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See detailIncreased residual disability among post-stroke survivors, and differences in the repercussions between informal caregivers.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL

in Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation (2011), 18(2), 162-171

Purpose: To analyze the associations between increased residual disability among poststroke survivors and the repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking into account the latter’s gender ... [more ▼]

Purpose: To analyze the associations between increased residual disability among poststroke survivors and the repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking into account the latter’s gender and education level. Methods: 215 stroke survivors (64.5 years; 55.8% men) were recruited by one neurologist from each of the 22 French regions. Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) was mean 9.3, and 54% still had impairments in “more than two of the six neurological domains” of the American Heart Association Stroke Outcome Classifi cation (AHA.SOC): motor,sensory, vision, affect, cognition, and language. The 215 caregivers (57.8 years; 72.1% women) completed a face-to-face questionnaire concerning their social (8 items), material (4 items), and emotional (8 items) repercussions. Results: Katz ADL and AHA.SOC were significantly related to social repercussions for caregivers. Lack of autonomy among stroke survivors (low Katz ADL) was associated with the material diffi culties of most concern to caregivers: “I needed to move house” (odds ratio [OR] 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27) and “I cannot go out anymore” (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.16-1.44). Being a male caregiver was strongly associated with a feeling of injustice (OR 2.53; 95% CI, 1.07-6.00). A low educational level was linked to an increased feeling of fear (OR 2.61; 95% CI, 1.05-6.51) and a greater feeling of isolation (OR 6.49; 95% CI, 1.20-35.02). Conclusion: Increased dependency post stroke leads to impoverishment in the caregiver’s social relationships. Evaluating the emotional repercussions, particularly for men, is an important aspect of enabling survivors to continue to live at home.Innovative accompaniment and counseling services should be considered.repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking account of the latter’s gender and education level. [less ▲]

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See detailSQALES, Student’s QuAlity of Life and Employability Skills : l’évaluation-conseil au service de l’Université
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Evaluation et enseignement supérieur (2011)

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d’évaluation communs et des guides ... [more ▼]

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d’évaluation communs et des guides visent, au nom du processus d’harmonisation, à diffuser les « bonnes pratiques » dans tous les pays participants. Les universités sont sommées d’être productives et d’adopter une gestion rationnelle de l’ensemble de leurs ressources. Ainsi les programmes sont généralement évalués a posteriori à l’aide d’indicateurs de performance comme les taux de réussite aux examens ou d’insertion professionnelle des diplômés, et la pratique généralisée du benchmarking tend à favoriser l’utilisation de ces statistiques descriptives pour effectuer des comparaisons puis des classements nationaux et internationaux (Shanghai, Times Higher Education). Cependant certains enseignants et chercheurs souhaitent, dans une perspective holistique, considérer également le bien-être et le développement personnel des étudiants. Le dispositif SQALES, testé auprès d’un échantillon de 282 étudiants belges, luxembourgeois et roumains, propose une approche de l’évaluation novatrice reposant sur la perception qu’ont les étudiants de leurs compétences relatives à l’employabilité (échelle CRE), de leur santé psychologique (GHQ12) et de leur sentiment d’appartenance à la vie étudiante (échelle d’Identité Sociale d’Étudiant, ISE). Cette évaluation-conseil s’appuie sur une démarche compréhensive qui tient compte du contexte local et implique les bénéficiaires en tant que partenaires du processus décisionnel. Réalisée en cours de cursus, elle permet de prendre en compte en « temps réel » les difficultés rencontrées par les apprenants et d’adapter les curricula à leurs besoins, lesquels évoluent au fil de la formation, en fonction de leur construction identitaire. L’évaluateur n’agit pas en juge, mais encourage la réflexivité des acteurs et des institutions. La recherche d’un consensus concernant les ajustements à réaliser permet de réduire l’écart entre les besoins ressentis et les dispositions prises, décisions dont elle permet d’obtenir une meilleure tolérance et une mise en œuvre facilitée. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of caregiving-related esteem among informal caregivers in Luxembourg, two years after their care-recipients’ stroke.
Bucki, Barbara UL; Spitz, Elisabeth; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology and Health (2011), 26(suppl 2), 86

Mental health promotion policies are concerned by informal caregivers’ (ICs) suffering. What are the determinants of ICs’ caregiving-related esteem? Methods: (a) Crosssectional study. (b)62 Luxemburgish ... [more ▼]

Mental health promotion policies are concerned by informal caregivers’ (ICs) suffering. What are the determinants of ICs’ caregiving-related esteem? Methods: (a) Crosssectional study. (b)62 Luxemburgish ICs of stroke-survivors 2-year-post-event. (c)Variables: oCaregiver Reaction Assessment’s (CRA) five dimensions: caregiving-related esteem (dependent variable), impact of caregiving on health, impact on finances, impact on schedule, lack of family support, oCaregiver Satisfaction with Community Services scale, oLeisure/ couple changes/social repercussions scores. (d) Regressions adjusted on ICs’ sex and age. (e)Multiple regression including significant factors. Findings: (a) Caregiving-related esteem is determined by social repercussions (p¼0.002**), changes in couples (p¼0.004**), impact on health (p¼0.004**) and three CSCS’ dimensions: confidence (p¼0.012*), problem management (p¼0.034*) and information about stroke (p¼0.040*). (b) ICs with high caregiving related esteem (R2 adjusted¼0.275) are weakly impacted on their own health ( ¼ 0.39; p¼0.011*) and on their couple life ( ¼ 0.36; p¼0.026*). Discussion: Support programs centred on ICs’ caregiving-related esteem can reinforce ICs’ health capability. [less ▲]

