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See detailOpiate and cocaine related Fatal Overdoses in Luxembourg from 1985 to 2011: a time-stratified
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Health Issues and Populations in Health Promotion (2013)

To describe trends in the national prevalence of fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011. To analyse male/female differences in FOD victims according to various ... [more ▼]

To describe trends in the national prevalence of fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011. To analyse male/female differences in FOD victims according to various time periods. Methods. A triangulation approach was chosen to cross-examining data from national law enforcement sources, the national drug use surveillance system (RELIS) and of forensic and toxicological evidence. Data have been stratified according to 3 time periods covering each 9 successive years in order to increase the visibility of long term variations and trends. Statistical analysis of male/female differences according to socio-demographic and forensic data as well as drug use trajectories was performed. Results. National FOD prevalence has been decreasing from the beginning of this century to reach a historically low rate of 1.71 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2011. The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality showed to be higher for men compared with women. Furthermore, the pathways towards a FOD revealed to be different for male and female victims referred to various aspects including age of decedents, criminal records, drug use trajectories, drug use patterns and the involvement of psychotropic prescription drugs. Conclusions. The time window for intervention between the onset of drug use and its potential fatal outcome might be shorter for women compared with men. Further research should address dynamics between socio-economic status of victims and various cultural components to assess their possible impact on drug overdose induced mortality. Early intervention in female drug users and increased attention to poly and psychotropic prescription drugs use should be considered in health promotion programmes and relevant research outcomes routinely provided to first line general health care providers to accelerate access to appropriate treatment if required and eventually contribute to prevent premature death and reduce gender inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological quality of life and employability skills among newly registered first-year students:
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Health (2013), 5(3), 617-626

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the ... [more ▼]

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the acquisition of academic employability skills (AES) among first-year students at the Univer- sity in Luxembourg. At the beginning (2 months in) and the end (9 months) of the academic year, 973 newly registered students participated in this study involving two cross-university sur- veys. Students who redoubled or who had stud- ied at other universities were excluded. Data were collected with an online questionnaire com- prising the psychological Whoqol-bref subscale, AES scale, and questions about other related factors. The AES score decreased from 74.2 to 65.6. At both time points, the psychological Whoqol-bref was positively correlated with en-vironmental and social relations QoL and per- ceived general health. Multiple regression mod-els including interaction terms showed that a higher psychological QoL was associated with better general health (difference satisfied-dis- satisfied 9.44), AES (slope 0.099), social rela- tionships QoL (0.321), and environmental QoL (0.298). No interaction with time effects was sig- nificant, which indicates that the effects remain stable with time. If the university could maintain the QoL indicators at appropriate levels or man- age decreases as they occur, it would have im- plications for health promotion and the crea- tion of new student support systems. The SQA- LES project provides valuable information for universities aiming to develop a European High- er Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents' Dropout regarding Academic Employability Skills and Satisfaction Against
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International psychological Applications and Trends (2013)

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year ... [more ▼]

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year olds with tertiary educational attainment should be at least 40% by 2020. The young Luxembourg University needs to understand why some students choose to leave without a diploma. Our aim was to analyse the relationships between self-perceiving of the academic employability skills (AES), self-related global quality of life (GQoL) and satisfaction towards against university services (SUS) among persisting and non-persisting students. Design: All freshmen (947) from the three Faculties of Luxembourg University (Sciences & Technology, Law & Finances and Social Sciences) were invited to participate to a cross-sectional survey that took place at beginning of the second semester. Methods: The persisting <br />students were requested to complete an online questionnaire and those who had dropped out during the first semester (non-registered for the second semester) were contacted to responding at the same questions including socio-demographics characteristics: age; sex; nationality (yes/no); work (yes/no); father’s and mother's occupational level and education. A discriminant analysis was undertaken using: the AES scale-6 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.81); the level of GQoL (1 item, values from 1 “very bad” to 5 “very good”) and the SUS scale-3 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.74). Findings: 99 persisting students and 68 dropouts have responding. There's no significant age difference between these 2 groups (mean 21.12 years old). Dropouts are more likely young men (55.9% vs. 39.4% persisting, p = 0.036) and have a job (58.2% vs. 3.6% persisting, p = 0.000). Their GQoL is higher (83.3/100 vs. 78.1/100 persisting, p = 0.032), but their AES are lower (55.2/100 vs. 67.3/100 persisting, p°= 0.000). Among them, AES and SUS are positively correlated (correlation 0.414; p = 0.000). Conclusions: Contrary to what described in literature, dropouts are not older than persisting students. They’ve a poorer perception of their employability skills, they're less satisfied with university services (like reputation of university, of faculty and teaching quality). However, they've a better quality of life and much of them have a gainful work. These findings are in line <br />with recent studies suggesting that perceptions of quality of higher education have an impact on students’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Further researches will determine nature of links between academic services, employability skills and dropout. [less ▲]

