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See detailSelf-perceived academic employability skills and physical quality of life on first-year university students’ wellbeing
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Pracana, lara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (2013)

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the ... [more ▼]

With the Bologna Process, students’ wellbeing and generic skills for employability became priorities for European universities, but their respective influences remain unclear. Our aims were to analyse the relationships between Academic Employability Skills (AES), psychological suffering (General Health Questionnaire) and psychological quality of life(psychological Whoqol-bref) and other physical, social and environmental Whoqol-bref domains and socio-demographic characteristics. Design: Nine months after the start of their first-year at University of Luxembourg, 973 students were invited to participate at a cross-sectional study. Methods: An online questionnaire was proposed in French, German, and English to assess : a) two instruments described the student’s well-being : 1) Whoqol-bref's psychological subscale-6 items (Cronbach's alpha 0.77) with higher the score, higher the psychological quality of live; 2) GHQ-12 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.75) with lower the score, lower the psychological suffering; and one explored the AES-5 items scale (Cronbach's alpha 0.76) (capacities of drafting, solution problem, team work, supervision / direction of others, and use new technologies). Data were analysed using logistic models. Findings: 321 first-year students participated in the study Psychological Whoqol-bref’s and AES’s scores are positively correlated. This relation was verified for each item (drafting, critical spirit, solution to problem, team work, and supervision/direction of others) except use new technologies. Between the correlations of the two instruments only 3/6 items of psychological Whoqol-bref (ability to concentrate, satisfaction with self, negative feelings) are correlated with 8/12 items of GHQ-12 (sleep lost, making decisions, feeling under strain, no overcome difficulties, depressed, loosing self-confidence, considering his/her self as a worthless, reasonably happy). A positive effect between the psychological Whoqol-bref and the AES scores was observed, including with physical, social relationships and environmental domains. No connection exists between the AES and the GHQ-12 scores; on the other side the GHQ-12 score has a negative influence on physical Whoqol-bref status. Conclusions: If a wellbeing suffering contributes in less physical quality of life, the better wellbeing, the higher academic employability skills. Campus should care of students ‘wellbeing and implement counselling activities and adapted environmental to improve their sustainable skills for employability. If the university could maintain the well-being indicators at appropriate levels or manage decreases as they occur, it would have implications for health promotion by creation of new student support systems and <br />services developing sustainable conditions for better European Higher Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic inequities patterns of multi-morbidity in early adolescence.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2013), 12

Background: Multi-morbidity such as cumulating mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties (consumptions of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs, obesity, depressive symptoms, suicide ... [more ▼]

Background: Multi-morbidity such as cumulating mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties (consumptions of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and hard drugs, obesity, depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, involvement in violence, and low school performance) is common in early adolescence and can be favored by a number of socioeconomic factors (gender, age, nationality, family structure, parents’ education, father’ occupation, and income). This study assessed the concurrent roles of various socioeconomic factors in multi-morbidity defined as cumulated number of difficulties (CD) which has been partially documented. Methods: Adolescents from middle schools in north-eastern France (N = 1,559) completed a questionnaire measuring socioeconomic characteristics and mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Alcohol use affected 35.2% of subjects, tobacco use 11.2%, cannabis use 5.6%, hard drugs use 2.8%, obesity 10.6%, depressive symptoms 13.3%, suicide attempts 9.9%, involvement in violence 10.3%, and low school performance 8.2%. Insufficient income and non-intact families impacted most mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties with adjusted odds ratios (ORa) between 1.51 and 3.72. Being immigrant impacted illicit drugs use and low school performance (ORa 2.31-4.14); low parents’ education depressive symptoms (1.42) and school performance (3.32); and manual-worker/inactive offspring low school performance (2.56-3.05). Multi-morbidity was very common: CD0 44.1%, CD1 30.8%, CD2-3 18.4%, and CD ≥ 4 6.7%. Insufficient income, divorced/separated parents, reconstructed families, and single parents played impressive roles with strong ORa gradients (reaching 4.86) from CD1 to CD ≥ 4. Being European immigrant, low parents’ education, and low fathers’ occupations had significant gender-age-adjusted odds ratios for CD2-3 and CD ≥ 4, but these became non-significant when adjusted for all socioeconomic factors. Older adolescents had higher risks for multi-morbidity which did not change when adjusting for all socioeconomic factors. Conclusions: Multi-morbidity including a wide range of mental health, behavioral, and school difficulties was common in early adolescence. Insufficient income and non-intact families played impressive roles. Being immigrant, low parents’ education, and low fathers’ occupations also played strong roles but these were explained by insufficient income and non-intact families. Prevention against multi-morbidity should be designed to help adolescents to solve their difficulties, especially among adolescents with socioeconomic difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents' Dropout regarding Academic Employability Skills and Satisfaction Against
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Pracana, Clara; Silva, Liliana (Eds.) International psychological Applications and Trends (2013)