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See detailAn assessment of the geographical approach to health inequality
Aiach, Pierre; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Critical Public Health (2011), 21(1), 63-69

New interest is being shown in the geographical approach to health inequality at both the research and the service provider level. The scientific and methodological basis of this approach does not take ... [more ▼]

New interest is being shown in the geographical approach to health inequality at both the research and the service provider level. The scientific and methodological basis of this approach does not take into consideration the social structure and the history of the locations/communities under investigation. The analysis of geographical differences must be verified and consideration given to possible variations in internal health inequalities between entities compared. Our approach to health inequalities is based on the theory that social health inequalities are essentially the final product of living conditions and lifestyle taking account of individual and collective history. [less ▲]

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See detailGender and age disparities in the associations of occupational factors with alcohol abuse and smoking in the French working population
Legleye, Stephane; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (2011), 59

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily ... [more ▼]

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily smoking among working French men and women in different age groups. Methods. – The sample included 13,241 working people, 18–29, 30–39, and 40–59-years-old, randomly selected in France and interviewed by phone. Occupation, type of employment, physical demands, psychological demands, job dissatisfaction, gender, age, educational level, and income were considered. Data were analyzed with logistic models. Results. – Alcohol abuse affected 20.4% of men and 7.5% of women; smoking 32.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Their patterns of association with the occupational factors varied with gender and age. Job dissatisfaction was the leading factor among young men (adjusted odds ratio for alcohol abuse and smoking: 1.71 and 2.02), whereas short-term employment was the leading factor among young women (1.69 and 1.58), this pattern being reversed in older generations. The pattern of associations of physical and psychological demands with outcomes is more complex, but overall psychological demands were more important for women (especially the younger ones) than men, especially for smoking (OR > 1.6). Smoking within 5 min after waking was much more common among male and female smokers with these occupational factors, suggesting a potential dependency. Conclusions. – Workers with short-term employment and occupational demands are subject to a higher risk for alcohol abuse and smoking with high gender and age disparities. Gender and age should be considered when designing measures to prevent substance abuse related to occupation. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between occupational factors and occupational injury and the interplay of personal factors in Indian and French coal miners.
Bhattacherjee, A.; Kunar, BM.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes (2011)

Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at ... [more ▼]

Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at assessing the roles of occupational hazards and exploring their contributions to the occurrences of injuries among the Indian and French coal miners. In this study two surveys were conducted. The survey in India was a matched case-control study including 245 miners with an occupational injury during the previous two-year period and 245 controls with no injury from two underground coal mines located in the southern part of India. A standardized questionnaire was completed by trained personnel through face-to-face interviews. It included age, experience, sleep disorders, regular alcohol consumption, chronic diseases, smoking habit, number of dependents, occupation, and occupational hazards. The survey in France was a retrospective study on 516 coal miners randomly selected among those aged 32-47 years, from underground mines located in the north-eastern France. The subjects completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, obesity, chronic diseases, psychotropic drug use, self-reportedpersonality traits, a 14-item biomechanical exposure scale, a 4-item physical exposure scale, and injury during the last two years. The data were analyzed using logistic model for the coal mines in France. The conditional logistic model was used for the matched case–control data from Indian mines. The annual rate of injuries (with sick leave) was 2.7% for the coal miners in India and 14.9% for the coal miners in France. Logistic model including all occupational factors showed that for the Indian coal miners, material handling had the highest OR (odds ratio) (3.30), followed by achinerelated hazards (2.64), hand tool-related hazards (2.21), environment/work conditions (2.10), and geological/strata control (2.01). Further adjustment for personal factors led to a substantial decrease in the OR for hand tool-related hazards (OR 1.24, reduction: 80%) and achine-related hazards (OR 1.19, reduction: 88%) and to a substantial increase in the OR for material handling (OR 5.15, - 80%), environment/work conditions (OR 2.63, -48%), and geological/strata control (to 2.35, -34%) for Indian mines. Among the French coal mines, the ORs were 3.01, 3.47, 7.26 for biomechanical exposure scores 1-4, 5-7, and ≥ 8, respectively (vs. score 0). For French coal miners, personal factors contributed to <6% of the biomechanical exposure-injury association. Among Indian coal miners, hand tool-related and machine-related hazards were significant for the <45 age group only and further adjustment for personal factors led to a decrease in their ORs by 91% and 35%, respectively. The OR for material handling increased by 513% for the <45 years age group and by 77% for the older age group. The OR for environment/work conditions increased by 65% for the <45 years age group and by 204% for the older age group. Among French coal miners further adjustment for personal factors increased the OR by 11% for the <40 years age group and decreased the OR by 26% for the older age group. Coal miners from India and France were exposed to numerous occupational hazards which played high roles in occupational injury. Personal factors had a modest confounding role among French coal miners. About the Indian coal miners, it may possibly be inferred that the combined role of personal factors increased the risk of injury for some occupational hazards such as hand tool-related hazards and machine-related hazards This knowledge may be useful when designing prevention for occupational injury. [less ▲]