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See detailCanadiens en Europe. Elaboration d'un programme psychosocial d'appui à l'adaptation.
Blackburn, dave; Baumann, Michèle UL

Book published by L'harmattan - Académia (2013)

Les militaires des Forces canadiennes déployés au sein de l’OTAN sont affectés dans 12 pays de l’Europe, et vivent avec leur famille dans plus de 50 lieux différents. Sélectionnés, ils sont tous méritants ... [more ▼]

Les militaires des Forces canadiennes déployés au sein de l’OTAN sont affectés dans 12 pays de l’Europe, et vivent avec leur famille dans plus de 50 lieux différents. Sélectionnés, ils sont tous méritants et aptes. Or des rapatriements prématurés de l’Europe vers le Canada subsistent. Pourquoi leurs capacités à gérer les problèmes quotidiens sont-elles mises à mal ? Quels sont les déterminants culturels, environnementaux, sociaux et psychologiques qui perturbent leur adaptation? Un programme de préparation à la réussite peut-il y remédier? Que nous apprend son évaluation ? Le rapatriement prématuré a des conséquences sociales et économiques qui peuvent être ignorées. L’identification et la compréhension des facteurs impliqués présente donc un intérêt incontestable tant pour la qualité de vie et la santé des « décrocheurs » que pour celles des « nouveaux-arrivants ». A l’aide de plusieurs études de terrain, l’analyse des résultats tente de répondre à ces interrogations. Un programme innovant d’activités pédagogiques a été élaboré. Riche d’enseignements, son évaluation montre qu’il peut servir de modèle à bien d’autres situations sociales et éducatives. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of socioeconomic, family, school, behavioural and mental difficulties on involvement in violence in boys and girls
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications and Trends (2013)

Involvement in violence is common and may result from a number of deleterious socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties, and sustained violence in early adolescence. The roles of ... [more ▼]

Involvement in violence is common and may result from a number of deleterious socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties, and sustained violence in early adolescence. The roles of these factors remain partially addressed because few of them have been investigated with often unknown chronologies. Preventing these issues is crucial to promote health and school achievement. This study assessed their impacts on involvement in violence among boys and girls. Design: Cross-sectional study with lifetime history reconstruction of life events. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (778 boys and 781 girls, mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, father’s occupation, parents’ education, nationality, income, social supports, and lifetime history reconstruction of parents’ separation/divorce/death, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), suicide attempts, and involvement in violence. Involvement in violence was measured with an 11-item scale on fights in group or not, verbal violence, racial actions, taking something of others/shop, set fire, using weapon,damaging public/private property, in school, in school neighborhood, at home, and elsewhere (Cronbach's alpha 0.82, score>90th percentile). Social support was measured using a 9-item scale concerning relationships with people round about (Cronbach's alpha 0.56, score>90th percentile). Data were analyzed using Cox models including all factors to compute adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Findings: Involvement in violence affected 10.3% of adolescents (14.3% in boys, 6.4% in girls, p<0.001). Among boys, involvement in violence was influenced by being inactive (unemployed/retired) offspring (aHR 2.63, 95%CI 1.48-4.69), alcohol use (1.76, 1.11-2.79), tobacco use (2.71, 1.56-4.69), hard drugs use (3.46, 1.73-6.91), suicide attempt (2.05, 1.05-3.97), sustained physical/verbal violence (1.63, 1.02-2.62), and poor social support (2.64, 1.67-4.16 for score 1-2 and 2.80, 1.64-4.78 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Among girls, involvement in violence was influenced by being inactive offspring (2.39, 95%CI 1.09-5.27), tobacco use (3.57, 1.46-8.72), cannabis use (4.45, 1.36-14.55), depressive symptoms (8.88, 3.01-26.20), and poor social support (9.38, 2.80-31.43 for score 1-2 and 14.23, 4.11-49.23 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Boys had a much higher risk than girls (crude hazard ratio 3.57, 95%CI 2.56-5.00) which did not change when adjusting for all factors studied. Conclusions: Living difficulties highly and similarly enough impacted on involvement in violence among boys and girls in early adolescence. Our findings call for measures preventing and monitoring these difficulties in this crucial life period. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of unhealthy Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms with School Difficulties and Role of Socioeconomics Factors in Early Adolescence
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2013)

Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive ... [more ▼]

Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive functions. These factors can thus favor persistent school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors are known to favor unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms as well as school difficulties. This study assessed the associations of unhealthy and depressive symptoms with learning difficulty, low school performance, and school dropout ideation, and the confounding roles of socioeconomic factors in early adolescence. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, socioeconomic factors (father’s socioeconomic category, family structure, parents’ education, parent death, nationality, family income, and social supports), last-30-day alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale, score>90th percentile), learning difficulty, low school performance (last-trimester mark <10/20), and school dropout ideation at 16 years (school is compulsory until this age). Learning difficulty was measured using an 8-item scale including lesson comprehension, concentration/lesson learning, keeping up the pace/constraint, relaxing/rest, class atmosphere, home learning atmosphere, teacher pressure, and parent pressure; Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.81, score>90th percentile). The school difficulties were chosen to measure various difficulty levels. Data were analyzed using logistic models to compute gender-age-grade-adjusted odds ratios (OR1) and the contributions of socioeconomic factors. Findings: Learning difficulty, low school performance, and school dropout ideation affected respectively 14.1%, 8.2%, and 3.8% of students. These school difficulties were linked with alcohol use: OR1 1.72 (95%CI 1.26-2.33), 1.51 (1.03-2.21), and 3.43 (1.96-6.01), respectively. Higher OR1 were found for tobacco use: 3.82 (2.64-5.52), 5.81 (3.83-8.82), and 6.31 (3.53-11.28), respectively; cannabis use: OR1 3.61 (2.23-5.86), 4.12 (2.41-7.04), and 6.89 (3.45-13.76), respectively; hard drugs uses: OR1 6.37 (3.41-11.89), 5.05 (2.53-10.08), and 10.85 (4.99-23.55), respectively; and depressive symptoms: OR1 7.21 (5.06-10.27), 1.84 (1.16-2.93), 3.14 (1.64-6.03), respectively. The socioeconomic factors considered explained respectively <4%, 15-37%, 10%-31%, 20%-43%, and 20%-68% of the associations of school difficulties with alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors highly confounded their associations. Public policy to improve school achievement, and thus community participation in adulthood, should focus on unhealthy behaviors and mental disorders, especially among students with socioeconomic difficulties. Causal relationships could not be advanced (study cross-sectional nature). [less ▲]

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See detailLifestyle as a Health Risk for Family Caregivers with Least Life Satisfaction, in Home-Based Post-Stroke Caring
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara UL

in Healthcare Policy (2013), 9

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to ... [more ▼]

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to determine the social and emotional repercussions of the event on family caregivers. Family caregivers living at home with stroke survivors were identified by a national survey. The Life Satisfaction (LS) national indicator for Luxembourg is 7.9/10, while in Canada it stands at 7.7. Caregivers with a LS level ≤ 7 were more likely to care for survivors affected by motor, sensory and memory neurological impairments. For a great majority, these impairments led to serious upheaval among families, and for spouses it was “a drama.” For family caregivers with a least life satisfaction, their lifestyle poses a real health risk. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Europe Universitaire. L’identité d’étudiante face à l’employabilité.
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

Book published by Academia L’Harmattan (2012)

Entrer à l'université impose aux jeunes étudiants de renoncer à leurs habitudes de lycéens pour s'adapter à l'environnement et au travail universitaires. Comment négocient-ils ce passage, dans un contexte ... [more ▼]

Entrer à l'université impose aux jeunes étudiants de renoncer à leurs habitudes de lycéens pour s'adapter à l'environnement et au travail universitaires. Comment négocient-ils ce passage, dans un contexte de crise de l'emploi et de réformes de l'enseignement supérieur? Sur quelles bases construisent-ils leur identité d'étudiant? Quelles sont leurs craintes et leurs interrogations? Avec le processus de Bologne, l'employabilité durable s'impose comme une des finalités des enseignements. Quelles compétences d'employabilité les étudiants se reconnaissent-ils? En quoi leur parcours universitaire contribue-t-il à l'acquisition de telles compétences? Enfin, qu'en est-il pour ceux qui quittent l'université sans achever leur première année d'études, désormais qualifiés de "décrocheurs"? Autant d'interrogations auxquelles cet ouvrage s'efforce de répondre, au travers de cinq études menées auprès d'étudiants belges, français, luxembourgeois et roumains. [less ▲]

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See detailDo relative socioeconomic deprivations impact on subjective health-related quality of life and behaviors among adolescents?
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in 40th World Congress of Sociology (2012)