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year ... [more ▼]

With the Lisbon and Bologna processes, studies completion and sustainable employability of students became priorities for European universities. For the Council of European Union, the share of 30-40 year olds with tertiary educational attainment should be at least 40% by 2020. The young Luxembourg University needs to understand why some students choose to leave without a diploma. Our aim was to analyse the relationships between self-perceiving of the academic employability skills (AES), self-related global quality of life (GQoL) and satisfaction towards against university services (SUS) among persisting and non-persisting students. Design: All freshmen (947) from the three Faculties of Luxembourg University (Sciences & Technology, Law & Finances and Social Sciences) were invited to participate to a cross-sectional survey that took place at beginning of the second semester. Methods: The persisting <br />students were requested to complete an online questionnaire and those who had dropped out during the first semester (non-registered for the second semester) were contacted to responding at the same questions including socio-demographics characteristics: age; sex; nationality (yes/no); work (yes/no); father’s and mother's occupational level and education. A discriminant analysis was undertaken using: the AES scale-6 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.81); the level of GQoL (1 item, values from 1 “very bad” to 5 “very good”) and the SUS scale-3 items (Cronbach’s alpha 0.74). Findings: 99 persisting students and 68 dropouts have responding. There's no significant age difference between these 2 groups (mean 21.12 years old). Dropouts are more likely young men (55.9% vs. 39.4% persisting, p = 0.036) and have a job (58.2% vs. 3.6% persisting, p = 0.000). Their GQoL is higher (83.3/100 vs. 78.1/100 persisting, p = 0.032), but their AES are lower (55.2/100 vs. 67.3/100 persisting, p°= 0.000). Among them, AES and SUS are positively correlated (correlation 0.414; p = 0.000). Conclusions: Contrary to what described in literature, dropouts are not older than persisting students. They’ve a poorer perception of their employability skills, they're less satisfied with university services (like reputation of university, of faculty and teaching quality). However, they've a better quality of life and much of them have a gainful work. These findings are in line <br />with recent studies suggesting that perceptions of quality of higher education have an impact on students’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Further researches will determine nature of links between academic services, employability skills and dropout. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological quality of life and employability skills among newly registered first-year students:
Baumann, Michèle UL; Karavdic, Senad UL

in Health (2013), 5(3), 617-626

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the ... [more ▼]

In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objective was to evaluate influences on the relationship between psychological quality of life (QoL) and the acquisition of academic employability skills (AES) among first-year students at the Univer- sity in Luxembourg. At the beginning (2 months in) and the end (9 months) of the academic year, 973 newly registered students participated in this study involving two cross-university sur- veys. Students who redoubled or who had stud- ied at other universities were excluded. Data were collected with an online questionnaire com- prising the psychological Whoqol-bref subscale, AES scale, and questions about other related factors. The AES score decreased from 74.2 to 65.6. At both time points, the psychological Whoqol-bref was positively correlated with en-vironmental and social relations QoL and per- ceived general health. Multiple regression mod-els including interaction terms showed that a higher psychological QoL was associated with better general health (difference satisfied-dis- satisfied 9.44), AES (slope 0.099), social rela- tionships QoL (0.321), and environmental QoL (0.298). No interaction with time effects was sig- nificant, which indicates that the effects remain stable with time. If the university could maintain the QoL indicators at appropriate levels or man- age decreases as they occur, it would have im- plications for health promotion and the crea- tion of new student support systems. The SQA- LES project provides valuable information for universities aiming to develop a European High- er Educational Area. [less ▲]

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See detailComorbity between mental and physical illnesses and their risk factors in early adolescence.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in The bio-psycho-social model: the future of psychiatry. (2013)

Educational Objectives: Our results provide knowledge about a wide range of deleterious factors associated with mental and physical illnesses and have to be monitored in early adolescence.Purpose: To ... [more ▼]