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See detailAccompagner, à leur domicile, des personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral : des perceptions différentes entre femmes et hommes
Bucki, Barbara UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Genre et parcours de vie Enfance, adolescence, vieillesse. (2011)

Au Grand-duché de Luxembourg, les aidants informels qui accompagnent au quotidien des personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) sont de plus en plus nombreux (OMS, 2004 ). L’évènement ... [more ▼]

Au Grand-duché de Luxembourg, les aidants informels qui accompagnent au quotidien des personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) sont de plus en plus nombreux (OMS, 2004 ). L’évènement majeur que représente l’AVC amène-t-il les femmes et les hommes à percevoir différemment la vie ? Notre étude tente de comparer et d’analyser, deux ans après la survenue d’un AVC, les répercussions psychosociales chez les aidants et les aidantes. A leur domicile, 41 femmes âgées de 59,1 ans (σ = 13,9) et 21 hommes âgés de 59,6 ans (σ = 13,9) ont accepté de répondre volontairement en face à face à un(e) enquêteur/trice. Le questionnaire comportait 1) la mesure de l’autonomie des victimes de l’AVC évaluée par les aidants à l’aide de l’index de Barthel (échelle 0 à 100) ; 2) la satisfaction à l’égard de la vie (échelle 0 à 10) ; 3) les assertions traduites et adaptées du Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) (Given et al., 1992 ) ; 4) des questions sur l’évolution, depuis l’AVC, de la répartition des tâches, des rôles et des responsabilités au sein du foyer. <br />D’après les aidants/tes, le degré d’autonomie des personnes victimes d’AVC (âge moyen 64,8 ans ; σ = 14,1) dont ils/elles s’occupent, ne présente aucune différence significative (moyenne générale 82,2 ; σ = 28,7). Ce sont les hommes qui déclarent avoir la meilleure satisfaction à l’égard de la vie (t = - 2,52** ). D’après les scores obtenus aux dimensions du CRA, ce sont les femmes qui paraissent le plus affectées par le retentissement sur leur santé (t = 2,06**), les retombées sur l’organisation des activités quotidiennes (t = 2,54**) et le manque de soutien familial (t = 2,18**). Aucune différence entre femmes et hommes n’est mise en évidence dans le partage de la plupart des tâches quotidiennes. Il en est de même pour les scores du CRA de l’impact financier et de l’estime de soi, qui sont d’ailleurs perçues de manière positive. Cependant, les femmes reconnaissent se sentir « toujours fatiguées » (56% vs 16,7% **) et centrer leurs activités autour des soins (76,5% vs 38,9% **). Elles ne parviennent pas à trouver du temps pour pouvoir se détendre (45,5% vs 6,7% ***) et ont l’impression que les autres se sont déchargés sur elles (52,6% vs 16,7% **). Elles assurent plus qu’avant les rapports avec les professionnels (52% vs 6,3% ***) et des responsabilités au sein du foyer (37,5% vs 5,9% ***). L’AVC a modifié les parcours de vie en mobilisant des compétences culturelles et des ressources psychologiques liées au genre. Des interventions contribuant à renforcer les « health capabilities » des hommes et des femmes devraient permettre aux aidants de bénéficier d’un appui dans le maintien à domicile des personnes victimes d’un AVC. Des approches qualitatives permettront de mieux comprendre leurs besoins spécifiques. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy does multi-situated ethnography develop new competences for sociological research on the poorest and most excluded populations' health as well as for evidence-based health promotion interventions?
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Society for Health and Medical Sociology (2010)

When extremely poor and excluded populations are concerned, Multi-Situated Ethnography (MSE) represents a valuable research design for health needs and resources diagnosis* and for the improvement of ... [more ▼]