Socioeconomic deprivations include relative parent-education, family structure, nationality, parentoccupation and income that could impact on subjective well-being among adolescents which then persists in ... [more ▼]

Socioeconomic deprivations include relative parent-education, family structure, nationality, parentoccupation and income that could impact on subjective well-being among adolescents which then persists in adulthood. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of the previous factors with subjective health-related quality of life (QoL) and behaviors. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5 (SD 1.3) years) including: sex, age, family structure, parent-education/income/occupation, last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard-drug consumption, sports activities, victim of violence, sexual abuse, violenceimplication, suicidal ideation, social supports, and WHOQoL (4 domains physical, psychological, socialrelationship, and environment; <10th percentile value). Data were analyzed using logistic models which yield adjusted odds ratios (OR, sex/age taken into account). Results: Low WHOQoL-physical, WHOQoL-psychological, WHOQoL-social-relationship and WHOQoLenvironment affected 14.1%, 9.6%, 16.1%, and 12.6%, respectively. Last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/harddrug uses affected 11.2%, 35.2%, 5.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. WHOQoL-physical significantly related to parent low-education (OR=1.59), reconstructed-family (1.98, vs. intact-family), divorced/separated-parents (1.85), nonliving-with-parent (2.44), non-European-nationality (2.31), and insufficient-income (1.50). WHOQoLpsychological related to reconstructed-family (OR=1.91), divorced/separated parents (1.98), and insufficientincome (1.62). WHOQoL-social-relationship related to divorced/separated-parents (1.89), non-European nationality (4.58), and insufficient-income (1.36). WHOQoL-environment related to parent-low-education (OR=2.01), reconstructed-family (1.80), divorced/separated parents (3.25), single-parent-family (1.88), non-living with-parent (2.13), non-European-nationality (3.33), and insufficient-income (1.71). Last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard-drug uses related to family-structure, European-non-French-nationality, and insufficient-income with great OR-variations across substances (up to 5.30). Parent-low-education was negatively linked with alcohol use (0.70). Regarding parent-occupation risks were lower for cannabis use among clerk/manual-worker-family (ORs about 0.30) and higher for intermediate-professional-family (1.88) and craftsman/tradesman/firm-head-family (2.02). These associations were mediated by school-performance, sports activity, obesity, sexual abuse, violence, suicidal ideation, and social support. Conclusion: Relative socioeconomic deprivations highly impact on adolescent’s subjective well-being. Risk patterns are complex and greatly vary between quality of life domains and substance uses. Since early ages adolescent’s well-being should be assessed/monitored with school-doctor-family cooperation. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Problem Drug Use and Injecting Drug Use in Luxembourg: A Longitudinal and Methodological Perspective.
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Addiction Research (2012), 18

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug ... [more ▼]

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug use surveillance systems. Methods: Serial multi-method PDU/IDU prevalence estimations based upon capture-recapture, Poisson regression, multiplier and back-calculation methods. Comparative analysis of methods and assessment of their robustness to variations of external factors. Results: National PDU and IDU prevalence rates were estimated at 6.16/1,000 (95% CI 4.62/1,000 to 7.81/1,000) and 5.68/1,000 (95% CI 4.53/1,000 to 6.85/1,000) inhabitants aged 15–64 years, respectively. Absolute prevalence and prevalence rates of PDU increased between 1997 and 2000 and declined from 2003 onwards, whereas IDU absolute prevalence and prevalence rates witnessed an increasing trend between 1997 and 2007. Conclusions: Drug use surveillance systems can be valuable instruments for the estimation and trend analysis of drug misuse prevalence given multiple methods are applied that rely on serial and representative data from different sources and different settings, control multiple counts and build upon standardized and sustained data collection routines. The described institutional contact indicator revealed to be a useful tool in the context of PDU/IDU prevalence estimations and thus contributes to enhancing evidence-based drug policy planning. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient-caregiver differences and dyad concordance towards psychosocial impacts of stroke
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2012), 27(suppl 1), 14

Are patient-caregiver dyads concordant when applying to stroke psychosocial impacts ? Methods: Two questionnaires administered two years poststroke in Luxemburg to 62 patients and their 62 natural ... [more ▼]

