students at many European universities are in poor health and have unhealthy lifestyles. This study assessed and compared physical and mental health, substance use and preventive behaviour among Polish and Romanian students versus students from France, a longer-standing member of the European Union. Methods: Four months after the beginning of the academic year, 934 French (Metz), 480 Polish (Katowice), and 195 Romanian (Iasi) first-year students of human and social sciences volunteered to complete an online self-reported questionnaire in their native language. The data were analysed using the age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) computed with logistic models and analysis of variance controlling for age and sex. Results: 41.9% of French students, 79.2% of Polish students and 48.2% of Romanian students were aged 20 years or over, and 58%, 82% and 87% respectively were female. Compared with French students, Romanian and Polish students experienced more stress/psychological distress, received less social support, and smokers smoked more intensively (ORs about 2.3). Drunkenness, impaired physical health or morale and suicidal ideation were more frequent (ORs 1.5-1.8) while tobacco use was less frequent (0.34) among Polish than among French students. Being uneasy, wanting to cry, having financial problems, and impaired physical health or morale were more frequent (ORs 1.5-4.9) among Romanian than among French students, in contrast to drunkenness (0.43). Both not using a motorcycle/cycle helmet and drink driving were less frequent among Polish students (ORs 0.06 and 0.47, respectively). Romanian students less frequently used tranquillisers (0.07) but were more likely not to use a condom during sexual intercourse (2.06). Finally, French students more frequently reported feeling isolated or dissatisfied with their integration into university. Conclusion: Poor health, substance use and lack of support were common but the risks greatly differed between Polish, Romanian and French students. There is a need to help students solve their integration problems and material difficulties. Health promotion on campus should provide appropriate advice, particularly for individuals at risk that takes account of the socio-economic and cultural context. [less ▲]

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See detailOpiate- and Cocaine-Related Fatal Overdoses in Luxembourg from 1985 to 2011: A study on Gender differences
Origer, Alain UL; Lopes da Costa, S; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Addiction Research (2014), 20

We analyzed gender differences in national Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n=340). Methods Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and ... [more ▼]

We analyzed gender differences in national Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n=340). Methods Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence. Bi-variate and logistic regression analysis of male/female differences according to socio-demographics, forensic evidence and drug use trajectories. Results The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality was higher for men (PMR/100 = 0.55) compared with women (PMR/100 = 0.34). Compared with their male peers, women were younger at the time of death (t=3.274; p=.001) and showed shorter drug use careers (t=2.228; p=.028). Heroin use was recorded more frequently in first drug offences of female victims [AOR=6.59 (95% CI 2.97–14.63)] and according to forensic evidence, psychotropic prescription drugs were detected to a higher degree in females [AOR=2.019 (95% CI 1.065–3.827)]. Conclusion The time window between the onset of illicit drug use and its fatal outcome revealed to be shorter for women versus men included in our study. Early intervention in female drug users, routine involvement of first line general health care providers and increased attention to poly and psychotropic prescription drugs’ use might contribute to prevent premature drug-related death and reduce gendered specificities. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-year at university: the effect of academic employability skills and physical quality of life on students’ well-being.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL; Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL

in Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation (2014), 49

With increasing access at European universities, supporting and promoting the high education, students’ mental well-being and generic employability capacities have become priorities, but their respective ... [more ▼]

With increasing access at European universities, supporting and promoting the high education, students’ mental well-being and generic employability capacities have become priorities, but their respective influences, after an adaptation period of seven months, remain unclear. <br />OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationships between students’ well-being and self-perceived academic employability skills, and other social and environmental factors. METHODS: 321 freshmen students at the end of their first year completed an online questionnaire. Two instruments were used to assess well-being: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which explores psychological suffering, and the psychological quality of life subdomain of the Whoqol-bref. RESULTS: Psychological Whoqol-bref scores are linked to the academic employability skills (AES) items of drafting, critical spirit, problem-solving, teamwork, and supervision/direction of others, and has positive effects on AES score and on the following Whoqol-bref domains: physical, social relationships and environmental. Although three of six psychological Whoqol-bref items (ability to concentrate, satisfaction with self, negative feelings) are correlated with GHQ-12 items (sleeping, decision-making, feeling under strain, problem-solving, depression, self-confidence, thinking about self, feeling happy). GHQ-12 score is negatively linked with Whoqol-bref physical. CONCLUSIONS: For better quality of life, and improved employability skills, innovative activities should be developed to ascertain the sustainable academic's abilities of students. [less ▲]

