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See detailPatterns of relationship regulation: German and French adolescents' perceptions with regard to their mothers.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Sabatier, Colette

in Family Science (2011), 2(1), 58-67

Following a person-centered approach, the present study focuses on inter- and intracultural similarities and differences in patterns of relationship regulation by adolescents with regard to their mothers ... [more ▼]

Following a person-centered approach, the present study focuses on inter- and intracultural similarities and differences in patterns of relationship regulation by adolescents with regard to their mothers in a sample of 153 French and 154 German adolescents. Starting from theoretical assumptions of individuation in adolescence as the process of balancing autonomy and relatedness, a classification approach was applied providing four theoretically derived clusters of relationship regulation, namely “harmonious,” “tense,” “primary,” and “secondary” relationship regulation patterns. Countries did not differ in numbers of adolescents in the “harmonious” and “tense” clusters. More patterns of “primary” relationship regulation were found between German adolescents and their mothers, whereas French families had a higher prevalence of “secondary” regulation patterns. Clusters were validated by maternal parenting (from adolescents’ perspectives) and adolescents’ optimism. Results on patterns of regulation are discussed in a theoretical framework of intrafamily processes of relationship regulation and implications for family functioning are addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailGrandmother-grandchild relationships and the role of the middle generation: A cross-cultural perspective.
Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Albert, Isabelle UL; Trommsdorff, Gisela

Scientific Conference (2011)

Recent studies underlined the importance of grandparent-grandchild ties, but the quality of relations varies across cultures. Parents as middle generation may play a mediating role, e.g., by regulating ... [more ▼]

Recent studies underlined the importance of grandparent-grandchild ties, but the quality of relations varies across cultures. Parents as middle generation may play a mediating role, e.g., by regulating contact frequency and exchanged support. The present study aims to explore the mediating role of mothers for the relationship between maternal grandmothers and grandchildren in cultural contexts with different family norms and kinship systems. A sample of N = 489 family-triads (adolescents, mothers, maternal grandmothers) from USA, Germany, China and Turkey participating in the Value-of-Children study reported on their relationship quality and intergenerational support provision. Analyses showed that the relationship quality of mothers to their own mothers was related to the grandmother-grandchild relation in all countries included. Further, results partly suggested an indirect effect of social support provided by adult daughters on the grandmother-grandchild relationship. Findings are discussed within the framework of intergenerational relations throughout the lifespan from a cross-cultural perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailKorrelate intergenerationaler familiärer Unterstützung im Erwachsenenalter.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Von der Forschung zur Praxis: 13. Kongress der DGVM (2011)

Die Frage nach Zuständigkeiten für Pflege und Unterstützung im Alter ist in den letzten Jahren im Zuge des demographischen Wandels immer mehr in das Zentrum des öffentlichen Interesses gerückt und hat ... [more ▼]

Die Frage nach Zuständigkeiten für Pflege und Unterstützung im Alter ist in den letzten Jahren im Zuge des demographischen Wandels immer mehr in das Zentrum des öffentlichen Interesses gerückt und hat zahlreiche Forschungsaktivitäten angeregt. Insbesondere die Erforschung von Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Erwachsenenalter hat dabei stark an Bedeutung gewonnen, da ein Großteil an intergenerationeller Unterstützung innerhalb der Familie geleistet wird. In Anlehnung an das Modell der intergenerationalen Solidarität sensu Bengtson (z.B. Bengtson & Roberts, 1991) als theoretischer Bezugsrahmen werden in der vorliegenden Studie unterschiedliche Dimensionen der Solidarität umschrieben und Korrelate intergenerationeller Unterstützung zwischen erwachsenen Kindern und ihren Müttern analysiert. Die Stichprobe bestand aus insgesamt N = 123 Personen im mittleren Erwachsenenalter (davon 31.1% männlich) zwischen 32 und 64 (M = 44.99, SD = 6.68) Jahren, die anhand eines standardisierten Fragebogens über Aspekte der Beziehungen zu ihren Müttern (gegebene und erhaltene Unterstützung, internalisierte Familiennormen, emotionale Beziehungsqualität zur Mutter, Gefühle der Ambivalenz gegenüber der Mutter) befragt wurden. Es lagen demnach Auskünfte über Mütter im Alter zwischen 54 und 93 Jahren (M = 72.58, M = 7.99) vor, von denen die meisten nach Angaben ihrer Kinder über einen relativ guten oder im mittleren Bereich liegenden Gesundheitszustand verfügten, in 16 Fällen war jedoch eine Pflegebedürftigkeit gegeben. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass vor allem die emotionale Beziehungsqualität sowie internalisierte Familiennormen den Austausch von Unterstützung bedingen, wohingegen Kontextmerkmale (wie Familienstand, Gesundheitszustand der Mutter; Berufstätigkeit des Kindes) weniger stark mit Aspekten der Solidarität zusammenhingen. Ferner wurde das Auftreten ambivalenter Gefühle im Zusammenhang mit der Unterstützung für Mütter durch eine internalisierte Familienorientierung moderiert: Respondenten, die bei starker Familienorientierung hohe Unterstützungsleistungen erbrachten, berichteten über weniger ambivalente Gefühle als Personen, die bei niedriger Familienorientierung hohe Unterstützungsleistungen erbrachten. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Blick auf mögliche Voraussagen für Situationen späterer Pflegebedürftigkeit und unter Berücksichtigung intrafamilialer Prozesse der intergenerationellen Beziehungsregulation diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailA-EKB-EA – Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Ambivalenz in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Erwachsenenalter. Test Info.
Michels, Tom; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Focus Diagnostica (2011), 57 (1)