Are patient-caregiver dyads concordant when applying to stroke psychosocial impacts ? Methods: Two questionnaires administered two years poststroke in Luxemburg to 62 patients and their 62 natural caregivers include 15 common items assessing psychosocial impacts of stroke on both patients and caregivers. We (1) compare these impacts of stroke on patients and caregivers, and (2) use paired analysis of the concordance in responses within dyads. Findings: Patients feel ashamed, more often than caregivers imagine (11.3% vs. 3.2%*). Patients perceive less often than caregivers an upheaval in their couple (19.4% vs. 38.7%*), and preponderance of psychological difficulties (41.9% vs. 69.4%**). Loss of friends (90.7% convergent vs. 9.3% divergent*), social life (75% vs. 25%*) and family upheavals (76.8% vs. 23.2%*) are concordant subjects within dyads, contrary to feeling undervalued (62.8% vs. 37.2%; ns) and bonds’ strengthening (81.5% vs. 18.5%; ns). Discussion: Improving communication about feelings within patient-caregiver dyads may enhance their social capital as a health capability. [less ▲]

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See detailVivre à domicile, deux ans après un AVC : Etude auprès des patients et des aidants du Luxembourg.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2012)

Au Luxembourg, une recherche pluridisciplinaire a été réalisée auprès de 797 personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Une enquête nationale a été menée comportant un volet ... [more ▼]

Au Luxembourg, une recherche pluridisciplinaire a été réalisée auprès de 797 personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Une enquête nationale a été menée comportant un volet épidémiologique effectué par le CRP-Santé, qui a rassemblé des données médico-administratives et des données cliniques issues des dossiers d’hospitalisation, et un volet de sociologie médicale par l’Université qui a interrogé 94 patients vivant au domicile, deux après la survenue de l’AVC, et leurs 62 aidants informels principaux. Des recommandations majeures de santé publique et de politiques sociales peuvent être formulées sur la nécessité de mettre en place : 1) un système de surveillance des AVC, indispensable pour orienter les politiques de santé en termes de promotion, prévention et intervention; 2) une filière de soins AVC plus visible, mieux structurée et coordonnée; 3) un suivi social et éducatif par un « gestionnaire des familles AVC » (patients, mais aussi et surtout aidants) et des aides financières pour développer un véritable soutien à domicile à moyen et long terme; 4) une prévention primaire en faveur des aidants que les souffrances physiques, psychiques et la faible qualité de vie sociale amènent à devenir une « population à risque » du système de santé, situation qui touche directement, ou sera susceptible de concerner dans un avenir proche, la plus grande partie d'entre nous. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the value of keeping patients at home if informal caregivers become exhausted to the detriment of their own life satisfaction?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Couffignal, Sophie

in Social Justice and Democratization (2012)

Cerebrovascular diseases like Alzheimer’s disease increase among European populations, and the number of patients living at home, with domestic support is growing. Our study analysed, two years post ... [more ▼]

Cerebrovascular diseases like Alzheimer’s disease increase among European populations, and the number of patients living at home, with domestic support is growing. Our study analysed, two years post-stroke, the life satisfaction (LS) and its relationships with the quality of life (QoL) of the survivors and their informal caregivers, and socioeconomic characteristics, and impaired functions. All stroke survivors admitted in hospital from the 1st July 2006 to the 30th June 2007 were selected by the National Health Insurance of Luxembourg, using the administrative reimbursement database: patients living at home and their main caregivers were interviewed with questionnaires assessing LS (one question as the European survey), survivor’s Newsqol, and caregiver’s Whoqol-bref. Ninety-four survivors (65.5 years) and 62 informal caregivers (59.3 years) were included in our analyses. Sex and occupational status had a positively effect on patients: their LS was higher in women and retired people. In opposite, patients at home without a professional activity had a much lower LS score. Adjusted for sex, occupational status and impaired motor and memory functions, patients’ LS was higher for higher scores of Newsqol dimensions of feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition, and pain, but was not correlated with any of the caregiver’s Whoqol-bref domains. Informal caregiver’s LS was negatively associated with female sex and care taking of patients with impaired memory. Similarly, it was relied to feelings and emotion Newsqol dimensions and to all Whoqol-bref domains: social relationships, psychological, physical health, and environment. The needs, resources, skills and will of the informal caregivers for taking care of the other must be better taken into account. The informal caregivers represent a “population at risk” who European health systems need to consider. Coaching patients and informal caregivers with socio-educational activities that foster positive attitudes and provide motivation, reassurance and information can help sustain home-based rehabilitation and maintain patients’ LS. [less ▲]

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See detailGender disparities of depressive mood and roles of family factors, school difficulty, violence, and unhealthy behaviours among adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Justice and Democratization (2012)

Nowadays modern societies are to be more competitive and include more non-intact families and living difficulties due to employment and social deprivations. Adolescents may suffer from depressive mood (DM ... [more ▼]