Educational Objectives: Our results provide knowledge about a wide range of deleterious factors associated with mental and physical illnesses and have to be monitored in early adolescence.Purpose: To assess the associations between mental and physical illnesses, and with socioeconomic factors, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, low school-performance, lack of sports/physical activity, obesity, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, involvement in violence, and suicide ideation among boys and girls in early adolescents.Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school students from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, father’s occupation, parents’ education, nationality, family structure, income, last-30-day alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, low-school-performance (last-trimester-grade<10/20), lifetime sustained physical/verbal violence (20-item scale), lifetime sexual abuse, lifetime involvement in violence (11-item scale), last-12-month suicide ideation, and social relationship, living environment, mental and physical illnesses (measured with the four WHOQoL-Bref domains, score<10th percentiles). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models.Results: Mental and physical illnesses affected respectively 14.4% and 9.7% of adolescents. They were strongly linked: gender-age-adjusted odds ratio gaOR 7.07. They were linked with most socioeconomic factors: female (vs. male, gaORs 1.79 and 1.67), increasing age (1.25 and 1.28, per year), reconstructed family (2.25 and 2.34, vs. intact family), separated/divorced parents (2.46 and 2.35), non-significant (ns) for single-parent, other family categories (3.36 and 2.36), craftsman/tradesman/firm-head offspring (1.70 and 1.70, vs. manager/professional offspring), intermediate-professional offspring (1.84 and 1.70), manual-worker offspring (1.54 (ns) and 2.30), unemployed/retired offspring (2.88 and 3.11), European immigrants (1.39 (ns) and 2.28, vs. French), non-European immigrants (1.32 (ns) and 3.29), insufficient income (1.76 and 1.72). Mental and physical illnesses also related to low-school-performance (gaORs 2.13 and 3.80), alcohol use (1-5 times: ns; 6+ times: 3.85 and 2.23), tobacco use (1-5 times: 2.67 and 3.30; 6+ cigarettes/day: 4.41 and 3.82), cannabis use (1-5 times: 1.91 (ns) and 2.25; 6+ times: 2.55 and 2.06), hard drugs use (4.50 and 4.05), no regular sports/physical activity (2.09 and 3.49), obesity (2.00 and 1.68), sexual abuse (8.25 and 6.22), suicide ideation (10.3 and 5.61), physical/verbal violence (score 1-3: 1.37 and 1.42; score 4+: 3.08 and 2.76, vs. score 0), involvement in violence (score 1-5: 2.44 and 2.05; score 6+: 4.86 and 5.70, vs. score 0), altered social relationship (4.16 and 8.95), and altered living environment (9.59 and 11.7).Conclusion: This study has achieved our aims to identify factors associated with mental and physical illnesses in early adolescence. These original findings provided knowledge which may help public policy promoting adolescent mental and physical health. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of occupational activities and Work environment in occupational injury and interplay of personal factors in various age groups among Indian and French coalminers.
Battacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health (2013), 26(6), 910-929

The role of occupational hazards in occupational injury may be mediated by individual factors across various age groups. This study assessed the role of occupational hazards as well as contribution of ... [more ▼]

The role of occupational hazards in occupational injury may be mediated by individual factors across various age groups. This study assessed the role of occupational hazards as well as contribution of individual factors to injuries among Indian and French coalminers. Material and Methods. We conducted a case-control study on 245 injured workers and on 330 controls without any injuries from Indian coal mines using face-to-face interviews, and a retrospective study on 516 French coalminers using a self-administered questionnaire including potential occupational and personal factors. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Results. The annual rate of injuries was 5.5% for Indian coalminers and 14.9% for the French ones. Logistic model including all occupational factors showed that major injury causes were: hand-tools, material handling, machines, and environment/work-geological/strata conditions among Indian miners (adjusted odds-ratios 2.01 to 3.30) and biomechanical exposure score among French miners (adjusted odds-ratio 3.01 for score the 1–4, 3.47 for the score 5–7, and 7.26 for score ≥ 8, vs. score 0). Personal factors among Indian and French coalminers reduced/exacerbated the roles of various occupational hazards to a different extent depending on workers’ age. Conclusion. We conclude that injury roles of occupational hazards were reduced or exacerbated by personal factors depending on workers’ age in both populations. This knowledge is useful when designing prevention which should definitely consider workers’ age. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-reporting and measurement of body mass index in adolescents: refusals and validity, and the possible role of socioeconomic and health-related factors.
Chau, Nearkasen; Mayet, A; Baumann, Michèle UL

in BMC Public Health (2013), 13(1), 815-829

Body mass index assessment using self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) can encounter refusals and under/over-reporting while for assessment with measured data (BMIm) refusals can be more frequent. This ... [more ▼]