When extremely poor and excluded populations are concerned, Multi-Situated Ethnography (MSE) represents a valuable research design for health needs and resources diagnosis* and for the improvement of health promotion programmes. By focusing on the results of our 2-years community-based participatory study on prevention amongst Roma populations living in France**, we will assess the potentials of ethnography-based research for both scientific production and health promotion interventions. Methods/actions. A MSE has been carried in three distinct scenarios, selected because of the different socio-cultural integration levels and life conditions of the Roma families. There are: 1) the Forest of Mery-sur-Oise, a shanty town where around twenty Roma families live, 2) the collective emergency housing in the old headquarters in Saint-Maur-des-Fossé, and 3) S.A.N. de Sénart, a conglomeration of towns which an integration plan of Roma people was launched in. This fieldwork has produced scientific data on the healthcare provision and the social accompaniment realised by professionals of the health, social and administrative sectors as well as on Roma’s health promotion practices. A reflexive evaluation design was undertaken through the conduction of an expert panel involving 3 sociologists and 3 social workers, meeting each month. Results. The MSE allowed building up comparative relations between health practices and socio-economic and geo-political factors amongst “hermetical populations” when they asked to share information on their life with outsiders. Simultaneously, the data analysis allowed considering: universal similarities, cultural differences and individual singularities. The increased of the methodological procedures as it helped avoid falling into stigma reification of groups already highly racially discriminated. Its participatory dimension helped document and share learning across contexts, providing a renewed source of dynamism amongst professionals dealing with sensitive fields and very difficult to access. Because of the sensitivity brought by its in-depth comprehensive-based approach, it moved closer professionals to their Roma beneficiaries, even leading to cases of conflict resolution between both actors. Conclusion. The acquisition of the required skills to carry out a social and health intervention based on a community-based participatory diagnostic of needs and resources and, on an evaluative follow-up of the actions undertaken within the intervention scenario is a major asset for the elaboration and management of individual or community-dimensioned professional projects. MSE needs to be revisited and revalued as it comprises useful a set of competences to give informed guidance by supplying decision-makers and professionals, with sound and comprehensive analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailHow universities can assess employability skills?
Pelt, Véronique UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Bargel, T. et al. (Ed.) Empirical Evidence in International Comparison. (2010)

The SQALES (Students' Quality of Life and Employability Skills) project aims to help universities adopt the recommendations from Bergen (Communiqué 2005) within the framework of the Bologna Process and ... [more ▼]

The SQALES (Students' Quality of Life and Employability Skills) project aims to help universities adopt the recommendations from Bergen (Communiqué 2005) within the framework of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area (EHEA, Communiqué Louvain & European Council, 2009). Under the European Council declaration of 1999, universities have become subject to assessment in terms of productivity and competitiveness. Against that background, we aim to help universities: Create a tool for assessing employability skills (ES) and addressing the requirements of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area (EHEA, European Council, 2009) Create an evaluation device with which to establish benchmarks Facilitate a dialogue between all those involved in order to meet students’ needs Adopt new activities and make use of new resources Compare themselves with other European universities The objectives of Sqales are to: - Describe Employability skills, WHOQoL domains and socio-demographic characteristics Analyse the links between employability skills and other variables Identify students' feelings about their faculties using a range of scores [less ▲]

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See detail«Student's QuAlity of Life and Employability Skills»: SQALES un dispositif et un instrument au service des universités.
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revista de Cercetare şi Intervenţie Socială (2010), 28

Underpinned by reforms initiated under the Bologna process, the European universities today have to develop student's skills and to prepare them for sustainable employment. In this article, we try to ... [more ▼]

Underpinned by reforms initiated under the Bologna process, the European universities today have to develop student's skills and to prepare them for sustainable employment. In this article, we try to illustrate the changing roles of universities, highlighting the importance of the concept of competences. We present the first use of SQALES (process and tool) among students from three European universities (Luxembourg, Belgium, Romania) entering in their first year of social sciences study. Our results show that the evaluation of the employability skills is possible and can even be recommended as a guide to adjusting curricula and to implementing programmes of assistance tailored to identify student needs. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Psychological Quality of Life must have the Newly-Registered Students from three European Universities to acquire Employability Skills?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Pelt, Véronique UL

in Psychology and Health (2010), suppl

Modem universities are competitive environments that must enable students to meet occupational requirements. Our survey assesses the associations between psychological quality of life and employability ... [more ▼]

Modem universities are competitive environments that must enable students to meet occupational requirements. Our survey assesses the associations between psychological quality of life and employability skills and others associate factors among newly-registered students from social sciences faculties. 236 volunteers (85 Luxembourg, 82 Belgium, 69 Romania) completed an online questionnaire (participation, 66%). Employability skills (ES) were assessed using a scale covering communication, interpersonal relations, capacity for innovation; quality of life was measured using Whoqol-Bref domains concerning psychological, environment, and social relations. Female respondents were predominantly (90% Romanian, 75% Luxembourg, 67% Belgian students). Belgian students were the youngest (18.5 years, 19.1 Rom, 21.2 Lux); the Luxembourg students entered university one year later. ES score was higher among Luxembourg and Romania than Belgium students (77,8 vs 71,3 vs 68,2). Psychological Whoqol-bref score was highest among Luxembourg and Romania students, Belgian students had the lowest (74.6 vs 65.3 vs 64.0). It was correlated positively with social relations and environment Whoqol-bref domains, and with ES score for Luxembourg and Romanian, but negatively for Belgian students. Employability skills related to psychological health among students enrolled into vocational courses from Luxembourg and Romania faculties, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. University is a natural setting to promote programmes geared to psychological counseling, improvement of the social environment, and assistance services for university work. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial support and subsequent premature mortality, gender disparities and role of potential confounders.
Chau, N.; Otero-Sierra, C.; Ravaud, J. F. et al

in Psychology and Health (2010), suppl

To assess the association between social support and subsequent premature mortality (PM) (<70 years), gender difference, and the confounding role of age, occupation, health-related behaviors, obesity, and ... [more ▼]