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See detailSanté, comportements de santé et violence parmi les immigrants. Rôle des facteurs socioéconomiques chez les adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens ... [more ▼]

Etudier les problèmes relatifs à la santé (usage de substances, état de santé, symptômes dépressifs, violence physique/verbale et abus sexuel subis, et implication dans la violence) des immigrés européens et non-européens et le rôle des difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. Contexte. Cette enquête transversale a été réalisée sur 1559 adolescents des collèges dans le nord-est de la France. Elle est basée sur un auto-questionnaire, rempli en classe sous la surveillance de l’équipe de recherche, concernant le sexe, l’âge, la nationalité, les caractéristiques socioéconomiques (structure familiale, faible éducation parentale (<bac), profession du père et revenu familial insuffisant), consommation durant les 30 derniers jours d’alcool, tabac, cannabis, drogues dures, faible performance scolaire (note moyenne du dernier trimestre < 10/20), mauvais état de santé et faibles relations sociales (échelle de qualité de vie de l’OMS, WHOOoL-Bref), symptômes dépressifs (mesure de Kandel, score>90ème percentile), violence physique/verbales subie, agression sexuelle subie, et implication dans la violence. Les données sont analysées par les modèles de régression logistiques. Résultats. Les problèmes sont fréquents : usage d’alcool (35,2%), tabac (11,2%), cannabis (5,6)%, drogues dures (2,8%), mauvais état de santé (25,8%), symptômes dépressifs (13,3%), être victime de violence physique/verbale (16,2%) ou d’abus sexuel (3,7%) et implication dans la violence (14,6%). Comparés aux français, les immigrés ont un risque accru pour : usage de tabac (odds ratio ajusté sur le sexe et l’âge 2,04), cannabis (2,33), drogues dures (4,18), mauvais état de santé (1,89), violence subie (1,84) et implication dans la violence (1,77). Les situations socioéconomiques expliquaient respectivement 25%, 9%, 13%, 30%, 12% et 39% de ces risques. L’ajout de relations sociales et de la performance scolaire expliquait respectivement 43%, 20%, 29%, 53%, 24% et 61% des risques. Ces problèmes et les contributions des cofacteurs diffèrent beaucoup entre les immigrés européens et non-européens. Conclusions. Les problèmes relatifs à la santé sont plus fréquents chez les immigrés européens et non-européens que les français. Ils sont fortement expliqués par les difficultés socioéconomiques, relationnelles et scolaires. La prévention pour leur intégration sociale devrait traiter ces problèmes. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial and economic inequalities in fatal opioid and cocaine related overdoses in Luxembourg: A case–control study
Origer, Alain UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Journal of Drug Policy (2014), 25

Background: To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Methods: Cross-examination of national ... [more ▼]

Background: To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Methods: Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case–control study design. Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls, when available, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs 1056 controls were analysed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the respective impact of a series of socioeconomic variables. Results: Being professionally active [OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.45–0.99)], reporting salary as main legal income source [OR = 0.42 (95% CI 0.26–0.67)] and education attainment higher than primary school [OR = 0.50 (95% CI 0.34–0.73)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas the professional status of the father or legal guardian of victims was not significantly associated to fatal overdoses. Conclusions: Socioeconomic inequalities in drug users impact on the occurrence of fatal overdoses. Compared to their peers, users of illicit drugs with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of dying from overdose. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, such as educational attainment and employment, may have a greater predictive value of overdose mortality than the parental socioeconomic status. Education, vocational training and socio-professional reintegration should be part of drug-related mortality prevention policies. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between Psycho-Educational Determinants and Dynamic Career Attitudes among undergradutes students
Karavdic, Senad UL; Karathanasi, Chrysoula UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in Pracana, Clara (Ed.) Psychology Applications & Developments - Advances in Psychology and Psychological Trends Series (2014)

