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See detailL’éducation pour la santé : une activité intégrée aux programmes du projet Equal-Reset.
Haas, Claude UL; Studer, L.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Institut National de la Promotion, et de l'Education pour la Santé (Ed.) Les journées de la prévention (2008)

Les déterminants majeurs de la non-réinsertion et de la récidive sont la mauvaise santé mentale, une faible estime de soi, mais surtout le manque d’attitudes positives envers le travail telles que la ... [more ▼]

Les déterminants majeurs de la non-réinsertion et de la récidive sont la mauvaise santé mentale, une faible estime de soi, mais surtout le manque d’attitudes positives envers le travail telles que la motivation à avoir un emploi, la responsabilité à l’égard des résultats professionnels. Dans le cadre du projet Equal-reset (Réinsertion Économique et Sociale par l’Éducation et le Travail des détenus), nous avons tenté de montrer qu’il existait un lien entre santé mentale et valeur accordée au travail. Méthodes Parmi les 62 détenus présents au Centre Pénitentiaire de Givenich au moment de l’enquête, 52 ont été volontaires. Variables mesurées à l’aide d’un questionnaire : (1) la santé mentale à l’aide du General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 items) (Goldberg 1972), (2) la valeur attribuée au travail avec l’échelle de centralité du rôle professionnel (Meyers & Houssemand 2007) ; plus le score est élevé plus l’investissement accordé au travail dans la vie est important. Résultats Les détenus représentent une population jeune avec une surreprésentation des 25-34 ans. Une majorité d’entre eux a déjà eu une expérience professionnelle de plus de 24 mois, mais a un niveau d’éducation scolaire inférieur. Plus les détenus attribuent de l’importance au travail, moins ils ont de détresse psychique. Par rapport à un niveau d’instruction scolaire supérieur, un niveau inférieur favorise la dépression. Discussion Plus les détenus accordent de l’importance au travail, moins ils paraissent en souffrance psychologique ; les moins instruits étant les plus concernés. Développer des habitudes positives envers le travail dans le sens d'une motivation accrue pour la tâche est un moyen pour favoriser leur réadaptation et leur insertion dans la société, mais cela représente aussi des activités structurantes qui permettent aux détenus pendant le temps de la détention de garder ou de se reconstruire un équilibre mental. L’innovation du projet EQUAL-RESET a été de concevoir un dispositif comportant : • un accompagnement personnalisé assuré par un case manager du Service Psycho-Socio-Educatif selon la méthodologie de l’Empowerment Case Management ; • trois programmes d’accompagnement : Emploi & Employabilité, Enseignement & Formation, Développement Personnel (activités d’éducation pour la santé). Un parcours individualisé et un soutien psychologique sont recommandés pour aider les détenus à mieux exploiter leur potentiel dans les programmes d’accompagnement proposés. [less ▲]

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See detailMental health (GHQ12; CES-D) and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg
Baumann, Michèle UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Public Health (2008), 8(214),

Aim: To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU) trying to return to work. Method: Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a ... [more ▼]

Aim: To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU) trying to return to work. Method: Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a semi-open prison (Givenich Penitentiary Centre, the only such unit in Luxembourg), and 69 LTU registered at the Luxembourg Employment Administration completed a questionnaire exploring: 1) mental health (measured by means of scales GHQ12 and CES-D); 2) employment commitment; 3) availability of a support network, selfesteem, empowerment; and 4) socio-demographic characteristics. Results: Compared with LTU, inmates were younger, more had work experience (54.9% vs 26.1%), and more were educated to only a low level (71.1% vs 58.0%). The link between employment commitment and mental health in the LTU was the opposite of that seen among the prisoners: the more significant the perceived importance of employment, the worse the mental health (GHQ12 p = 0.003; CES-D p < 0.001) of the LTU; in contrast, among prisoners, the GHQ12 showed that the greater the perceived value of work, the lower the psychic distress (p = 0.012). Greater empowerment was associated with less depression in both populations. The education levels of people who did not reach the end of secondary school, whether inmates or LTU, were negatively linked with their mental equilibrium. Conclusion: The two groups clearly need professional support. Future research should further investigate the link between different forms of professional help and mental health. Randomized controlled trials could be carried out in both groups, with interventions to improve work commitment for prisoners and to help with getting a job for LTU. For those LTU who value employment but cannot find it, the best help may be psychological support. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial inequalities and correlates of alcohol abuse among young adults.
Spitz, E.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology and Health (2008), 23(suppl. 1), 242