To assess the association between social support and subsequent premature mortality (PM) (<70 years), gender difference, and the confounding role of age, occupation, health-related behaviors, obesity, and diseases. Methods: 4118 subjects (2189 men, 1929 women), aged >15 years, randomly selected in north-eastern France, completed in 1996 a postal questionnaire gathering characteristics, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, social support from colleagues/family/friends, and physician-diagnosed diseases. The cohort was followed-up until 2008 (12.5 years). Data were analyzed using Poisson models. Results: There were 165 PM (115 men, 50 women) during the follow-up. For all the cohort, social support was strongly associated with PM: crude relative risk (RR) 2.09 (95%CI 1.53-2.85). It decreased to 1.52 (1.11-2.09) when adjusted for age, 1.46 (1.06-2.00) with further adjustment for occupation, 1.44 (1.04-1.98) with further adjustment for smoking, alcohol abuse and obesity, and 1.28 (0.92-1.78) when diseases (cancer, diabetes, mental, nervous-system, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary and musculoskeletal diseases) were taken into account. Similar results were found for men: crude RR 2.46 decreasing to 1.81, 1.70, 1.60, 1.45 respectively. But not for women: close-to-significant crude RR 1.57 (small number of PM). Conclusions: Social support influenced PM in men but not in women. Occupation, health behaviours, and diseases play a role. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évaluation curriculaire dans les universités européennes. SQALES (Student's QuAlity of Life and Employability Skills), un dispositif innovant
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Les théories et conceptions curriculaires au coeur des débats éducationnels: un regard comparatif (2010)

Avec la mondialisation du marché du travail, l'employabilité durable est une priorité des politiques universitaires européennes. Les établissements sont encouragés à construire leurs curricula en vue de ... [more ▼]

Avec la mondialisation du marché du travail, l'employabilité durable est une priorité des politiques universitaires européennes. Les établissements sont encouragés à construire leurs curricula en vue de permettre aux étudiants d'acquérir les compétences nécessaires à leur insertion professionnelle (Commission des Communautés Européennes, 2006). Ainsi le taux d'emploi des jeunes diplômés est un indicateur majeur pour les orientations curriculaires. Or, l'université d'aujourd'hui doit aussi veiller à l'épanouissement personnel des étudiants et en faire des citoyens conscients de leurs responsabilités sociales ("Communiqué de Louvain", 2009), c'est pourquoi le dispositif SQALES propose une approche différente concernant : - la nature de l'évaluation : mesurer les Compétences Relatives à l'Employabilité (CRE) non pas l'emploi; - le moment de la mesure : en cours de cursus, et non à la fin, pour proposer des interventions adaptées et suivre l'impact des réajustements (Amara & Baumann, 2008); - la prise en compte du vécu universitaire des étudiants par l'évaluation de leur qualité de vie (QDV - Amara & Baumann, 2006) et de leur Identité Sociale d'Etudiant (ISE - Amara, 2009). L'évaluation SQALES a été réalisée auprès d'étudiants de trois universités européennes inscrits en 1ère année des sciences sociales. Le questionnaire online comportait trois échelles : CRE (6 items adaptés de Lin et al., 2000), QDV psychologique (6 items du WHOQOL-bref, 1998) et ISE (13 items). Les premiers résultats obtenus auprès de 172 volontaires (39 Luxembourgeois, 77 Roumains, 56 Belges) mettent en évidence des scores moyens (sur 100) significativement différents en fonction des facultés. Si les Luxembourgeois obtiennent les meilleurs scores d'ISE et de QDV (respectivement 67.64 & 73.54 vs. Roumains 40.79 & 66.04, vs. Belges 63.34 & 66.06), celui des CRE est plus élevé chez les Roumains (74.94 vs. Luxembourgeois 71.26 vs. Belges 63.03). Cette évaluation-conseil (Bedin, 2009) a permis d'engager avec les responsables universitaires une réflexion sur l'importance de garantir un équilibre entre acquisition de CRE, QDV et ISE et de discuter l'influence des politiques curriculaires à cet égard. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo years post-stroke, Luxembourgish informal caregivers’ life satisfaction and their couple and family repercussions
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL

in Sociology of Health (2010)

This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes in the couple and family lives of stroke survivors’ caregivers and to analyse the relationships between the Caregivers’ Life Satisfaction (CLS ... [more ▼]