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal services ... [more ▼]

Monitoring and assessment of career attitudes are critical for the student’s preparation for an adapted university-to-work transition. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal services proposed by universities which may enhance students’ generic career capabilities. Our study explored the relationships between the psycho-educational and socio-demographic factors, and the perception of their career attitudes. Bachelor students in social sciences, engineering, applied management from University of Luxembourg were invited to complete a paper pencil questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression models. Of 278 students, 124 participated. The majority studied applied management, were women, unemployed and with six months or less of job experiences. The search for work self-efficacy score is linked to the employability soft-skills and job search techniques scores which are, in parallel, with the quality of life autonomy associated to the dynamic career attitudes. Greater are employability, search for work and quality of life autonomy, the higher are dynamic career attitudes. Students who were in their final academic year also had greater career capabilities. These findings may help to elaborate interventions aiming at improving psycho-educational determinants. It must be stimulated at the entry to university with appropriately collaborative supports, pedagogical workshops and interpersonal trainings. [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruction du processus cumulatif et d’amplification des souffrances :les effets d’une dérive…
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Les Déterminants de la santé (2014)

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les ... [more ▼]

A partir du discours de professionnels de proximité qui côtoient au quotidien les souffrances psychiques de leurs clients, nos objectifs ont été d’analyser les principaux problèmes de santé mentale et les facteurs psychosociaux qui contribuent à l’émergence des souffrances, et participent à leur maintien ou leur développement, et de déterminer leurs besoins et les actions qui pourraient être entreprises pour y répondre. Notre problématique s’inscrit une compréhension des processus présents dans la construction et la reconstruction des souffrances des clients des services sociaux et de santé. Comme aucune information n’existe sur l’accès aux soins en milieu rural, notre étude a tenté d’aborder les mécanismes de la souffrance décrits par les professionnels de proximité. Notre approche a été guidée par les questions suivantes: si la souffrance résulte d’une vision de l’individu sur sa propre existence, quelles valeurs entrent en jeu ? Si la souffrance est appréhendée comme la résultante d’une conduite particulière, dans quelle mesure est-elle aussi un produit social ? Quelles sont les interventions qui couvriraient les besoins de cette clientèle ? Quelles sont les actions qui les amèneraient à acquérir des capacités personnelles et des capabilités sociales pour s’opposer aux effets des souffrances ? Comment lorsque les souffrances interagissent de concert dans des contextes qui leur sont propices, mènent-elles les personnes aux dérives d’un état psychique qui se détériore ? La liste des professionnels de première ligne travaillant auprès de personnes âgées de 18 à 65 ans issues des communes rurales a été établie avec l’aide du comité de pilotage du RE.SO.NORD (REseau du centre SOcial de la région du NORD). Un entretien semi-structuré d’une durée de plus d’une heure a été mené en face à face. A partir des retranscriptions des discours des professionnels, une analyse de contenu a été menée. Les professionnels de proximité ayant participé à l’enquête (sept médecins généralistes, trois psychiatres, neuf assistants sociaux, trois psychologues et sept travailleurs sociaux ; moyenne d’âge 42 ans, dont les femmes sont légèrement plus nombreuses) décrivent les effets d’une dérive en montrant comment les mécanismes en jeu produisent des processus d’amplification des problèmes neuropsychiatriques et d’accumulation des facteurs psychosociaux, et comment ces souffrances peuvent aboutir à des états de santé mentale critiques. Dans cette logique de gradation, les problèmes de santé mentale viennent s’agréger à un ensemble de comportements délétères. Cette gradation illustre un état que les clients atteignent lorsque les sphères intime et sociale se dégradent de concert. Elle représente cet état au cours duquel les personnes semblent avoir comme perdu face à leurs souffrances et ne parviennent plus à s’en relever. Car la di fficulté majeure rencontrée par leurs clients ne réside pas tant dans l’existence avérée d’une souffrance, mais dans l’incapacité à la surmonter. La souffrance dite « émotionnelle » désigne le caractère privé de l’existence et concerne les aspects tels que les comportements liés à l’addiction, aux troubles neuropsychiatriques et psychologiques, aux anxiétés existentielles profondes, et aux conséquences que ces problèmes engendrent sur le bien-être mental via les maladies mentales, font ici sens au regard d’une souffrance, à tout le moins personnelle. La détresse d’ordre psychique agit alors comme le révélateur de la souffrance vécue lorsque la sphère intime de leur existence se dégrade. Quant à a souffrance dite « sociale » est le résultat de l’angoisse perçue quant à la dégradation de leur qualité de vie. Elle se réfère aux conditions psychologiques de vie ainsi qu’aux conditions matérielles de l’e xistence telles que le travail, le logement, le revenu, autant de facteurs qui, lorsque leur pérennité devient incertaine, et affecte la satisfaction à l’égard de la vie des personnes et de son entourage. La mise en avant d’une interaction résultant du choc des sphères émotionnelle et sociale montre qu’un problème survient rarement seul. La question qui demeure, est celle de comprendre si la présence simultanée de divers problèmes découle d’un effet en cascade, du glissement d’un problème vers un autre ou de la présence de facteurs de risque communs à l’apparition de cette souffrance. Dans la mesure où les souffrances sont multiples et s’interpénètrent, les observations des professionnels ont tenté de mettre au jour l’attention particulière qu’il est nécessaire de porter au développement conjoint des diverses trajectoires problématiques, et de leurs comorbidités. Les pistes d’action vers lesquels aboutissent nos résultats s’inscrivent dans les objectifs [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic inequalities in fatal opiate and cocaine related overdoses: Transgenerational baggage versus individual attainments
Origer, Alain UL; Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Health Psychologist (2014)