is a public health problem. This study assessed social disparities in alcohol abuse among young adults and whether they were mediated by psychological and social characteristics. Methods: 1,905 people ... [more ▼]

is a public health problem. This study assessed social disparities in alcohol abuse among young adults and whether they were mediated by psychological and social characteristics. Methods: 1,905 people aged 18-34, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic models. Findings: Alcohol abuse was common: 18.7%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, significant OR adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (159, 95%CI 1.05-2.42) and employees (1.55, 1.02-2.37) but not for other professionals, students, housewives, and unemployed people. Adjusting for all confounders did not reduce the OR for manual workers (1.48) and employees (1.56). The significant confounders were: sex, living alone, poor health, hearing/cognitive disabilities, being not-sociable, aggressive, and low income (1.28≤OR≤4.25). Discussion: There are social disparities in alcohol abuse among young adults, but they are slightly mediated by individual confounders. [less ▲]

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See detailDrugs and poverty: socioeconomic conditions and vulnerability.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Scientific Conference (2008)

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See detailHow patients perceive the therapeutic communications skills of their general practitioners, and how that perception affects adherence: use of the TCom-skill GP scale in a specific geographical area
Baumann, Michèle UL; Baumann, Cédric; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Health Services Research (2008), 8

To study: (1) the structure and test-retest reliability of a measure of how patients perceive the therapeutic communications skills of their general practitioners (TCom-skill GP), and (2) the associations ... [more ▼]

To study: (1) the structure and test-retest reliability of a measure of how patients perceive the therapeutic communications skills of their general practitioners (TCom-skill GP), and (2) the associations of that scale with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, and adherence. Methods: A total of 393 people who lived in the same geographic area and invited to attend a preventive medical centre for a check up were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning TCom-skill GP (15 items), socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, and to answer two questions on perceived adherence. Results: The average age of respondents was 46.8 years (SD 14), and 50.4% were men. The TCom-skill GP score was one-dimensional, had high internal coherence (Cronbach α 0.92), and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.74). The overall score was positively related to increasing age. Respondents aged 60+ were more likely to be adherent. The higher the score, the higher the probability of adherence. Multivariate analysis showed that the TCom-skill score was associated with advancing age and the number of consultations with the GP during the previous 3 months, but not with gender, living alone, being employed, job category or educational level. Multivariate analysis also showed that adherence was associated with TCom-skill GP score which concealed the association between adherence and advancing age observed in univariate analysis. Conclusion: The TCom-skill GP scale probably has value in assessing the quality of doctor-patient relationships and therapeutic communications. The psychometric properties of the TCom-skill GP scale were appropriate for its use in this context. Adherence related to the TCom-skill GP and the latter related to the age of patients and the number of their previous consultations. The TCom-skill GP scale may be a useful way to assess, in a specific geographical location, the impact of medical professional training on therapeutic communication. [less ▲]

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See detailInégalités de santé mentale: à propos des détenus du projet Equal-Reset Luxembourg sur l'employabilité
Baumann, Michèle UL; Haas, Claude UL

in Sociologie Santé (2008), 28

Notre étude a tenté d’analyser l’effet de déterminants sociaux sur les inégalités de santé mentale. Les détenus rencontrés montrent globalement des signes de moins bons états psychiques. L’hypothèse d’un ... [more ▼]

Notre étude a tenté d’analyser l’effet de déterminants sociaux sur les inégalités de santé mentale. Les détenus rencontrés montrent globalement des signes de moins bons états psychiques. L’hypothèse d’un processus indirect d'amplification peut se concevoir. Le niveau d’instruction des détenus les moins instruits, c’est-à-dire n'ayant pas atteint la fin du cycle secondaire, est corrélé à un moins bon état de santé mentale. L’existence d’un lien entre « niveau d’études » et « état mental » soulève la question du processus cumulatif des déterminants sociaux dans la construction des inégalités de santé. Ces résultats permettent de mieux comprendre comment concevoir, pour y remédier, des dispositifs d’accompagnement intervenant tant sur la santé, l’acquisition des compétences sociales que sur l’éducation, la formation et l’employabilité. Réduire les inégalités passe donc, inévitablement, par l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins, mais aussi, entre autres, par l’amélioration de l’accès à l’éducation. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender differentials: a population-based study
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, Elisabeth; Guillemin, F. et al

in International Journal of Health Geographics (2007), 2

The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge ... [more ▼]