Body mass index assessment using self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) can encounter refusals and under/over-reporting while for assessment with measured data (BMIm) refusals can be more frequent. This could relate to socioeconomic and health-related factors. We explored these issues by investigating numerous potential factors: gender, age, family structure, father's occupation, income, physical/sports activity, subjective weight perception, school performance, unhealthy behaviours, physical/psychological health, social relationships, living environment, having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and involvement in violence. The sample included 1559 adolescents from middle schools in north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic and health-related data, self-reported height/weight, measured height/weight, and weight perception (participation rate 94%). Data were analysed using logistic regression models. BMIsr encountered under-reporting (with change in BMI category, 11.8%), over-reporting (6.0%), and reporting refusals (3.6%). BMIm encountered more numerous refusals (7.9%). Reporting refusal was related to living with a single parent, low school performance, lack of physical/sports activity, sustained violence, poor psychological health, and poor social relationships (gender/age-adjusted odds ratios 1.95 to 2.91). Further to these factors, measurement refusal was related to older age, having divorced/separated parents, a father being a manual worker/inactive, insufficient family income, tobacco/cannabis use, involvement in violence, poor physical health, and poor living environment (1.30 to 3.68). Under-reporting was related to male gender, involvement in violence, poor psychological health, and overweight/obesity (as assessed with BMIm) (1.52 to 11). Over-reporting was related to male gender, younger age, alcohol consumption, and underweight (1.30 to 5.35). Weight perception was linked to reporting refusals and under/over-reporting, but slightly linked to measurement refusal. The contributions of socioeconomic and health-related factors to the associations of weight perception with reporting refusal and under/over-reporting ranged from -82% to 44%. There were substantial discrepancies in the associations between socioeconomic/health-related factors and overweight/obesity assessed with BMIsr and BMIm. BMIsr and BMIm were affected by numerous biases related to vulnerability which were also obesity risk factors. BMIsr encountered under/over-reporting which were related to some socioeconomic and health-related factors, weight perception, and BMIm. BMIm was more affected by refusals than BMIsr due to socioeconomic and health-related factors. Further research is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailLifestyle as a Health Risk for Family Caregivers with Least Life Satisfaction, in Home-Based Post-Stroke Caring
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara UL

in Healthcare Policy (2013), 9

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to ... [more ▼]

Our purpose was to clarify that the caregiving role respresent a situation of risk for the health of family caregivers in home-based caring two years after cerebrovascular disease. Our aim was to determine the social and emotional repercussions of the event on family caregivers. Family caregivers living at home with stroke survivors were identified by a national survey. The Life Satisfaction (LS) national indicator for Luxembourg is 7.9/10, while in Canada it stands at 7.7. Caregivers with a LS level ≤ 7 were more likely to care for survivors affected by motor, sensory and memory neurological impairments. For a great majority, these impairments led to serious upheaval among families, and for spouses it was “a drama.” For family caregivers with a least life satisfaction, their lifestyle poses a real health risk. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of socioeconomic, Family, School, Behavioral and Mental Difficulties on Suicide attempts in Youth
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in The bio-psycho-social model: the futur of psychiatry (2013)

This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicide attempt which have to be assessed/monitored in boys and girls. Purpose: To assess the impacts of socioeconomic factors, alcohol ... [more ▼]

This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicide attempt which have to be assessed/monitored in boys and girls. Purpose: To assess the impacts of socioeconomic factors, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, and involvement in violence on suicide attempt among boys and girls in early adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1,559 middle-school students from north-eastern France (778 boys and 781 girls, mean age 13.5, SD 1.3), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including gender, birth date, father’s occupation, parents’ education, nationality, income, social supports (9-item scale), and lifetime history reconstruction of parents’ separation/divorce/death, alcohol/tobacco/ cannabis/hard drugs uses, repeating a school-year, sustained physical/verbal violence (20-item scale), sexual abuse, depressive symptoms (Kandel scale), involvement in violence (11-item scale), and suicide attempts. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. Results: Lifetime suicide attempt affected 7.2% of boys and 12.5% of girls (p<0.001). Among boys, the factors with significant crude hazard ratio cHR were: insufficient income (2.29), alcohol use (2.33), tobacco use (3.76), hard drugs use (4.48), depressive symptoms (3.60), sustained physical/verbal violence (2.72), sexual abuse (4.30), involvement in violence (3.16), and lack of social support (2.64 for score 1-2, 3.08 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Full model including all factors retained only insufficient income (adjusted hazard ratio aHR 2.11), alcohol use (1.99), depressive symptoms (3.29), and involvement in violence (2.64). Among girls, the factors with significant cHR were: parents’ separation/divorce (2.44), insufficient income (2.23), low parents’ education (1.86), repeating a school-year (2.56), alcohol use (2.04), tobacco use (5.19), cannabis use (3.72), hard drugs use (11.65), depressive symptoms (3.51), sustained physical/verbal violence (1.71), sexual abuse (8.09), involvement in violence (2.04), and lack of social support (3.46 for score 1-2, 6.92 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Full model retained only parents’ separation/divorce (aHR 1.56), repeating a school-year (1.98), alcohol use (1.58), tobacco use (3.60), depressive symptoms (1.86), sexual abuse (6.60), and lack of social support (2.62 for score 1-2 and 4.38 for score 3+, vs. score 0). Compared with boys, girls had a significant cHR of 1.74 which decreased to 1.57 when controlling for all covariates (contribution 23%). Conclusion: This study has achieved our objectives to identify a wide range of socioeconomic, family, school, behavioral and mental difficulties generating suicide attempt among boys and girls in early adolescence. Our findings are original. They reported their causal relationships, the knowledge of which may help public policy preventing suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo years post-stroke: the effects of dissatisfaction with services and quality of information on patients’ quality of life in Luxembourg
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Nearkasen

in Best Investissements for Health (2013)