This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes in the couple and family lives of stroke survivors’ caregivers and to analyse the relationships between the Caregivers’ Life Satisfaction (CLS) and the social and emotional repercussions of the caregiving role, two years after this event. Life satisfaction, optimism about the future, happiness and other subjective well-being aspects have attracted the European policymakers, leading to the Eurofund to introduce a “life satisfaction” dimension in the European Quality of Life Surveys (EQLS). The general subjective appraisal of one’s life is now an indicator next to objective measures of economic performance, such as GDP. How is life satisfaction for the main informal caregivers of stroke-survivors, at the Grand-duchy of Luxembourg (one of the smallest UE country, 502 500 hab. (01/2010), 2600 km2). Individual and family upheavals stroke-related have a major effect on the survivor’s life, and on the close relatives and friends’ ones. «The self-assertion on the harmony of the stroke survivor-caregiver pairs» is the strategy to approach the issue. The implications of these changes are determined by the partners’ trajectory. The CLS is disrupted by stroke, but a lack of information remains on caregivers’ needs, mostly on the repercussions on the couple and family relationships and projects. Over twelve months, 62 pairs (among them 51 couples) of stroke survivors (64.4 mean age; majors impairments: sensory 53.2% and memory 38.7%) and their main informal caregivers (62 mean age, 61.7% women) consented to participate at a National Survey. Research assistants interviewed them at home, with a face-to-face questionnaire. Caregivers evaluated, on a four-point scale, a list of repercussions; these assertions were built up from a qualitative exploratory study. The LS ten-point scaled was dichotomised in “low (<=7 of 10)” and “high (>7 of 10) life satisfaction” (LLS vs HLS)”. Our research protocol was approved by the National Committee of Research Ethics and the Committee for Data Protection. Stroke survivors’ LS were lightly inferior than the CLS (mean=8) and no significant differences were observed between their socio-demographic characteristics. Comparing the responses obtained on the couple repercussions, the caregivers with LLS had emphasised the impacts of the care provided to their recipients: « The stroke was experienced as a drama that our couple has never overcome” (54.2 LLS vs 17,2% HLS; p≤0.001);“I cannot leave anymore the stroke survivor alone for a long time” (60.7% LLS vs 17.4% HLS; p=0.001); « The stroke has ended with all the life projects that as a couple we made» (45.8 LLS vs 11.1% HLS ; p≤ 0.05); “The stroke has brought serious turnovers in my couple” (57.1 LLS vs 25.9% HLS ; p≤ 0.05). Regarding family repercussions, the caregivers with LLS had underlined the impacts of their caregiving role: "The stroke is often a cause of the distance problems we have with our children" (23.1% LLS vs 0.0% HLS; p≤0.01), and “The stroke has brought serious turnovers in my family” (82.8% LLS vs 51.7% HLS; p≤0.05). CLS and survivors LS were close. Inequalities regarding CLS were identified. Evaluating repercussions on CLS is needed in enabling stroke survivors to live at home. Long-term informal care sustainability has been overlooked; innovative accompaniment and counselling are developed to follow Helsingborg Declaration on European Stroke Strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluer la construction identitaire des étudiants pour mieux piloter les curricula, un défi pour les universités européennes.
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Pelt, Véronique UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Europe « Evaluation & Curriculum » (2010)

Les universités privilégient la mesure d'indicateurs de performance au détriment d’autres déterminants de l’encadrement universitaire tels que l’identité sociale dont la promotion est sollicitée par ... [more ▼]

Les universités privilégient la mesure d'indicateurs de performance au détriment d’autres déterminants de l’encadrement universitaire tels que l’identité sociale dont la promotion est sollicitée par Bologne pour les préparer les étudiants à leur futur rôle de citoyen. Une première étude basée sur une analyse qualitative du discours d'étudiants en licence/bachelor a permis d’élaborer un modèle théorique selon lequel la construction identitaire s'effectuerait selon trois axes : juvénile, académique et professionnel. L’objectif du travail présenté ici a été de mesurer et d’analyser l'identité sociale des étudiants. Un questionnaire a été administré à 224 étudiants de 1ère année (95 Luxembourgeois, 48 Belges, 69 Roumains). 1. l’identité étudiante a été approchée à l’aide de 13 items dont les différences significatives les marquées indiquent que : <br />* les Luxembourgeois se disent « plus ponctuels dans leur travail » et assidus en cours ; <br />* les Roumains déclarent trouver des interlocuteurs à l'université et ne pensent pas décrocher ; <br />* les Belges estiment que l'université les aide à construire leurs projets d'avenir. <br />L'alpha de Cronbach montre que ces items forment une échelle (0.79). Les scores moyens des trois universités sont significativement différents : ceux des Luxembourgeois et des Roumains sont très proches, ils sont supérieurs de 20 points à ceux des Belges (Lu 64.3 vs Ro 63.3 vs Be 40.8). <br />2. l’'identité universitaire a été mesurée à l’aide d’une échelle validée (3 items), le score des Roumains est le plus élevé (Ro 13.1 vs Lu 11.9 vs Be 11.2). Les femmes accordent plus d'importance aux items « choix du métier »et « notes obtenues ». Ces indications sont une information importante pour la compréhension des liens existant entre le profil identitaire, la réussite universitaire et l’encadrement pédagogique/environnemental facultaire. L’analyse de cette identité sociale au fil des cursus est une démarche évaluative qui permettrait de mieux adapter les curricula aux besoins des étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention et réduction des inégalités sociales de santé : une conciliation difficile
Aïach, Pierre; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Global Health Promotion (2010), 17(1), 95-98