The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods: The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in northeastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia). A deprivation score (D) was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Results: Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9%) and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%), whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%). Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3), alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3) and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3). These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women). Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion: Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial measures. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, Elisabeth

in Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2007), 2(21), 21-31

There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and ... [more ▼]

There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives: This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods: Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 thirdyear psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a selfadministered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results: MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion: Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth status among French, Polish and Romanian students
Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL et al

in Health Psychology and Society. Congressboock (2007)

Research question. Students face many school and living difficulties which alter health status and favour substance use which were assessed in this study among university students from France, Poland and ... [more ▼]

Research question. Students face many school and living difficulties which alter health status and favour substance use which were assessed in this study among university students from France, Poland and Romania. Methods. In total 934 French, 480 Polish, and 195 Romanian students from the Universities of Metz, Iaşi, and Silésie, completed a self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed using adjusted odds ratios (OR) and variance analysis taking age and sex into account, vs. French. Results. Mean age 20 (SD = 2) years. Female represented 58% French and 80% Polish/Romanian. Although most students were satisfied with their university integration (81-97%), many students had deteriorated heath status compared with the period before the university (13-22%), suffered from tiredness (11-85%), nervousness (42-56%), sleep disorders (19-48%), financial difficulty (15-39%), and being alone (8-23%). Were also common increasing tobacco use (15-32%), alcohol use every day (15-40%), tranquilizer pill use (1-6%), hashish/marijuana use (2-42%), suicide thinking (15-19%), and frequent consultation of health professionals (7-30%). Bad heath status was more frequent among French and Romanian overall, and suicide thinking among Polish. Higher PSS-14 and GHQ-12 scores among Polish compared with their French counterparts who used more hashish/marijuana. Satisfied social support was similar between the three groups. Conclusion. A better guidance for those who are in need of adapted mental health care seem nevertheless recommended to support them through their university success. [less ▲]

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See detailDo male and female adolescents differ in the effect of individual and family characteristics on their use of psychotropic drugs?
Spitz, E.; Chau, N.; Predine, R. et al

in Abstract book of 10th European Congress of Psychology (2007)

Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, self-reported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logistic models. Results. The prevalence of frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness/anxiety, insomnia) was 43.0% overall; twice as high among girls than boys. In girls, frequent psychotropic drug use was associated with frequent tiredness during the daytime (adjusted odds ratio OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.61-2.57), smoking (2.02, 1.50-2.71), alcohol use (1.34, 1.04-1.74), higher body mass index (18 kg/m2, 1.54, 1.16-2.04), poor family atmosphere (1.33, 1.03-1.72), and being worried (1.93, 1.53-2.43) or easily becoming irritable (1.28, 1.01-1.62). In boys the factors with significant ORs were frequent tiredness during the daytime (2.21, 1.67-2.93), alcohol use (1.52, 1.15-2.01), and being worried (1.70, 1.28-2.26) or easily becoming irritable (1.42, 1.06-1.89); univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship with smoking and family atmosphere. An association was also observed for illicit drug in both sexes and for age17 years in girls. Conclusions. Individual and family characteristics have marked influences on psychotropic drug use among both male and female adolescents. This finding may be useful for the psychologists, the physicians, the parents and the school staff to be more aware of the risks and to find remedial measures. [less ▲]

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See detailContent of quality-of-life instruments is affected by item-generation methods
Rat, A. C.; Pouchot, J.; Guillemin, F. et al

in International Journal for Quality in Health Care (2007), 19(6), 390-398

Methods used to generate items for complex measurement scales are heterogeneous and probably produce heterogeneous data, yet nothing is known about the advantages of one method over another. Objective. We ... [more ▼]