Stroke is the second cause of death and helps from socio-medical services and information are crucial for promoting post-stroke patient’s quality of life. We analysed the impact of dissatisfaction with ... [more ▼]

Stroke is the second cause of death and helps from socio-medical services and information are crucial for promoting post-stroke patient’s quality of life. We analysed the impact of dissatisfaction with these services and information on post-stroke patient’s quality of life taking into account socioeconomic factors and functional impairments, which remains little documented. Methods: All 2-year post-stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. Clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. Ninety four patients living at home (mean age 65.5) were face-to-face interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, nationality, family structure, education, occupation, income and residence place) and to measure quality of life (using the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life measure, noted Newsqol (assessing mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, vision, communication, feelings, relationships, emotion, sleep and fatigue) and dissatisfaction with various services and information. Data were analysed using multiple regression models. Results: Most functional impairments impacted multiple Newsqol dimensions. Language impairment related to most Newsqol dimensions (mobility, self-care, cognition, vision, communication, feelings, relationships, sleep and fatigue); memory impairment to pain, cognition, feeling, emotion, and sleep; motor impairment to mobility, self-care, pain, feeling and fatigue; visual impairment to relationships in addition to vision; sensory impairment to pain, communication, emotion and sleep. Controlling for all socioeconomic factors and functional impairments evidenced that dissatisfactions with helps and information about helps from community services were strongly associated with all Newsqol dimensions including mainly self-care, communication, mental feeling, relationships, emotion and sleep. Lack of information about stroke was associated with relationships and sleep. Conclusion: Improving help services and information about helps and cerebrovascular disease in chronic phase should highly impact patients’ quality of life. It is important to promote patient-centred care focusing on information need, financial need, and medical, technical and personal aids. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonie et divergences des couples sur les repercussions familiales et sociales apres la survenue d’un accident vasculaire cerebral.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara UL

in Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza". Sectiunea Sociologie si Asistenta Sociala = Scientific Annals of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University. Sociology and Social Work Section (2012), 5(1), 155-173

Deux ans après la survenue d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC), l’harmonie et la divergence entre les déclarations des patients et des conjoints ont été analysées auprès de 51 couples vivant au ... [more ▼]

Deux ans après la survenue d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC), l’harmonie et la divergence entre les déclarations des patients et des conjoints ont été analysées auprès de 51 couples vivant au Luxembourg à l’aide d’un entretien mené à leur domicile. « L’AVC a créé des bouleversements considérables dans ma famille » et « au début, personne ne savait quelle attitude avoir avec la personne AVC »; ces retentissements sont, pour les couples, indiscutables. D’autres effets les affectent: « le caractère de la personne AVC a changé complètement depuis son AVC », ils estiment que « c’est sur le plan psychologique que cela a été le plus difficile ». Malgré les changements intervenus, les voyages demeurent un sujet qui les mobilise. Les besoins « d’information concernant l’aide financière » et « d’aide pour faire des demandes administratives, d’allocations ou de services » sanitaires et socio-éducatifs sont des priorités communes. Ils sont attentifs au fait que « les services et l’équipement fournis soient de bonne qualité » et dispensés à « des moments de la journée qui conviennent ». Les personnes victimes d’un AVC sont plus nombreuses que leurs aidants à reconnaître que « lorsqu’on a un AVC, on se sent dévalorisé ». Cette différence entre les attitudes des patients et des conjoints est une forme de stigmatisation du handicap dont souffrent les victimes confrontées à une image qui n’est plus celle qu’ils avaient d’eux avant l’accident. Avec le vieillissement de la population, une conception de la prise en charge par couple devrait être pensée dans le cadre du maintien à domicile. De nouvelles perspectives de recherche en sociologie médicale pourraient être développées. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the value of keeping patients at home if informal caregivers become exhausted to the detriment of their own life satisfaction?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Couffignal, Sophie

in Social Justice and Democratization (2012)

Cerebrovascular diseases like Alzheimer’s disease increase among European populations, and the number of patients living at home, with domestic support is growing. Our study analysed, two years post ... [more ▼]