La baisse continue de la mortalité dans la plupart des pays européens pose la question difficile de la part à attribuer à la prévention dans ce phénomène. Une autre question est de plus en plus ... [more ▼]

La baisse continue de la mortalité dans la plupart des pays européens pose la question difficile de la part à attribuer à la prévention dans ce phénomène. Une autre question est de plus en plus fréquemment posée : dans quelle mesure cette amélioration générale de l’état de santé contribue à la réduction des inégalités sociales de santé ? On peut retenir l’idée que les mesures préventives, en particulier celles liées aux comportements individuels, ne produisent pas les mêmes effets en fonction de la vulnérabilité différentielle des personnes. De plus, l’appropriation des bonnes conduites sanitaires et l’abandon des mauvaises est majoritairement fonction du capital culturel détenu. Cela résulte de l’effet lié à la disposition différentielle, socialement acquise, à l’appropriation des ressources et connaissances en matière de soins ou de conduites préventives. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmony within stroke patient-caregiver pairs concerning psychological and social repercussions, two years post-stroke in Luxembourg and Portugal.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL

in International Sociology Association. (2010)

This study aims to improve our understanding of the impact of stroke on the lives of patients & principal caregivers (PCs). The objective was to analyze agreement within patient-caregiver couples in ... [more ▼]

This study aims to improve our understanding of the impact of stroke on the lives of patients & principal caregivers (PCs). The objective was to analyze agreement within patient-caregiver couples in responses to statements concerning the psychological & social repercussions of stroke. Two years post-stroke, 97 patient-PC pairs were administered questionnaires at home. Logistic regression was used to analyze data on 50 couples of questionnaires from Luxembourg (Lux) & 47 from Portugal (Por); 60% of patients were men, with average ages of 65 years in Luxembourg & 71 years in Portugal; 75% of carers were women aged on average 61.5 years (Lux) & 61 years (Por). Responses to the question "Are you happy or not?" were more correlated with concordance within patient-caregiver couples’ statements concerning the psychological and social repercussions of stroke than were socioeconomic characteristics (nationality, age, having finished elementary school or not). Patients who considered themselves happy were more likely to give answers close to those of their caregivers. This was true particularly in the domain of stroke repercussions on relationships with friends: “sympathy shown by friends and relations”, “loss of friends”, “friends bothered by the handicap” & "ties maintained & even strengthened”. Conversely, PCs who described themselves as happy were less likely to agree with the patient they cared for. Patient-PC couples emphasised the consequences of a stroke on self-image in the face of the “loss of many friends" & the fact that "the patient feels devalued ". Family & social life is disrupted by stroke, and friendly relationships are put under stress. Patient-caregiver coherence is central, not least in its effect on quality of life. Do couples’ feelings about life have a decisive role in the reconstruction of the identities of patients and caregivers? What part will trust play in that process? [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Social Inequalities of Quality of Life (NEWSQOL domains) amongst patients does appear, two years after a stroke?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL

in European Society for Health and Medical Sociology (2010)

The quality of live “capability” must be taken into consideration because it affects stroke patients’ ability to make health choices. We aimed to analyse the relations between their socio-demographic ... [more ▼]

The quality of live “capability” must be taken into consideration because it affects stroke patients’ ability to make health choices. We aimed to analyse the relations between their socio-demographic characteristics and their quality of life (domains selected: interpersonal relationship, emotions, feelings, pain, sleep, fatigue). Methods: Two years after their stroke, 72 volunteers participated to a Luxembourg national survey. Completed at their home, the questionnaire included the six NEWSQOL* domains that responded to the criterion of an absence of direct consequence of the injuries caused by the stroke. For each domain, a multiple regression model was fit and adjusted by impairments (motor, vision, sensory, language, and memory). We performed a backward selection discarding, in succession, variables associated with highest p-values, until we obtained a set of explanatory variables significantly linked at the 10% level. Results: To be a woman is positively linked to a better quality of life (interpersonal relationships, feelings, sleep). The older patients and the ones living in couple have a less good quality of life with regards to fatigue. The current professional situation does not have any impact on quality of life; which is not the case for the occupation at the time of the stroke. Compared to the executives’ ones, the patients who never had a job, employees, and manual workers have a worse quality of life in terms of feelings. The manual workers, employees and the ones who never had a job show a minor good quality of life in relation to fatigue. When the patients’ educational level is lower than the first cycle of secondary education, their quality of life deteriorates in terms of interpersonal relationship, emotion, feelings, pain. After the stroke, changes in the financial position resulted in a less good quality of life in relation to interpersonal relationship, feelings, pain, sleep, whilst the ones in the occupational situation only worsened patients’ feelings and fatigue. “Feelings” (depression, control, independent) is the most associated NEWSQOL-domain with the socio-economic factors. Conclusion: Patients’ level of education and the changes in their financial position are determinants of social inequalities of quality of life amongst stroke survivors. A better elementary health education on stroke would make upcoming patients to gain in quality of life capacity. They will better adhere to the advice given within the therapeutics framework and psychological counseling as well as to the social accompaniment provided and the administrative requirements they have to accomplish to obtain financial aids. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of obesity, alcohol abuse and smoking with cardiovascular disease: behaviours and risks vary with age among working people.
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Sociology Association. (2010)