Nowadays modern societies are to be more competitive and include more non-intact families and living difficulties due to employment and social deprivations. Adolescents may suffer from depressive mood (DM) which is common and multi-factorial. This study assessed, among boys and girls, the causal relationships between DM and parent education, nationality, occupation, income, divorce/separation, and death, repeating a school-year, lifetime alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/other drugs uses, victim of violence and sexual abuse, involvement in violence, and lack of social supports (family members/friends). Methods: 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3) completed in class a questionnaire including DM (Kandel scale), factors studied, and their occurring/persisting period. Data were analyzed using Cox models taking into account risk factors which came before and persisted until DM occurring. Findings: Lifetime-DM affected 7.6% of boys and 19.1% of girls. Among girls factors with significant crude hazard ratios (HR) were: parent divorce/separation (1.57), insufficient income (1.95), repeating a school-year (1.95), victim of violence (2.99) or sexual abuse (4.96), and lack of supports (4.08 for score 1-2 and 7.74 for score 3+, vs. score 0) while tobacco use was close to significance (1.77). Taking all factors into account retained only repeating a school-year (adjusted HR 1.87), victim of violence (2.50) or sexual abuse (4.02), and lack of supports (3.83 and 7.28). Among boys, the significant factors were: hard-drug use (6.01), victim of violence (2.88), and lack of supports (2.27 and 4.78) while insufficient income (1.75), low parent education (1.60), and victim of sexual abuse (3.58) were close to significance. Full model retained only victim of violence (adjusted HR 2.29) and lack of supports (2.16 and 4.18). Conclusion: Taking chronology in consideration revealed strong gender disparities for DM and its associations with family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviours, violence, and social supports that may be prevention targets. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction of two-year post-stroke survivors: effects of socioeconomic factors, motor impairment, Newcastle Stroke-specific Quality of Life leasure and World health Organization quality of Life-bref of informal caregivers in Luxembourg and a rural area in Portugal.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Leandro, M. E. et al

in Cerebrovascular Diseases (2012), 33

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains ... [more ▼]

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains to be fully elucidated. Purpose: To analyse the stroke survivors’ life satisfaction 2 years after the event and its relationships with quality of life, socio-economic and stroke-related characteristics, and with informal caregivers’ life satisfaction and quality of life . Methods: Over 18 months, all stroke patients from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal who lived at home were identified from the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale and hospital records, respectively. The clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. We excluded all patients who declared that stroke did not result in neurological impairmentsat the time of stroke from the statistical analysis. The samples comprised 79 patients in Luxembourg and 48 in Portugal. Patients and the people they identified as their main caregivers were interviewed using validated questionnaires measuring life satisfaction, i.e. the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (Newsqol – 11 subscales), which identifies the areas affected by stroke among patients, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life – bref (Whoqol-bref – 4 subscales) of informal caregivers. Survivors without neurological impairment at the time of stroke were excluded. Data were analysed via multiple-regression models. Results: Life satisfaction was higher among women and lower among subjects with impaired motor functions. It was lower among Portuguese respondents with low-level education ( <12th grade) and higher among those at work (37.6/100). In Luxembourg, retired people had more life satisfaction than did working people (–7.9/100). Controlling for socio-economic factors, life satisfaction was associated with feelings- Newsqol (slope 0.25) among Luxembourg residents, and with feelings-, mobility- and self-care-Newsqol (slopes 0.24, 0.27 and 0.33, respectively) among Portuguese respondents. Life satisfaction of patients was strongly related to that offamily caregivers among the Portuguese respondents (slope 0.66) but the relationship was moderate in Luxembourg (slope 0.28). The survivors’ life satisfaction was not correlated with any Whoqol-bref domain in the Luxembourg group, but was correlated with the Whoqol-bref psychological, social relationships and environment domains among the Portuguese respondents (slopes 0.55, 0.59 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: The life satisfaction scale and the Newsqol stroke instrument, which identify areas of quality of life affected by stroke, are reliable patient-centred markers of intervention outcome. They can be used within the framework of medical follow-up (such as telephone assistance, clinical practice and prevention). Depending on the stroke survivor’s and the family caregiver’s habitual lifestyle and material circumstances, enhancement of a caregiver’s quality of life can help maintain the patient’s life satisfaction, particularly in a rural setting. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure of school project: the role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychosociological Work in Transcultural Contexts (2012)

Youth context require social-material-behavioral-mental resources to realize school achievement and their community participation, but they are lacking or altered for many adolescents. In an early ... [more ▼]