Cerebrovascular diseases like Alzheimer’s disease increase among European populations, and the number of patients living at home, with domestic support is growing. Our study analysed, two years post-stroke, the life satisfaction (LS) and its relationships with the quality of life (QoL) of the survivors and their informal caregivers, and socioeconomic characteristics, and impaired functions. All stroke survivors admitted in hospital from the 1st July 2006 to the 30th June 2007 were selected by the National Health Insurance of Luxembourg, using the administrative reimbursement database: patients living at home and their main caregivers were interviewed with questionnaires assessing LS (one question as the European survey), survivor’s Newsqol, and caregiver’s Whoqol-bref. Ninety-four survivors (65.5 years) and 62 informal caregivers (59.3 years) were included in our analyses. Sex and occupational status had a positively effect on patients: their LS was higher in women and retired people. In opposite, patients at home without a professional activity had a much lower LS score. Adjusted for sex, occupational status and impaired motor and memory functions, patients’ LS was higher for higher scores of Newsqol dimensions of feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition, and pain, but was not correlated with any of the caregiver’s Whoqol-bref domains. Informal caregiver’s LS was negatively associated with female sex and care taking of patients with impaired memory. Similarly, it was relied to feelings and emotion Newsqol dimensions and to all Whoqol-bref domains: social relationships, psychological, physical health, and environment. The needs, resources, skills and will of the informal caregivers for taking care of the other must be better taken into account. The informal caregivers represent a “population at risk” who European health systems need to consider. Coaching patients and informal caregivers with socio-educational activities that foster positive attitudes and provide motivation, reassurance and information can help sustain home-based rehabilitation and maintain patients’ LS. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicide behaviors and role of family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental health among multi-cultural students.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Chau, Kénora

in Psychosociological Work in Transcultural Contexts (2012)

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students are trained for community participation, especially at adulthood. But some students experience suicidal behaviors and the risk may be ... [more ▼]

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students are trained for community participation, especially at adulthood. But some students experience suicidal behaviors and the risk may be exacerbated among immigrant students because of their living conditions. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed of risk for suicide behaviors among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5 (SD 1.3) years) including: sex, age, family structure, nationality, father’s occupation, unhealthy behaviors (last-30-day consumption of tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug, no regular sports/physical activities), repeating a school year, low-school-performance (<10/20), and quittingschool- thinking, depressive symptoms, victim of violence or sexual abuse, implication in violence, and suicide behaviors. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Results: Last-12-month suicidal ideation (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SA) affected 11.7% and 9.9% of students. The risk for SI was higher for European immigrants (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio ORa 2.06) and non-European immigrants (2.60) compared with French. Further adjustment for father’s occupation and family structure reduced the ORs to 1.76 (28%) and 2.43 (11%) respectively. Further adjustment for unhealthy behaviors, school difficulties, depressive symptoms, victim of violence or sexual abuse, and implication in violence reduced the ORs to 1.50 (53%) and 2.23 (23%) respectively. The risk for SA was higher for European immigrants only (ORa 2.21). Further adjustment for father’s occupation and family structure reduced the OR to 2.03 (15%), and further adjustment for other covariates reduced it to 1.59 (51%). Conclusion: Immigrant students have a higher risk for suicidal ideation or suicide attempts depending on their origin. The risk is strongly mediated by family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and mental heath. Public policy may focus on these issues. This should promote school achievement and community participation. [less ▲]

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See detailDo relative socioeconomic deprivations impact on subjective health-related quality of life and behaviors among adolescents?
Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle UL

in 40th World Congress of Sociology (2012)

Socioeconomic deprivations include relative parent-education, family structure, nationality, parentoccupation and income that could impact on subjective well-being among adolescents which then persists in ... [more ▼]