Methods used to generate items for complex measurement scales are heterogeneous and probably produce heterogeneous data, yet nothing is known about the advantages of one method over another. Objective. We aimed to compare methods of generating items for tools designed to measure quality-of-life for patients. Methods. We used five methods to develop a quality-of-life instrument for patients with lower-limb osteoarthritis: individual interviews with patients involving two different techniques (semi-structured and cognitive), individual interviews with health professionals, and focus groups of patients and health professionals. The process generated 80 items, of which 37 were excluded after content and psychometric analysis. With the final 43-item scale used as a ‘reference standard’, we estimated the contribution of each method. Results. For health professionals, the focus group and individual interviews produced 35 and 81% of the items, respectively. For patients, the focus groups produced 74% of the items and both interview techniques 100% of the items. Health professionals provided a narrower picture of the effects of the disease on quality-of-life. Focus groups contributed less to social domains than did individual interviews. The two patient interview techniques highlighted different themes. Conclusion. In developing a complex measurement scale for patients, we found individual interviews with patients the best method for formulating items; other methods such as physician interviews and focus groups contributed no additional information. Reports of instrument generation should include details of the item-generation step, the methods used to develop items and the number of people involved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'aphasie, principal facteur aggravant du vécu d'un AVC par les proches
Aïach, P.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revue de Médecine (2007), 3(3), 130-135

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See detailUtilisation d'un modèle de réponse à l'item pour la validation d'une échelle des attitudes professionnelles des médecins généralistes
Le Bihan, Etienne UL; Baumann, Cédric; Alla, François et al

in Journal of Educational Measurement and Applied Cognitive Sciences (2007)

Nous avons développé une échelle des attitudes professionnelles des médecins généralistes destinée à évaluer le niveau de communication thérapeutique dispensé durant les consultations. La construction de ... [more ▼]

Nous avons développé une échelle des attitudes professionnelles des médecins généralistes destinée à évaluer le niveau de communication thérapeutique dispensé durant les consultations. La construction de l'échelle a abouti à un questionnaire constitué de 15 items à 10 modalités de réponse allant de "Jamais" à "Toujours". Après avoir étudié les propriétés métriques de l’échelle selon une méthodologie classique, nous avons employé un modèle de réponse à l’item (le Generalized Partial Credit Model, GPCM) pour explorer un éventuel fonctionnement différentiel d’item (FDI) selon le genre des individus. Le modèle a été construit dans un cadre bayésien en utilisant un algorithme MCMC. La détection du FDI est basée sur le test de rapport de vraisemblance, en comparant le modèle de référence où tous les paramètres associés aux items sont communs aux hommes et aux femmes, à un modèle incluant deux ensembles de paramètres distincts selon le genre des individus pour un item particulier. La démarche a été appliquée aux 338 observations de l'échantillon de validation ne comportant pas de données manquantes. Parmi les 15 items de l'échelle, seul l'item 6 ("Mon médecin m’informe sur les effets secondaires des médicaments") présente un FDI significatif au niveau de signification de 5% (p = 0.016). Cet item est plus discriminant chez les hommes. De plus, il semble que, à un niveau de communication thérapeutique égal, les hommes ont une probabilité supérieure aux femmes de répondre aux catégories les plus élevées. Finalement, nous avons décidé de ne pas écarter cet item car 1) le FDI est modéré (si nous ajustons le test pour les comparaisons multiples, celui-ci n'est plus significatif au niveau 5%) et 2) nous n'avons aucune interprétation qualitative de cette différence. [less ▲]

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See detailRepenser la santé mentale: à propos du projet EQUAL-RESET sur l'employabilité des détenus
Baumann, Michèle UL; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Haas, Claude UL

in Comité, Scientifique (Ed.) Politiques publiques et pratiques professionnelles face aux inégalités sociales de santé (2007)

Faire de la prison un temps utile (formation, éducation, santé) pour favoriser la réinsertion et limiter la récidive résume les règles pénitentiaires européennes et les recommandations du Conseil de ... [more ▼]