Background. To determine socioeconomic inequalities in opiates and cocaine related Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases and their implications in terms of preventive measures. Methods. Cross-examination of law ... [more ▼]

Background. To determine socioeconomic inequalities in opiates and cocaine related Fatal OverDose (FOD) cases and their implications in terms of preventive measures. Methods. Cross-examination of law enforcement and healthcare data sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case-control study design. FOD cases were individually matched with 4 controls, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs. 1,056 controls were compared through conditional logistic regression. Findings. Being professionally active [OR=0.662 (95% CI 0.446–0.985)], reporting salary as main income source [OR=0.417 (95% CI 0.258–0.674)], and education attainment higher than primary school [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.344-0.729)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas parental professional status was not associated to FOD. Discussion. Compared to their peers, drug users with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of FOD. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, impacting on daily life quality, such as educational attainment, employment and revenue, appeared to be more predictive of FOD than transgenerational factors such as the parental socioeconomic status. Thus, motivational interventions aimed at socio-professional reintegration should be given due attention in dedicated harm prevention policies. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily caregivers’ health capability: Contribution of, and relations between its dimensions
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Health Psychologist (2014)

Background. Being family caregiver poses certain risks for physical, mental and social health. The health capability paradigm (Ruger, 2010) explores the capacity to achieve one’s optimal health. Family ... [more ▼]