Socioeconomic deprivations include relative parent-education, family structure, nationality, parentoccupation and income that could impact on subjective well-being among adolescents which then persists in adulthood. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of the previous factors with subjective health-related quality of life (QoL) and behaviors. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5 (SD 1.3) years) including: sex, age, family structure, parent-education/income/occupation, last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard-drug consumption, sports activities, victim of violence, sexual abuse, violenceimplication, suicidal ideation, social supports, and WHOQoL (4 domains physical, psychological, socialrelationship, and environment; <10th percentile value). Data were analyzed using logistic models which yield adjusted odds ratios (OR, sex/age taken into account). Results: Low WHOQoL-physical, WHOQoL-psychological, WHOQoL-social-relationship and WHOQoLenvironment affected 14.1%, 9.6%, 16.1%, and 12.6%, respectively. Last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/harddrug uses affected 11.2%, 35.2%, 5.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. WHOQoL-physical significantly related to parent low-education (OR=1.59), reconstructed-family (1.98, vs. intact-family), divorced/separated-parents (1.85), nonliving-with-parent (2.44), non-European-nationality (2.31), and insufficient-income (1.50). WHOQoLpsychological related to reconstructed-family (OR=1.91), divorced/separated parents (1.98), and insufficientincome (1.62). WHOQoL-social-relationship related to divorced/separated-parents (1.89), non-European nationality (4.58), and insufficient-income (1.36). WHOQoL-environment related to parent-low-education (OR=2.01), reconstructed-family (1.80), divorced/separated parents (3.25), single-parent-family (1.88), non-living with-parent (2.13), non-European-nationality (3.33), and insufficient-income (1.71). Last-30-day tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard-drug uses related to family-structure, European-non-French-nationality, and insufficient-income with great OR-variations across substances (up to 5.30). Parent-low-education was negatively linked with alcohol use (0.70). Regarding parent-occupation risks were lower for cannabis use among clerk/manual-worker-family (ORs about 0.30) and higher for intermediate-professional-family (1.88) and craftsman/tradesman/firm-head-family (2.02). These associations were mediated by school-performance, sports activity, obesity, sexual abuse, violence, suicidal ideation, and social support. Conclusion: Relative socioeconomic deprivations highly impact on adolescent’s subjective well-being. Risk patterns are complex and greatly vary between quality of life domains and substance uses. Since early ages adolescent’s well-being should be assessed/monitored with school-doctor-family cooperation. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Europe Universitaire. L’identité d’étudiante face à l’employabilité.
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

Book published by Academia L’Harmattan (2012)

Entrer à l'université impose aux jeunes étudiants de renoncer à leurs habitudes de lycéens pour s'adapter à l'environnement et au travail universitaires. Comment négocient-ils ce passage, dans un contexte ... [more ▼]

Entrer à l'université impose aux jeunes étudiants de renoncer à leurs habitudes de lycéens pour s'adapter à l'environnement et au travail universitaires. Comment négocient-ils ce passage, dans un contexte de crise de l'emploi et de réformes de l'enseignement supérieur? Sur quelles bases construisent-ils leur identité d'étudiant? Quelles sont leurs craintes et leurs interrogations? Avec le processus de Bologne, l'employabilité durable s'impose comme une des finalités des enseignements. Quelles compétences d'employabilité les étudiants se reconnaissent-ils? En quoi leur parcours universitaire contribue-t-il à l'acquisition de telles compétences? Enfin, qu'en est-il pour ceux qui quittent l'université sans achever leur première année d'études, désormais qualifiés de "décrocheurs"? Autant d'interrogations auxquelles cet ouvrage s'efforce de répondre, au travers de cinq études menées auprès d'étudiants belges, français, luxembourgeois et roumains. [less ▲]

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See detailReviews about university from freshmen in social sciences: what to remember for European policies!
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Conceptualization and Performance (2012)

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process ... [more ▼]

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process set new goals to ensure on the one hand the competitiveness of European higher education on the global market and on the other hand the sustainable employability of graduates. The freshmen students must adapt to university environment, adopt new patterns, learn how to study at uni, etc. In the same time academic leaders focus on the need to quickly become employable, ie to be mobile, flexible, able to practice foreign languages, etc. This study which focuses on feelings of first year students in social sciences from 4 European universities was conducted in two steps: - The first objective was to explore their perceptions on university life and their approach of employability. Ten focus groups were held in France (5 groups, 39 participants) and in Luxembourg (5 groups, 51 participants). It appears that they consider their social student identity as a major determinant of their well-being at university. They are concerned about the reform of curricula in their respective countries and have difficulty making connections between training and the job market. - The second objective was to assess through an online questionnaire the scores of StUdent Social Identity (SUSI - 12 items) of Belgians (102), Luxembourgers (103) and Romanians (77), and their scores of Employability Skills acquired at University (ESU - 6 items). Our study revealed a highly significant correlation between SUSI and ESU (Spearmans rho = 0.377, p = 0.000). The mean scores (out of 100) are significantly different according to universities. If Luxembourgers get the best score SUSI (67.64 vs. Romanians 40.79, vs. Belgians 63.34), the score ESU is higher in Romania (74.94 vs. Luxembourg 71.26 vs. Belgians 63.03). These differences suggest that European universities can't develop upon a single model. The university policies must address the national context (historical and socioeconomic) and not overlook identity construction of students. As citizens and future leaders of our countries, they have to be heard and their points of view must be incorporated into thinking about missions of universities. [less ▲]

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See detailExperiences of caregiving, satisfaction of life and social repercussions among family caregivers, two years post-stroke.
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Work in Health Care (2012), 51

Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health and social policy priority in Europe due to their high prevalence and the long-term disability they may result in (as the principal cause of handicap ... [more ▼]

Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health and social policy priority in Europe due to their high prevalence and the long-term disability they may result in (as the principal cause of handicap). Increasingly, family caregivers take over the care at home of these patients. Two years post-stroke, our study analyzed the feelings of family caregivers from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal toward their experience of caregiving and its repercussions on social and couple relationships, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic characteristics. Participating hospitals identified survivors and consent was sought by letter. Patients (n = 62) and their main caregivers (n = 46 pairs) were interviewed at home. The mean life satisfaction of caregivers was similar, but the experience of providing care differed in terms of family support, and disruptions of the caregivers’ family responsibilities. More Portuguese respondents gave activities up, found little time for relaxation, and estimated that their health had deteriorated; more Luxembourgers felt strong enough to cope. More Portuguese spouses reported an impact on their sex lives. Family caregivers represent a “population at risk.” Social workers can help them by providing domestic assistance, undertaking coaching activities, fostering favorable attitudes, and offering reassurance. Home-based rehabilitation in Europe involving family care must take account of cultural lifestyle issues. [less ▲]

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See detailPour aller au-delà des incertitudes épistémologiques : une validation de cohérence entre des données existantes et le construit théorique du concept de « health capability » adapté aux aidants familiaux
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in XIXè Congrès International de Sociologie (2012)

Une étude dont le questionnaire, adressé à 62 aidants familiaux, porte sur les répercussions émotionnelles, sociales et familiales d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) survenu deux ans auparavant, a ... [more ▼]

Une étude dont le questionnaire, adressé à 62 aidants familiaux, porte sur les répercussions émotionnelles, sociales et familiales d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) survenu deux ans auparavant, a été reprise en tentant d’approcher le concept novateur de « health capability ». Le chercheur devant s’interroger sur la pertinence des construits théoriques, notre hypothèse a été qu’il existe un recouvrement probable entre les thèmes explorés dans l’étude AVC et les dimensions de health capabilty. Une validation de cohérence effectuée par deux chercheures a confirmé cette hypothèse : 129/164 items ont pu être répartis dans 14 des 15 dimensions du concept à l’étude. Cette répartition met en lumière les informations de l’enquête qui couvrent partiellement le construit théorique et les dimensions restant inexplorées. Des entretiens semi-structurés suivis d’une analyse qualitative des discours seront réalisés afin d’identifier le sens des contenus. Lors de notre communication, nous présenterons, à l’aide d’exemples, les étapes de cette réflexion que nous avons menée pour faire face, mais aussi pour aller au-delà des incertitudes apparentes. Puis nous discuterons de l’intérêt d’une telle démarche de va-et-vient entre un concept emprunté à la littérature et une base de données issue d’une étude mise à notre disposition. Nous mettrons en évidence l’importance de penser l’incertain épistémologique afin de mieux appréhender la compréhension contextualisée de concepts émergents. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool difficulties and role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in BMC Public Health (2012), 12

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant ... [more ▼]

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment), unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular ports/physical activities), grade repetition, low school performance (<10/20), and school dropout ideation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Results: Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47%) with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours). Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78%) with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions: Compared with French students, European immigrant students were more affected only by grade repetition while non-European immigrant students by all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation. The contribution of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours was very high and much higher for non-European than for European immigrant students. Public policy should focus on these factors and services to reduce school difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Problem Drug Use and Injecting Drug Use in Luxembourg: A Longitudinal and Methodological Perspective.
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Addiction Research (2012), 18

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug ... [more ▼]

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug use surveillance systems. Methods: Serial multi-method PDU/IDU prevalence estimations based upon capture-recapture, Poisson regression, multiplier and back-calculation methods. Comparative analysis of methods and assessment of their robustness to variations of external factors. Results: National PDU and IDU prevalence rates were estimated at 6.16/1,000 (95% CI 4.62/1,000 to 7.81/1,000) and 5.68/1,000 (95% CI 4.53/1,000 to 6.85/1,000) inhabitants aged 15–64 years, respectively. Absolute prevalence and prevalence rates of PDU increased between 1997 and 2000 and declined from 2003 onwards, whereas IDU absolute prevalence and prevalence rates witnessed an increasing trend between 1997 and 2007. Conclusions: Drug use surveillance systems can be valuable instruments for the estimation and trend analysis of drug misuse prevalence given multiple methods are applied that rely on serial and representative data from different sources and different settings, control multiple counts and build upon standardized and sustained data collection routines. The described institutional contact indicator revealed to be a useful tool in the context of PDU/IDU prevalence estimations and thus contributes to enhancing evidence-based drug policy planning. [less ▲]

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