Faire de la prison un temps utile (formation, éducation, santé) pour favoriser la réinsertion et limiter la récidive résume les règles pénitentiaires européennes et les recommandations du Conseil de l’Europe. Aujourd'hui, la prison a pour mission l’exécution des peines, mais aussi celle de préparer les individus à chercher, trouver et conserver un emploi. Formation, éducation, travail en ateliers, régime de la semi-liberté sont des activités proposées aux détenus du Centre Pénitentiaire de Givenich (CPG). Pour participer au programme EQUAL-RESET*, la santé mentale constitue un atout pour les détenus qui souhaitent s'investir dans les activités, elle représente un déterminant de poids dans l'acquisition des compétences relatives à l'employabilité. Des entretiens avec le personnel du CPG nous ont cependant conduits à nous interroger sur l'influence que pouvait avoir le niveau d'instruction sur la santé mentale des détenus et sur l'utilisation du dispositif existant. Méthodologie. Sur 77 détenus, 52 ont accepté de participer à l'enquête. Ils ont été interrogés au moyen d'un questionnaire auto-administré et de deux questions ouvertes posées en face à face par un enquêteur. La santé mentale a été appréciée à l’aide 2 échelles validées: les dimensions psychologique et relations sociales du World Health Organization Quality Of Life (WHOQOL) et le CES-Dépression global. Parallèlement, le rôle du travail dans la vie, la capacité à se prendre en mains (Making Decision Empowerment), le nombre de personnes sur qui ils peuvent compter, la fréquence des idées de suicide, la consommation de tabac et de psychotropes ont également été mesurés. Résultats. Sur l’ensemble des détenus, 75% fument (20 cigarettes en moyenne par jour) et 33% prennent des psychotropes. Environ 56% ont un niveau d'instruction inférieur ou égal à 9 années d’étude. Parmi eux, 52% ont moins de 30 ans et 67% sont peu satisfaits de leurs relations sociales (contre 23%). Un niveau d'études moyen ou supérieur est associé à une meilleure santé mentale ainsi qu'à un score plus élevé attribué au rôle du travail dans la vie. Ces scores et celui de l'empowerment sont d'autant plus faibles que la consommation de médicaments anti-dépresseurs et les idées de suicide sont plus fréquentes. Des scores faibles de qualité de vie et d'empowerment sont associés à une consommation de tranquillisants. Les problèmes de santé évoqués par les détenus sont essentiellement la dépression et la toxicomanie. Ils ont conscience que ces problèmes sont un frein à leur réinsertion et demandent qu’ils soient pris en charge pendant leur incarcération et non après. Discussion. Un effet cumulatif et d'amplification existe. La non prise en compte des problèmes de santé mentale chez les détenus n'ayant pas atteint la fin du cycle secondaire, pénalise ces derniers pendant leur séjour en prison, mais aussi à leur sortie : lors de la détention, le détenu ne peut pas suivre de manière satisfaisante le programme de réinsertion qui lui est offert, et à sa sortie, au lieu d'être employable, il doit d'abord envisager de se soigner, ce qu'il fait avec réticence car il est débordé par les difficultés du retour à la vie normale. L'équité d'accès à la formation et à l’éducation, nécessite de repenser la santé mentale comme partie intégrante d’un dispositif d’accompagnement global des détenus. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the expectations osteoarthritis patients have concerning healthcare, and their implications for practitioners
Baumann, Michèle UL; Euller-Ziegler, L.; Guillemin, F.

in Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology (2007), 25

The expectations of patients with osteoarthritis are essential for health care provision and may be used to improve the patient-doctor relationship. Methods: A total of 96 osteoarthritis patients aged 42 ... [more ▼]

The expectations of patients with osteoarthritis are essential for health care provision and may be used to improve the patient-doctor relationship. Methods: A total of 96 osteoarthritis patients aged 42-89 years (mean = 65; 81% female) were recruited among customers of 10 pharmacies in 10 towns in 10 regions (selected at random from the 22 French regions). Ten focus groups were organized looking at three categories of expectation: 1) Information about and understanding of osteoarthritis; its impact on lifestyle, and its treatment, consequences, and outlook; 2) Communication skills, attitudes of practitioners and communication between health professionals; 3) Support available from doctors, family circle and society. Results: The patient-practitioner relationship begins with a dialogue. Participants suggested that its quality can be improved by: Developing greater trust: patients expect communication skills and expressions of sympathy that practitioners seem ill-prepared to provide. Strengthening involvement: general practitioners in particular should act as mediators and facilitators to improve recognition and understanding of osteoarthritis by employers and public decision-makers. Conclusions: The present study enabled patients to express their expectations. Meeting those expectations could markedly improve the therapeutic process, but the question arises of whether practitioners are ready to agree that there is a need to reconsider and modify the care they provide for their patients. [less ▲]

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See detailL'aphasie, principal facteur aggravant du vécu d'un AVC par l’entourage
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2007)

La survenue d’AVC est un événement majeur dans la vie de la victime et de son entourage, amenant des bouleversements considérables tant sociaux que psychoaffectifs. Notre étude a porté sur les ... [more ▼]

