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See detailFuture plans and the regulation of well-being of older Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Social Inquiry into Well-Being (2016), 2(1), 70-78

Ageing and migration have become key issues in many European countries, as an unprecedented number of first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age. A permanent return to the ... [more ▼]

Ageing and migration have become key issues in many European countries, as an unprecedented number of first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age. A permanent return to the country of origin seems to be enacted more seldom after retirement than initially envisaged, a phenomenon referred to as “myth of return”. Instead, a third alternative seems to gain interest for ageing migrants, namely commuting between host country and country of origin. The present paper addresses future plans regarding preferred country of residence after retirement and the regulation of well-being of middle-aged and older first generation immigrants. The sample included N = 109 Portuguese first generation immigrants (49.5% female; average age: M = 55.35, SD = 7.42) who had been living in Luxembourg for about M = 30.69 (SD = 8.55) years. Analyses show that only one-fifth of participants plan to return to Portugal, whereas almost one-half prefer to stay in Luxembourg, one-quarter choose to commute, the remainder still being undecided. No differences in life-satisfaction were found, but those who plan to return used fewer self-regulatory strategies compared to those who want to stay or commute; in the STAY group, positive reappraisal strategies were related most strongly to their life-satisfaction, whereas for those who plan to commute both primary and secondary control were beneficial. Interestingly, lowering aspirations was positively related with life-satisfaction for those who plan to return to their country of origin after retirement. Results are discussed taking into consideration aspects of integration and migration experiences over the life-span. [less ▲]

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See detailAcculturation strategies of young immigrants living in Belgium: The view of young Belgian nationals
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL et al

in Roland-Lévi, Christine; Denoux, Patrick; Voyer, Benjamin (Eds.) et al Unity, diversity and culture. Proceedings from the 22nd Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (2016)

In contemporary society, migration has become a key topic. According to Berry (1997), individuals might display different attitudes and behaviors in the process of acculturation, defined as cultural and ... [more ▼]

In contemporary society, migration has become a key topic. According to Berry (1997), individuals might display different attitudes and behaviors in the process of acculturation, defined as cultural and psychological changes resulting from the direct contact among members of multiple cultures. Whereas most research has concentrated on the acculturation strategies of immigrants, the aim of this study is to focus on the preferences of members of the receiving society. In particular, we analyze which strategy young Belgians consider the most suitable for immigrants to adopt, using a sample of Belgian students between the ages of 18 and 29 years living in Brussels. We account for several variables to shed light on the important aspects of intergroup relationships between host nationals and immigrants. [less ▲]

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See detailPast Experiences and Future Orientations of Portuguese Immigrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2015, November 18)

In the next years Luxembourg will be confronted with an unprecedented number of older persons with migrant background. The present study has the aim to 1) explore the migration experiences and future ... [more ▼]

In the next years Luxembourg will be confronted with an unprecedented number of older persons with migrant background. The present study has the aim to 1) explore the migration experiences and future plans of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg who are close to retirement age, and 2) to compare them to their Luxembourgish counterparts regarding future orientations and preferences for control strategies. The sample included n = 94 Portuguese first generation immigrants (52.1% female; average age: M = 57.05, SD = 6.84) and n = 102 Luxembourgish nationals (56.3% female, average age: M = 56.87, SD = 7.39). Preliminary results show that the majority of Portuguese immigrants plan to stay in Luxembourg after retirement. Regarding control strategies, Portuguese compared to Luxembourgish participants scored higher on lowering aspirations. Also, different correlational patterns between control strategies and future orientations were found. Results will be discussed taking into consideration cross-cultural differences and migration experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailExpectations of mutual support and care in the light of migration
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, September 08)

As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many European countries, intergenerational solidarity within the context of acculturation gains high importance. However, most ... [more ▼]

As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many European countries, intergenerational solidarity within the context of acculturation gains high importance. However, most research on intergenerational relations in ageing families so far has not drawn special attention to migrant families. The aim of the present study was to investigate similarities and differences in the expectations about intergenerational support in a sample of n = 48 Luxembourgish (68.8% female) and n = 36 Portuguese (60.5% female) adult children and at least one of their parents. Luxembourgish adult children were on average M = 25.90 (SD = 5.74) years old, Portuguese M = 27.28 (SD = 6.49). A total of 58.3% of Portuguese adult children were born in Luxembourg; the remainder was born in Portugal but had grown up in Luxembourg. For all participants, both parents were still alive and were living in the Grand-Duchy. Whereas Luxembourgish and Portuguese adult children did not differ regarding family cohesion and expected support from parents toward children, Portuguese participants reported higher expectations of support from adult children toward their ageing parents. More Portuguese than Luxembourgish parents indicated they would like to live with their children in case of need, whereas more Luxembourgish parents preferred to live in a residential home. Nonetheless, no differences between adult children of both national groups were found regarding filial anxiety about future care of parents. Results are discussed in the framework of an integrative model on intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing. This model takes several aspects into account that might have an impact on different needs, tasks and resources of the individual and the family depending on different family cultures, the larger cultural context in which family relations are embedded as well as significant events over the life-span (such as migration history). [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerationale Wertetransmission im Akkulturationskontext: Ein Vergleich von in Luxemburg lebenden Eltern-Kind-Triaden im Erwachsenenalter
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, August 31)

