References of "Balling, Rudi 50000566"
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See detailRecessive mutations in SLC13A5 result in a loss of citrate transport and cause neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay and teeth hypoplasia
Hardies, Katia; de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Weckhuysen, Sarah et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2015)

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry ... [more ▼]

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry a heterozygous de novo mutation in one of the genes associated with the disease entity. Occasionally recessive mutations are identified: a recent publication described a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 615905) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Here, we report eight additional patients belonging to four different families with autosomal recessive mutations in SLC13A5. SLC13A5 encodes a high affinity sodium-dependent citrate transporter, which is expressed in the brain. Neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; therefore they rely on the uptake of intermediates, such as citrate, to maintain their energy status and neurotransmitter production. The effect of all seven identified mutations (two premature stops and five amino acid substitutions) was studied in vitro, using immunocytochemistry, selective western blot and mass spectrometry. We hereby demonstrate that cells expressing mutant sodium-dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia as a possible indicator for SLC13A5 screening. All three patients who tried the ketogenic diet responded well to this treatment, and future studies will allow us to ascertain whether this is a recurrent feature in this severe disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical transitions in chronic disease: transferring concepts from ecology to systems medicine
Trefois, Christophe UL; Antony, Paul UL; Goncalves, Jorge UL et al

in Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2015), 34

Ecosystems and biological systems are known to be inherently complex and to exhibit nonlinear dynamics. Diseases such as microbiome dysregulation or depression can be seen as complex systems as well and ... [more ▼]

Ecosystems and biological systems are known to be inherently complex and to exhibit nonlinear dynamics. Diseases such as microbiome dysregulation or depression can be seen as complex systems as well and were shown to exhibit patterns of nonlinearity in their response to perturbations. These nonlinearities can be revealed by a sudden shift in system states, for instance from health to disease. The identification and characterization of early warning signals which could predict upcoming critical transitions is of primordial interest as prevention of disease onset is a major aim in health care. In this review, we focus on recent evidence for critical transitions in diseases and discuss the potential of such studies for therapeutic applications. [less ▲]

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See detailStaining for unphosphorylated alpha-synuclein in the colon mucosa. No difference between patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls
Antony, Paul UL; Antunes, L; Frasquilho, S et al

Scientific Conference (2015, June)

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See detailDe novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy
Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B.S.; Riesch, Erik et al

in Nature Genetics (2015), 47(4), 393-9

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next ... [more ▼]

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified four different de novo mutations in KCNA2, encoding the potassium channel KV1.2, in six patients with epileptic encephalopathy (one mutation recurred three times independently). Four individuals presented with febrile and multiple afebrile, often focal seizure types, multifocal epileptiform discharges strongly activated by sleep, mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech development and sometimes ataxia. Functional studies of the two mutations associated with this phenotype showed almost complete loss of function with a dominant-negative effect. Two further individuals presented with a different and more severe epileptic encephalopathy phenotype. They carried mutations inducing a drastic gain-of-function effect leading to permanently open channels. These results establish KCNA2 as a new gene involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders through two different mechanisms, predicting either hyperexcitability or electrical silencing of KV1.2-expressing neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailCHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy is frequently associated with self-induced seizures
Thomas, Rhys H.; Zhang, Lin Mei; Carvill, Gemma L. et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(9), 951-958

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the ... [more ▼]

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the medical history, MRI, and video-EEG recordings of 9 individuals with de novo CHD2 mutations and one with a de novo 15q26 deletion encompassing CHD2. Results: Seizures began at a mean of 26 months (12–42) with myoclonic seizures in all 10 cases. Seven exhibited exquisite clinical photosensitivity; 6 self-induced with the television. Absence seizures occurred in 9 patients including typical (4), atypical (2), and absence seizures with eyelid myoclonias (4). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 9 of 10 cases with a mean onset of 5.8 years. Convulsive and nonconvulsive status epilepticus were later features (6/10, mean onset 9 years). Tonic (40%) and atonic (30%) seizures also occurred. In 3 cases, an unusual seizure type, the atonic-myoclonic-absence was captured on video. A phenotypic spectrum was identified with 7 cases having moderate to severe intellectual disability and refractory seizures including tonic attacks. Their mean age at onset was 23 months. Three cases had a later age at onset (34 months) with relative preservation of intellect and an initial response to antiepileptic medication. Conclusion: The phenotypic spectrum of CHD2 encephalopathy has distinctive features of myoclonic epilepsy, marked clinical photosensitivity, atonic-myoclonic-absence, and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Recognition of this genetic entity will permit earlier diagnosis and enable the development of targeted therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy
Larsen, Jan; Carvill, Gemma L.; Gardella, Elena et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(5), 480-489