Youth context require social-material-behavioral-mental resources to realize school achievement and their community participation, but they are lacking or altered for many adolescents. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of these factors with repeating a school year, low school-performance, and quitting-school thinking at 16 years. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including: sex, age, family structure, parental education, income, and occupation, WHOQoL (quality of life for 4 domains physical, psychological, social relationship, and environment; <25th percentile value), last-30-day consumption of tobacco/alcohol/ cannabis/hard drug, regular sports/physical activities, victim of violence, sexual abuse, implication in violence, suicidal ideation, social supports, repeating a school year, low summer-term school-performance (<10/20), and quitting-school-thinking. Data were analyzed using logistic models which yield adjusted odds ratios (OR). Results: Repeating a school-year affected 14.7%, low school performance 8.2%, and quitting-school-thinking 3.9%. Repeating a school-year was significantly related to increasing age (OR 2.18), father being a manual worker (2.79 vs. manager/professional), clerk (2.36), craftsman/tradesman/firm-head (1.68), or unemployed (4.65), low WHOQoL-environment (2.29), tobacco use (1.70), and hard drug use (2.35). Low school-performance was linked with increasing age (OR 1.25), father being a manual worker (4.81 vs. manager/professional), clerk (3.30), craftsman/tradesman/firm-head (2.36), or unemployed (5.41), tobacco use (3.95), low WHOQoL-physical (2.27), and low WHOQoL-psychological (1.56). Quitting-school-thinking was associated with being male (OR 4.03), divorced/separated-parents (2.92 vs. intact family), not living with parent(s) (3.45), implication in violence (5.19), sexual abuse (4.11), and suicidal ideation (2.47). Conclusion: Socioeconomic living conditions and physical/mental difficulties have impressive impacts on failure of school project in youth. Public policy aiming at improving school achievement should focus on improvement of environment and living conditions, well-being, and monitoring physical/behavioral/mental difficulties as well as services appropriate to reduce school difficulties. This should promote community participation at adolescence and also at adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction two-years after stroke onset: the effects of gender, occupational status, memory function and quality of life among stroke patients (Newsqol) and their family caregivers (Whoqol-bref) in Luxembourg
Baumann, Michèle UL; Couffignal, Sophie; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Neurology (2012), 12

Life satisfaction (LS) of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL), but their respective ... [more ▼]

Life satisfaction (LS) of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL), but their respective influences remain unclear. This study assessed, two years post-stroke onset, the effects of these factors on patients' LS and family caregivers' LS in Luxembourg. METHODS: All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the 'Inspection Général de la Sécurité Sociale' using the only national system database for care expenditure reimbursement. Their diagnosis was confirmed by medical investigator. The sample included ninety four patients living at home having given consent (mean age 65.5 years) and sixty two main caregivers (mean age 59.3 years). Questionnaires were completed during face-to-face interviews. LS was assessed via European single question (range 1-10), survivors' QoL via Newsqol (11 dimensions), and caregivers' QoL via Whoqol-bref (4 domains) (range 0-100). Data were analysed using multiple regression models. RESULTS: Two years after stroke onset, 44.7% of patients suffered from impaired sensory function, 35.1% from impaired motor function, and 31.9% from impaired memory function. Mean patient' LS was 7.1/10 (SD 1.9). It was higher in women (+12.4) and lower among unemployed socioeconomically active patients (-13.1, vs. retired people). Adjusted for sex, occupation, impaired motor and memory functions, LS positively correlated with scores of Newsqol feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition and pain dimensions (slopes 0.20 to 0.31), but did not correlate with those of caregivers' Whoqol-bref domains. Family caregiver' LS was 7.2 (SD 1.7). It was lower in those with patients suffering from impaired memory function (-12.8) as well as from feelings and emotion issues (slopes 0.22). It was associated with all caregivers' Whoqol-bref domains (physical health, psychological health, environment, and social relationships) (slopes 0.53 to 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Two-year post-cerebrovascular disease patient' LS was associated with gender, occupation, and impaired memory function. It correlated with feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition, and pain issues. Family caregivers of patients with impaired memory function had lower LS. Family caregiver' LS correlated with dimensions of patients' feelings (less independent, yourself, life changed, depressed, useless, less control because of stroke) and emotion (get more emotional, fear of another stroke or to become dependent on others), and with their own QoL. LS, Newsqol, and Whoqol appeared to be appropriate tools. Our findings may be useful for policy makers in relation to family and medical-social issues of stroke home-based rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailReviews about university from freshmen in social sciences: what to remember for European policies!
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Conceptualization and Performance (2012)

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process ... [more ▼]