Internationale Mobilität ist heute ein Kernthema vieler Gesellschaften und die Akkulturation von Migranten hat gerade in Europa hohe Bedeutsamkeit erlangt. Hier stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit a ... [more ▼]

Internationale Mobilität ist heute ein Kernthema vieler Gesellschaften und die Akkulturation von Migranten hat gerade in Europa hohe Bedeutsamkeit erlangt. Hier stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit a) Werthaltungen von Einwanderern und Einheimischen sich annähern, b) Werthaltungen im Akkulturationskontext in der Familie von einer Generation an die nächste weitergegeben werden. Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Werteähnlichkeit von Eltern und erwachsenen Kindern in portugiesischen Immigrantenfamilien in Luxemburg im Vergleich zu luxemburgischen Familien. Im Rahmen der vom FNR geförderten IRMA-Studie wurden mittels eines standardisierten Fragebogens Daten zu Werthaltungen, wahrgenommener intergenerationeller Werteähnlichkeit sowie subjektiver Wichtigkeit der Wertetransmission an N=40 in Luxemburg lebenden portugiesischen sowie N=41 luxemburgischen Vater-Mutter-Kind-Triaden erhoben. Erste Ergebnisse weisen auf eine Angleichung der Werteprofile der portugiesischen Teilnehmer in der zweiten Generation an die Werthaltungen der luxemburgischen Teilnehmer hin. Dennoch bleiben Unterschiede in der Wichtigkeit spezifischer Werthaltungen über beide Generationen erhalten. So schätzen die portugiesischen Kinder und Eltern Sicherheit und Tradition höher ein als die luxemburgischen Teilnehmer. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund theoretischer Ansätze der intergenerationalen Wertetransmission sowie unter Berücksichtigung intrafamilialer Prozesse der Beziehungsregulation diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticulturalism in Portuguese Migrants from Luxembourg
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July)

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See detailRegulation of intergenerational family relations between adult children and their ageing parents in the context of migration
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stéphanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2014, September)

In the next years, many western societies will be confronted with specific challenges regarding ageing migrants, since an unprecedented number of first generation immigrants are approaching retirement age ... [more ▼]

In the next years, many western societies will be confronted with specific challenges regarding ageing migrants, since an unprecedented number of first generation immigrants are approaching retirement age. Until now, only few studies have concentrated on the regulation of intergenerational family relations of older migrants and their adult children, although migrant families at this stage of the life span might be confronted with very special tasks. In general, the acculturation situation may result in an increased need for intergenerational support due to a smaller social network or fewer sociocultural resources in the host country. Depending on the time spent in the host country, an acculturation gap between the first and the second generation might appear leading to different expectations regarding intergenerational solidarity or to ambivalences, which can affect well-being of family members. The present study will concentrate on two key issues regarding the regulation of adult family relations, first the balancing of autonomy and closeness - a major developmental task in adolescence and emerging adulthood that remains important over the whole life span -, and second the regulation of support exchange and reciprocity that might gain special importance between adult children and their ageing parents. The study reported here is based on a pilot study with n = 31 Luxembourgish and n = 20 Portuguese immigrant mother-daughter-dyads in adolescence and young adulthood. Here we found an acculturation gap between Portuguese mothers and daughters regarding felt obligations toward family members that had a particularly high salience for Portuguese mothers. Further, differences between Luxembourgish and Portuguese families were found in patterns of social support (see Albert, Michels, & Ferring, 2013). The present study will implement a cross-cultural comparison of altogether N = 120 Portuguese and Luxembourgish triads of older parents and their adult children, both living in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The study addresses three specific research questions: Firstly, we will examine similarities and differences in family values and internalized norms of older parents and their adult children that may indicate a generational gap. Secondly, we will examine how intergenerational relations are regulated with respect to mutual expectations in migrant compared to non-migrant families and if this indicates an acculturation gap. Finally, we will explore how these aspects are related to relationship quality and subjective well-being (SWB) of all involved family members. Results will be discussed in the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing that might serve as a heuristic to explain similarities and differences between and within cultural groups in adult child-parent relations. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational relations between adult children and their older parents: A comparison between host nationals and Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, September)