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the ... [more ▼]

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. Methods: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. Results: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. Conclusion: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent. [less ▲]

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See detailRecessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly
Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick UL; Djémié, Tania et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015), 24(8), 2218-2227

We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene ... [more ▼]

We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the sigma subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein, tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP4-deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet mitochondrial membrane potential in Parkinson's disease.
Antony, Paul UL; Boyd, Olga UL; Trefois, Christophe UL et al

in Annals of clinical and translational neurology (2015), 2(1), 67-73

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), which has been reported not to be restricted to striatal neurons. However, studies that analyzed mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), which has been reported not to be restricted to striatal neurons. However, studies that analyzed mitochondrial function at the level of selected enzymatic activities in peripheral tissues have produced conflicting data. We considered the electron transport chain as a complex system with mitochondrial membrane potential as an integrative indicator for mitochondrial fitness. METHODS: Twenty-five IPD patients (nine females; mean disease duration, 6.2 years) and 16 healthy age-matched controls (12 females) were recruited. Live platelets were purified using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and single-cell data on mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) were measured by cytometry and challenged with a protonophore agent. RESULTS: Functional mitochondrial membrane potential was detected in all participants. The challenge test reduced the membrane potential in all IPD patients and controls (P < 0.001). However, the response to the challenge was not significantly different between patients and controls. INTERPRETATION: While the reported protonophore challenge assay is a valid marker of overall mitochondrial function in live platelets, intact mitochondrial membrane potential in platelets derived from IPD patients suggests that presumed mitochondrial enzymatic deficiencies are compensable in this cell type. In consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential in platelets cannot be used as a diagnostic biomarker for nonstratified IPD but should be further explored in potential Parkinson's disease subtypes and tissues with higher energy demands. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Mouse Brain Metabolome: Region-Specific Signatures and Response to Excitotoxic Neuronal Injury
Jäger, Christian UL; Glaab, Enrico UL; Michelucci, Alessandro UL et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2015), 185(6), 1699-1712

Neurodegeneration is a multistep process characterized by a multitude of molecular entities and their interactions. Systems' analyses, or omics approaches, have become an important tool in characterizing ... [more ▼]

Neurodegeneration is a multistep process characterized by a multitude of molecular entities and their interactions. Systems' analyses, or omics approaches, have become an important tool in characterizing this process. Although RNA and protein profiling made their entry into this field a couple of decades ago, metabolite profiling is a more recent addition. The metabolome represents a large part or all metabolites in a tissue, and gives a snapshot of its physiology. By using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we analyzed the metabolic profile of brain regions of the mouse, and found that each region is characterized by its own metabolic signature. We then analyzed the metabolic profile of the mouse brain after excitotoxic injury, a mechanism of neurodegeneration implicated in numerous neurological diseases. More important, we validated our findings by measuring, histologically and molecularly, actual neurodegeneration and glial response. We found that a specific global metabolic signature, best revealed by machine learning algorithms, rather than individual metabolites, was the most robust correlate of neuronal injury and the accompanying gliosis, and this signature could serve as a global biomarker for neurodegeneration. We also observed that brain lesioning induced several metabolites with neuroprotective properties. Our results deepen the understanding of metabolic changes accompanying neurodegeneration in disease models, and could help rapidly evaluate these changes in preclinical drug studies. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal implementation of genomic medicine: We are not alone.
Manolio, Teri A.; Abramowicz, Marc; Al-Mulla, Fahd et al

in Science translational medicine (2015), 7(290), 29013

Around the world, innovative genomic-medicine programs capitalize on singular capabilities arising from local health care systems, cultural or political milieus, and unusual selected risk alleles or ... [more ▼]