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process set new goals to ensure on the one hand the competitiveness of European higher education on the global market and on the other hand the sustainable employability of graduates. The freshmen students must adapt to university environment, adopt new patterns, learn how to study at uni, etc. In the same time academic leaders focus on the need to quickly become employable, ie to be mobile, flexible, able to practice foreign languages, etc. This study which focuses on feelings of first year students in social sciences from 4 European universities was conducted in two steps: - The first objective was to explore their perceptions on university life and their approach of employability. Ten focus groups were held in France (5 groups, 39 participants) and in Luxembourg (5 groups, 51 participants). It appears that they consider their social student identity as a major determinant of their well-being at university. They are concerned about the reform of curricula in their respective countries and have difficulty making connections between training and the job market. - The second objective was to assess through an online questionnaire the scores of StUdent Social Identity (SUSI - 12 items) of Belgians (102), Luxembourgers (103) and Romanians (77), and their scores of Employability Skills acquired at University (ESU - 6 items). Our study revealed a highly significant correlation between SUSI and ESU (Spearmans rho = 0.377, p = 0.000). The mean scores (out of 100) are significantly different according to universities. If Luxembourgers get the best score SUSI (67.64 vs. Romanians 40.79, vs. Belgians 63.34), the score ESU is higher in Romania (74.94 vs. Luxembourg 71.26 vs. Belgians 63.03). These differences suggest that European universities can't develop upon a single model. The university policies must address the national context (historical and socioeconomic) and not overlook identity construction of students. As citizens and future leaders of our countries, they have to be heard and their points of view must be incorporated into thinking about missions of universities. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicide behaviors and role of family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental health among multi-cultural students.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Kénora

in Psychosociological Work in Transcultural Contexts (2012)

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students are trained for community participation, especially at adulthood. But some students experience suicidal behaviors and the risk may be ... [more ▼]

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students are trained for community participation, especially at adulthood. But some students experience suicidal behaviors and the risk may be exacerbated among immigrant students because of their living conditions. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed of risk for suicide behaviors among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5 (SD 1.3) years) including: sex, age, family structure, nationality, father’s occupation, unhealthy behaviors (last-30-day consumption of tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug, no regular sports/physical activities), repeating a school year, low-school-performance (<10/20), and quittingschool- thinking, depressive symptoms, victim of violence or sexual abuse, implication in violence, and suicide behaviors. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Results: Last-12-month suicidal ideation (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SA) affected 11.7% and 9.9% of students. The risk for SI was higher for European immigrants (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio ORa 2.06) and non-European immigrants (2.60) compared with French. Further adjustment for father’s occupation and family structure reduced the ORs to 1.76 (28%) and 2.43 (11%) respectively. Further adjustment for unhealthy behaviors, school difficulties, depressive symptoms, victim of violence or sexual abuse, and implication in violence reduced the ORs to 1.50 (53%) and 2.23 (23%) respectively. The risk for SA was higher for European immigrants only (ORa 2.21). Further adjustment for father’s occupation and family structure reduced the OR to 2.03 (15%), and further adjustment for other covariates reduced it to 1.59 (51%). Conclusion: Immigrant students have a higher risk for suicidal ideation or suicide attempts depending on their origin. The risk is strongly mediated by family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental heath. Public policy may focus on these issues. This should promote school achievement and community participation. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Caregiving esteem for which Gender ?
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2012), 27(suppl 1), 170-171

Background: Two years after stroke, are the factors of the esteem of caregiving the same by gender? Methods: Face-to-face questionnaires administered to 92 Luxembourgish and Portuguese stroke patients and ... [more ▼]

Background: Two years after stroke, are the factors of the esteem of caregiving the same by gender? Methods: Face-to-face questionnaires administered to 92 Luxembourgish and Portuguese stroke patients and their 67 men and 25 women caregivers. For each sex, a multiple regression entering:- Neurological impairments,- Patients’ and caregivers’ life satisfaction [1;10],- Reactions towards caregiving: esteem (dependent variable), lack of family support, impacts on finances, schedule and health (Caregiver Reaction Assessment subscales),- Confidence in information subscale from the Carer Satisfaction Community Services. Results: Caregivers with a high caregiving esteem are, in women: those who trust information from community services ( ¼0.412***) and care for patients keeping few sensory impairments ( ¼0.300**; R2adj.¼0.257); in men : those who are low impacted on their health ( ¼0.471*) and care for patients satisfied with life ( ¼0.371; R2adj.¼0.447). Discussion: Home-based rehabilitation can be sustained by developing men and women caregivers’ specific health capabilities. [less ▲]

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