Migration and ageing have become key topics of the contemporary world. In the next years, many western countries will be confronted with specific challenges of an ageing society. Among these, the ... [more ▼]

Migration and ageing have become key topics of the contemporary world. In the next years, many western countries will be confronted with specific challenges of an ageing society. Among these, the situation of older migrants is of particular interest in many European countries. Only few studies have, however, focused the relationship quality between adult children and their ageing parents in host national compared to immigrant families. Within this context, expectations of different generations towards one another may be of specific importance. As ageing parents approach a critical period of their life span, they may in general more likely experience a need for intergenerational support and solidarity and develop specific expectations about support exchange. These expectations may be challenged when families migrate from a culture of interdependence to a culture of independence, since cultural contact might lead to core changes in value orientations. As these changes are often more pronounced in the second generation than in the first, a generation gap between ageing parents and their adult children might result out of this process. A major question in this context refers to mutual expectations and obligations between family members of different generations as far as emotional and financial support are concerned. Adult children from immigrant families might, for instance, be subject to the experience of ambivalent or conflictual feelings regarding the desire to become independent from their parents; at the same time, they may feel the urge to conform to parental expectations or to support their parents in accordance to the values of their parents’ culture of origin. However, older parents may also undergo changes in their perception of intergenerational support and lower their expectations in the process of acculturation. In the present study, a cross-cultural comparison between Luxemburgish and Portuguese triads of adult children and their older parents living in Luxembourg (N = 120) will be realized. We will focus on different key issues regarding intergenerational family relations between first and second generations of host nationals and immigrants. One of the main issues will be to examine interdependent and independent self-construals comparing both cultural groups and both generations, presuming that there might be an intergenerational or an acculturation gap. Another research question concerns the potential consequences of divergent expectations about support and solidarity between family members of different generations, such as ambivalent or conflictual feelings. Finally, we will analyse in how far changes in the ideas about intergenerational relations might have affected and be affected by the life-long goal pursuit of older parents of both cultural groups. Results will be discussed within the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing, which will be presented as a heuristic to explain similarities and differences in adult child-parent relationships by comparing two culturally different groups. [less ▲]

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See detailInvited Symposium on Intergenerational family relations and migration from a life span perspective
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stéphanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2014, September)

Due to important socio-demographic changes of the last decades, intergenerational family relations are a highly important topic in the public discourse and in research. These changes refer to phenomena at ... [more ▼]

Due to important socio-demographic changes of the last decades, intergenerational family relations are a highly important topic in the public discourse and in research. These changes refer to phenomena at different stages in the family life cycle – such as, for instance, the younger generations’ postponed transitions to adulthood including longer training times and longer financial dependencies from parents, as well as growing life expectancies and the related issues of elder care. In light of increasing migration and mobility in Europe, these issues become highly important also with regard to acculturation. However, research so far has only seldom taken a larger perspective on these issues by combining views on different stages in the life span and in the context of migration. The present symposium aims therefore to shed light on intergenerational family relations and migration at different stages in the family life cycle. Starting with the relations between adolescents and their parents, the first contribution by Colette Sabatier and Virginie Avezou-Boutry (France) concentrates on the dual process of enculturation (ethnic and French) of Moroccan second-generation adolescents living in France. Three different identity patterns of adolescents are described both with regard to transmission and maintenance of the culture of origin in migrant families, as well as host national enculturation. Adolescents’ identity patterns do not only differ with respect to diverse criteria of acculturation and mother’s identity, but also with respect to the family climate and levels of mother-child conflicts. The second paper by Susana Coimbra and colleagues (Portugal) focusses on the next stage in intergenerational relations, namely between emerging adults and their parents. Several factors that may enhance functional solidarity in families are explored, showing that the most important predictor of intergenerational solidarity is relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, results provide additional support for the assumption that solidarity patterns may – under certain conditions - be transmitted from one generation to the next within families. Third, Isabelle Albert and colleagues (Luxembourg) move one step further in the family life cycle, by concentrating on two key issues in the relations between adult children and their ageing parents: the balancing of autonomy and relatedness as well as the regulation of support exchange and reciprocity, in Portuguese migrant and native families in Luxembourg. Continuing the lines of reasoning of the two preceding contributions, this study focuses on similarities and differences in identity constructions of adult children and their parents as well as on aspects of intergenerational support exchange as perceived by both groups. To conclude, Jaan Valsiner and colleagues (Denmark) draw a more general view on the regulation of relations in family networks, considering different generations as well as the geographical distribution of wider family networks. The contribution focuses peripheral communication patterns (PCP) and their roles in constituting developmental contexts over the life course and as a source of family members’ well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational relations between older parents and their adult children: Effect on subjective well-being
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, August)