Around the world, innovative genomic-medicine programs capitalize on singular capabilities arising from local health care systems, cultural or political milieus, and unusual selected risk alleles or disease burdens. Such individual efforts might benefit from the sharing of approaches and lessons learned in other locales. The U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute and the National Academy of Medicine recently brought together 25 of these groups to compare projects, to examine the current state of implementation and desired near-term capabilities, and to identify opportunities for collaboration that promote the responsible practice of genomic medicine. Efforts to coalesce these groups around concrete but compelling signature projects should accelerate the responsible implementation of genomic medicine in efforts to improve clinical care worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailSystems genomics evaluation of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line as a model for Parkinson’s disease
Krishna, Abhimanyu UL; Biryukov, Maria UL; Trefois, Christophe UL et al

in BMC Genomics (2014), 15(1154),

Background: The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, is a commonly used cell line in studies related to neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this cell line is often ... [more ▼]

Background: The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, is a commonly used cell line in studies related to neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this cell line is often used as a cellular model for Parkinson’s disease, the relevance of this cellular model in the context of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases has not yet been systematically evaluated. Results: We have used a systems genomics approach to characterize the SH-SY5Y cell line using whole-genome sequencing to determine the genetic content of the cell line and used transcriptomics and proteomics data to determine molecular correlations. Further, we integrated genomic variants using a network analysis approach to evaluate the suitability of the SH-SY5Y cell line for perturbation experiments in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. Conclusions: The systems genomics approach showed consistency across different biological levels (DNA, RNA and protein concentrations). Most of the genes belonging to the major Parkinson’s disease pathways and modules were intact in the SH-SY5Y genome. Specifically, each analysed gene related to PD has at least one intact copy in SH-SY5Y. The disease-specific network analysis approach ranked the genetic integrity of SH-SY5Y as higher for PD than for Alzheimer’s disease but lower than for Huntington’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis for loss of function perturbation experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailROS homeostasis in a dynamic model: How to save PD neuron?
Kolodkin, Alexey UL; Ignatenko, Andrew UL; Sangar, Vineet et al

Poster (2014, December)

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See detailMutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes
Schubert, Julian; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Langlois, Melanie UL et al

in Nature Genetics (2014), 46(12), 1327-32

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile ... [more ▼]

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B6, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees7, 8 identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies
Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi UL; Barisic, Nina et al

in American Journal of Human Genetics (2014), 4

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic ... [more ▼]

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10−4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodegeneration by Activation of the Microglial Complement–Phagosome Pathway
Bodea, Liviu-Gabriel; Wang, Yiner; Linnartz-Gerlach, Bettina et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2014), 34(25), 8546-8556

Systemic inflammatory reactions have been postulated to exacerbate neurodegenerative diseases via microglial activation. We now demonstrate in vivo that repeated systemic challenge of mice over four ... [more ▼]

Systemic inflammatory reactions have been postulated to exacerbate neurodegenerative diseases via microglial activation. We now demonstrate in vivo that repeated systemic challenge of mice over four consecutive days with bacterial LPS maintained an elevated microglial inflammatory phenotype and induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The same total cumulative LPS dose given within a single application did not induce neurodegeneration. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis of the brain demonstrated that repeated systemic LPS application induced an activation pattern involving the classical complement system and its associated phagosome pathway. Loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by repeated systemic LPS application was rescued in complement C3-deficient mice, confirming the involvement of the complement system in neurodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that a phagosomal inflammatory response of microglia is leading to complement-mediated loss of dopaminergic neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailCuration of complex molecular pathways of Parkinson's disease as a collaborative scientific community effort
Antony, Paul UL; Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Gawron, P et al

Scientific Conference (2014, June 12)

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See detailROS-activated signaling network: dynamic modelling and design principles study
Kolodkin, Alexey UL; Ignatenko, Andrew UL; Sangar, Vineet et al

Poster (2014, June)

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See detailComparison of ODE-based models for reactive oxygen species regulation system
Ignatenko, Andrew UL; Kolodkin, Alexey UL; Peters, Bernhard UL et al

in Proceedings of ICCSA 2014 (2014, June)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important role in the functioning of any cell and especially in the lifecycle of mitochondria. Since the action of ROS can be both positive and negative then the ... [more ▼]

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important role in the functioning of any cell and especially in the lifecycle of mitochondria. Since the action of ROS can be both positive and negative then the remarkable role can be played by ROS regulation system. We constructed three different ODE based kinetic models of different complexity for the ROS management system and shown the difference in the dynamics of these systems under different conditions. Using results of numerical simulation we showed that extraction of some subsystems can make the model more unstable. We also introduced the objective function for comparison of the models with structure of different complexity [less ▲]

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