La survenue d’AVC est un événement majeur dans la vie de la victime et de son entourage, amenant des bouleversements considérables tant sociaux que psychoaffectifs. Notre étude a porté sur les conséquences de cet évènement sur la famille proche, notamment le conjoint, du malade qui en a été victime. L’hypothèse posée est que parmi les différentes gravités, les AVC qui ont entraîné une aphasie grave, voire totale, sont plus dramatiques que celles où les déficiences étaient seulement physiques. La question de la stigmatisation est ainsi posée : elle semble en grande partie liée à certaines représentations sociales du handicap physique et mental et à leur intériorisation par le malade et par son entourage proche. L’objectif de l’enquête quantitative était de comparer le retentissement familial et social, en particulier chez les conjoints, en fonction de la nature de l’atteinte (ici présence ou non d’une aphasie) Parmi les variables de différenciation, le fait d’être aphasique ou non à la suite de l’AVC est celle qui est la plus discriminante. [less ▲]

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See detailFavoriser l'employabilité des détenus: à propos du projet PRIMA
Haas, Claude UL; Schmitz, J.-F.; Mersch, M. et al

in Université, de Tunis (Ed.) Colloque international "ruptures dans la société de l'information et l'économie du savoir". (2007)

De la logique de détention à la logique de réinsertion, la lutte contre les discriminations de populations marginalisées - comme celle des détenus - dans le marché du travail et dans la société en général ... [more ▼]

De la logique de détention à la logique de réinsertion, la lutte contre les discriminations de populations marginalisées - comme celle des détenus - dans le marché du travail et dans la société en général, occupe une place importante dans le Programme d’Initiative Communautaire EQUAL. Dans le cadre du projet transnational PRIMA (Policies and Strategies for Prison Management), l’équipe luxembourgeoise a pris la gestion de l’atelier « Empowerment ». Avec l’aide des partenaires portugais et français, les trois équipes tentent de construire un dispositif développant la participation active des détenus à l’amélioration de leur employabilité. Comment introduire des changements de pratique lorsque les citoyens ne perçoivent pas ce qui vient de l'Europe sociale et ce que leur apporte l'Etat-Providence national, lorsque la subsidiarité cache le modèle social européen axé sur l'égalité de traitement en matière d'emploi ? [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between multiple deprivation and tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, E.; Chau, N.

in Proceedings of 10th European Congress
of Psychology
(2007)

Objectives. To assess the relationships of multiple deprivation and gender differences towards tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. Design and methods. The sample included 6,216 subjects, aged 15 ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To assess the relationships of multiple deprivation and gender differences towards tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. Design and methods. The sample included 6,216 subjects, aged 15 years, randomly selected in north-eastern France who completed a mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed with the logistic model. Results. Multiple deprivation (noted MD, defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployment, living alone, nationality (other than Western Europe), low income, and non-home-ownership) concerned many people: 37.4% for MD1, 21.2% for MD2, 10.0% for MD≥3. Tobacco and excess alcohol use was more frequent in men than in women (30.2% vs. 21.9%, 12.5% vs. 3.3%, p<0.001) contrarily to frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness/anxiety, insomnia, 23.8% vs. 41.0%, p<0.001). The MD was strongly related to tobacco use (odds ratio 1.16, 95%CI 1.00-1.34 for MD1; 1.49, 1.27-1.74 for MD2; 1.93, 1.59-2.35 for MD≥3; vs. MD0) as well as to excess alcohol use (1.19, 0.94-1.52 for MD1; 1.32, 1.01-1.73 for MD2; 1.80, 1.32-2.46 for MD≥3; vs. MD0) and to frequent psychotropic drug use (1.26, 1.11-1.44 for MD1; 1.51, 1.30-1.75 for MD2; 1.91, 1.58-2.30 for MD≥3; vs. MD0). Marked relationships were observed between the MD and the use of those substances in active/non-retired inactive men and women (except for excess alcohol use in female). In retired people, the MD was associated with tobacco and psychotropic use in men only. Conclusion. Multiple deprivation may favour tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. The psychologists may find gender differences remedial measures. [less ▲]

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See detailDétresse psychologique et stratégies de coping des étudiants en première année universitaire
Spitz, E.; Constantini, ML.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revue Francophone du Stress et du Trauma (2007), 7(3), 215-225

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