In the near future, many western nations will be confronted with specific issues regarding ageing populations and their physical and psychological well-being. Ageing persons might experience a greater ... [more ▼]

In the near future, many western nations will be confronted with specific issues regarding ageing populations and their physical and psychological well-being. Ageing persons might experience a greater need for intergenerational support and solidarity, especially in the context of migration. The acculturation process may entail an increased intergenerational gap possibly leading to conflicts and ambivalences between family members. This might in turn cause a diminished feeling of their well-being. A cross-cultural comparison is envisaged between Luxemburgish and Portuguese triads of adult children and their older parents living in Luxembourg (N = 120). Participants will report on their mutual relationship quality and subjective well-being by using a standardized questionnaire. Similitudes and differences in mutual expectations of the participants as well as the effects of an intergenerational gap in ideas about intergenerational solidarity on relationship quality and on subjective well-being (SWB) of family members will be examined. Results will be discussed regarding the relevance of intergenerational family relations for subjective well-being in the light of migration and ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailAcculturation strategies of young immigrants of Moroccan and Portuguese origin in Belgium: The perception of young Belgian natives.
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL et al

Poster (2014, July)

The concept of acculturation refers to cultural and psychological changes resulting from the contact between members of multiple cultures. According to Berry (1997), individuals display different ... [more ▼]

The concept of acculturation refers to cultural and psychological changes resulting from the contact between members of multiple cultures. According to Berry (1997), individuals display different attitudes and behaviours in the process of acculturation. Earlier studies have shown that members of host societies and immigrants often prefer the integration strategy, which seems to have most positive outcomes for both host nationals and immigrant communities. The aim of the present study was to analyse the perceptions and preferences of Belgians regarding the acculturation stratégies displayed by two immigrant communities in Belgium, namely Portuguese and Moroccan. A sample of N = 120 Belgian students between the ages of 18 and 29 living in Brussels participated in the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to six different groups of n = 20 persons each: these were presented with six scenarios that differed by a combination of one of Berry’s acculturation strategies (separation, integration and assimilation) with one of two origins of the main character (Portuguese or Moroccan). Participants then filled out a standardized questionnaire measuring their degree of agreement and disagreement to different statements with regard to the displayed acculturation strategy. Analyses showed that Belgian natives rather appreciated integration strategies by immigrants (i.e. conservation of the cultural identity and an appropriation of the host culture’s values at the same time) to assimilation (i.e. own-culture desistance while seeking daily interaction with the majority) or separation strategies (i.e. maintenance of the heritage culture while rejecting contact with the host culture). Furthermore, Belgian participants expressed slightly more positive feelings toward young Portuguese immigrants compared to young Moroccan immigrants, which might be due to a smaller cultural distance between the former two cultures. No interaction effects between displayed acculturation strategy and cultural origin of the scenario’s main character were found. Results are discussed within the framework of Berry’s acculturation strategy model as well as referring to theories of similarity and attraction. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational family relations in Luxembourg: Adult children and their ageing parents in migrant and non-migrant families
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, July)

Most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, but less is known about ... [more ▼]

Most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, but less is known about immigrant families at later stages in the family life cycle. As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many Western European countries, the question of how parent-child relations in adulthood are regulated, gains - however - particular importance. Older migrants and their adult children might be confronted with very special tasks compared to families without migration background. In general, first generation parents might need higher intergenerational support from their adult children due to a smaller social network in the host country or due to fewer sociocultural resources such as language competences. There might also be an acculturation gap between parents and their adult children regarding different identity constructions, value orientations, norms and expectations with regard to intergenerational solidarity and support. These differences in expectations and beliefs might affect relationship quality between the family members from different generations as well as their well-being. In the present study, a cross-cultural comparison of altogether N = 120 Portuguese and Luxembourgish triads of older parents and their adult children, both living in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, is envisaged. The aims of the study are, firstly to examine similarities and differences in family values, internalized norms and mutual expectations of older parents and their adult children in migrant and non-migrant families; secondly, to analyze in how far an acculturation gap respectively a generation gap might have an impact on the relationship quality between parents and their adult children; thirdly and related to this, to explore subjective well-being (SWB) of all involved family members. Results will be discussed in the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing. This model will be proposed as a heuristic to explain similarities and differences in adult child-parent relations in migrant and non-migrant families. [less ▲]

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