Background. Being family caregiver poses certain risks for physical, mental and social health. The health capability paradigm (Ruger, 2010) explores the capacity to achieve one’s optimal health. Family caregivers’ health capability partly consists of 8 dimensions: physical and psychological functioning, lifestyle value, self-efficacy, family support, social capital, socio-economic conditions and access to health services. Which relations exist between these dimensions, and which ones contribute the most to health capability? Methods. Home-based structured interviews were led among 62 family caregivers living in Luxembourg 2 years after their relatives’ stroke. Twenty items measured the 8 dimensions of health capability. Using a Bayesian approach, a structural equation modelling was applied. Findings. Socio-economic conditions were positively correlated with all the other dimensions. Family caregivers’ fatigue and feeling abandoned by their families impeded their health capability the most. Discussion. Enhancing family caregivers’ well-being involves finding interventions relieving them physically and fostering family networking around the ill, giving priority to the socially disadvantaged. [less ▲]

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See detailInterconfluências: familia, género e saude nas malhas das mudanças
Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Leandro, maria-Engracia; Nogueira, Fernanda; Machado, José Cunha (Eds.) Sauda e Seus Dilemas. Teorias e Praticas Familiares de Saude (2014)

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in InPACT 2014: International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Differences in Learning Difficulty
Chau, Kénora; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2014)

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with ... [more ▼]

Correlates of adolescent learning difficulty may include a number of issues sustained across the life course but this is little documented. This study assessed the associations of learning difficulty with socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. This study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire gathering socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, nationality, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), measured body mass index, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drug use, health status, back pain, allergy, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, social support, learning difficulty (a 4-item scale: lesson understanding, concentration/lesson learning, follow school pace/constraints, and school interrogations, range 0-4), grade repetition, low school performance (last trimester, <10/20), and school dropout contemplation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Learning difficulty score was strongly related to grade repetition (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.38-1.76), low school performance (2.39, 2.08-2.75) and school dropout contemplation (1.79, 1.50-2.13). Learning difficulty was strongly related to socioeconomic factors (gaRC reaching 0.76). It was also related to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drug use (0.22, 0.74, 0.71 and 1.25, respectively), overweight (0.17), obesity (0.43), poor health status (0.45), back pain (0.21), allergy (0.11), depressive symptoms (0.69), sustained violence (0.41), sexual abuse (0.72), and poor social support (0.22). These associations were partly explained by socioeconomic factors (contribution reaching 54% for various factors; it was 109% for alcohol use). These findings suggest that prevention to limit learning difficulty and promote school achievement should focus on socioeconomic, behavior and health-related difficulties in early adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Career Attitudes Effect on Happiness and Life Satisfaction by Master Students and Graduates
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Open Journal of Social Sciences (2014), 2

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and ... [more ▼]

Background: Happiness and life satisfaction are well-known indicators. However, there has been little contribution by the scientific community on the positive career attitudes of master students and graduates. In an effort to provide deeper empirical understanding, the relationships between positive career attitudes, health satisfaction, financial situation and happiness and life satisfaction among master students and graduates were analyzed. Method: A link of online questionnaire was sent by mail to all students which independently of their social economic status obtained a financial aid from the government of Luxembourg, and to all master graduates (ex-students) who havebeen finished with their courses for one year. The data was analyzed using bivariate tests, correlation and multiple linear regression models. Result: 455 voluntary postgraduate/master students vs. 144 graduates participated. Students were younger than the graduates (mean age 26 vs. 29 years). Majority was female and had Luxembourgish nationality. Most graduates had a job and lived with their parents. Luxembourg natives were happier, and those who were living with their parents showed higher life satisfaction. For both samples, self-rated health satisfaction was positively associated with happiness and life satisfaction. For the students, the higher career adaptability and career optimism are, the better the happiness and life satisfaction will be. The higher the perception of the household financial situation is, the better the happiness will be. For graduates, the higher career optimism contributed to the better happiness. Conclusion: Happiness and life satisfaction of master students and graduates were affected, related to socioeconomic and perceived health difficulties, and career attitudes. Those indicators could be used routinely to monitor the situation of young people over time and their needs in terms of adaptability and optimism capabilities, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of university and post university interventions aimed at improving happiness and life satisfaction among postgraduate students and ex-students. [less ▲]

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