To assess the relationships between unhealthy behaviours (obesity, alcohol abuse and smoking) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among working people at different ages, and to consider the mediating effects ... [more ▼]

To assess the relationships between unhealthy behaviours (obesity, alcohol abuse and smoking) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among working people at different ages, and to consider the mediating effects of socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: A random selection of 2872 working people in north-eastern France completed a postal questionnaire covering: obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse (Deta-Cage questionnaire), age, physician-diagnosed CVD, and potential confounders - sex, education, occupation, living alone and income. Data were analyzed using odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (ORa) and [95%CI] computed with logistic models. Results: Behaviours varied significantly with age. The following figures apply to ages <30, 30-49, and ≥50 years, respectively: obesity, 2.7%, 6.2% and 9.5%; alcohol abuse, 8.1%, 9.0% and 12.2%; daily smoking, 60.4%, 58.6% and 50.3%. CVD was present in 5.9%, 10.2% and 23.3%. Among young adults (<30 years), CVD related only to obesity (OR=3.64 [1.00-13.29]) and the relationship was not mediated (OR decreased to 3.54) by the confounders, among which only male sex was significant (ORa=0.27 [0.11-0.64]). In the 30-49 group, CVD related to obesity (OR=3.33 [2.12-5.23]) and alcohol abuse (OR=1.75 [1.11-2.74]). These relationships were slightly mediated (ORs changed to 3.14 and 2.10, respectively), but only male sex and insufficient income were significant (ORa=0.66 [0.47-0.94] and ORa=1.64 [1.04-2.60], respectively). Among older workers (≥50 years), CVD related to smoking (OR=1.69 [1.05-2.71]) and alcohol abuse (OR=1.92 [1.01-3.65]). These relationships were slightly mediated (ORs decreased to 1.61 and 1.72, respectively) but only low education was significant (ORa=1.73 [1.00-3.02]). Conclusions: CVD related to unhealthy behaviours, which vary with age. Obesity, and obesity-related risk factors, such as lack of physical activity and poor diet, affected more younger workers (<50 years), alcohol abuse affected primarily those aged >30 and smoking those aged >50. Socioeconomic factors play a role but have little confounding effect on the impact of unhealthy behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between depressive mood and cardiovascular disease: social disparities and role of education, lifestyle, and disabilities
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Health behaviours (2010)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with depressive mood (DM), with a range of confounding effects depending on socioeconomic factors. This study assessed the associations between DM and CVD ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with depressive mood (DM), with a range of confounding effects depending on socioeconomic factors. This study assessed the associations between DM and CVD, their social disparities and the impact of education, living alone, smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical and cognitive disabilities. Methods: A random sample of 6216 people (2959 men and 3257 women), aged 15 years or over in north-eastern France, completed a postal survey covering alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), depressive mood (Duke questionnaire: giving up too easily, difficulty concentrating or sleeping, getting tired and nervousness), CVD diagnosed/treated by a physician, and disability. Data were analyzed using odds ratios (OR) computed with logistic models. Results: Depressive mood affected 17.4% (11.4% men, 22.8% women, p<0.001) and CVD 19.9% (18.6 vs 21.0% respectively, p=0.02). DM was more strongly associated with CVD among women (age-adjusted OR 2.03, 95% [CI 1.66-2.47]) than men (1.68, 1.26-2.23). These ORs decreased to 1.73 (85%) and 1.30 (77%) respectively with further adjustment for socio-occupational category, education, living alone, smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical and cognitive disability. Significant confounders were living alone (all-factors-adjusted OR 1.49 [1.00-2.22] men, NS for women), alcohol abuse (1.42 [1.04-1.97] men, 1.92 [1.24-2.99] for women), physical disability (2.99 [2.24-4.00] men, 2.63 [2.12-3.26] women), and cognitive disability (4.64 [3.56-6.05] men; 4.06 [3.36-4.91] women). Among men, DM related to CVD in manual workers only: sex-age-adjusted OR 1.76 [1.09-2.85] (similar ORs but non-significant were found for managers, clerical staff and farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen). Among women, DM related to CVD among manual workers (sex-age-adjusted OR 1.78 [1.03-3.07]), clerical workers (2.01 [1.45-2.77]) and among farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (2.39 [1.16-4.95]), but not managers and intermediate professionals. Conclusion: Strong associations exist between depression and cardiovascular disease, and differ markedly between men and women and social groups. Alcohol abuse and physical and cognitive disabilities are potential confounders. Improving lifestyle and disability status of people with cardiovascular disease/depressive mood is important, particularly for lower social groups. [less ▲]

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