Ambivalenz in der Beziehung zu Mutter und Vater und anderen Familienmitgliedern stellt neben dem Solidaritätskonzept eine bedeutsame Dimension für die Beschreibung intergenerationeller Beziehungen dar ... [more ▼]

Ambivalenz in der Beziehung zu Mutter und Vater und anderen Familienmitgliedern stellt neben dem Solidaritätskonzept eine bedeutsame Dimension für die Beschreibung intergenerationeller Beziehungen dar. Psychologische Ambivalenz ist dabei definiert durch das gleichzeitige Auftreten von widersprüchlichen Motiven, Emotionen und Handlungstendenzen gegenüber einer Person. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde ein „Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Ambivalenz in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Erwachsenenalter” entwickelt, der k = 23 Items umfasst und in einer Mutter- respektive Vaterversion vorliegt. Exploratorische und konfirmatorische Analysen in einer Stichprobe von N = 210 Personen jungen und mittleren Erwachsenenalters zeigten unterschiedliche zweifaktorielle Strukturen des Verfahrens für die Vater- und die Mutterversion. Es wurde weiter eine Kurzversion der Instrumente entwickelt, die Vergleiche zwischen elterlichen Beziehungen erlaubt. Die Prüfung der psychometrischen Kennwerte zeigte zufriedenstellende Reliabilitätsschätzungen; ebenso ergaben sich erste Hinweise auf eine substantielle kriterienbezogene Validität der Skalen. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbivalenz in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter: Welche Rolle spielt das elterliche Erziehungsverhalten?
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Abstractband EPSY (2011)

Die Erforschung von Ambivalenz in intergenerationalen Beziehungen hat sich in den letzten Jahren schwerpunktmäßig mit Übergängen in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Erwachsenenalter befasst. Frühere Phasen in ... [more ▼]

Die Erforschung von Ambivalenz in intergenerationalen Beziehungen hat sich in den letzten Jahren schwerpunktmäßig mit Übergängen in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen im Erwachsenenalter befasst. Frühere Phasen in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen wurden hingegen seltener unter diesem Gesichtspunkt betrachtet. Gerade der Prozess der Individuation im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter ist jedoch von Dynamiken der gleichzeitigen Suche nach Nähe und Abgrenzung bestimmt, die mit widersprüchlichen Emotionen und Handlungstendenzen einhergehen können. Die innerfamiliale Regulation unterschiedlicher Bedürfnisse sollte dabei nicht zuletzt auch vom elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten abhängen. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist es, die erlebte Ambivalenz von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen im Zusammenhang mit dem wahrgenommenen elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten zu untersuchen und zwar unter Berücksichtigung der Frage, ob das Alter der Befragten einen Moderator dieses Zusammenhangs darstellt. Die Stichprobe besteht aus N = 233 luxemburgischen Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen im Alter zwischen 14 und 25 Jahren, die mittels eines standardisierten Fragebogens das wahrgenommene elterliche Erziehungsverhalten (Wärme, psychologische Kontrolle und Verhaltenskontrolle) und ihre erlebte Ambivalenz zu Vater und Mutter einschätzten. Die Analysen zeigten insbesondere einen starken positiven Zusammenhang zwischen elterlicher psychologischer Kontrolle und Ambivalenz über alle Altersgruppen hinweg, wohingegen elterliche Wärme durchweg einen negativen Zusammenhang zum Erleben von Ambivalenz gegenüber beiden Eltern aufzeigte. Hingegen war die mütterliche Verhaltenskontrolle nur bei älteren Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen mit dem Erleben von Ambivalenz gegenüber den eigenen Müttern verbunden; in den Beziehungen zum Vater zeigten sich keine Altersunterschiede im positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Verhaltenskontrolle und Ambivalenz. Die vorliegende Studie liefert damit einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Erforschung von Ambivalenz in früheren Abschnitten der Entwicklung sowie einen weiteren Hinweis darauf, dass insbesondere die mütterliche Verhaltenskontrolle je nach Alter des Jugendlichen unterschiedliche Bedeutungen haben kann. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund der intrafamilialen Regulation von Beziehungen im Individuationsprozess diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of gender in the intergenerational transmission of family values between mothers, fathers and adolescents.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Abstract book of 15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology (2011)

Referring to gender role models of socialization, the intergenerational transmission of values within families should generally be higher in same-gender compared to mixed dyads. However, empirical studies ... [more ▼]

Referring to gender role models of socialization, the intergenerational transmission of values within families should generally be higher in same-gender compared to mixed dyads. However, empirical studies have not always supported this assumption. Recent research has suggested that different results might be expected depending on the specific value content. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of the parent-child gender constellation on value similarities in families with adolescents in Luxembourg, focusing on gender-related and general family values. A sample of N = 46 family triads, i.e. adolescents (n=22 boys, n=24 girls) between age 15 and 20 together with their mothers and fathers, were interviewed on values about hierarchical gender roles as well as obligations towards family members. Analyses showed that both daughters and sons were more similar to mothers compared to fathers in their respective value profiles. Analyzing the similarities between the adolescent and parent generation showed that daughters were more similar to the typical female and sons more similar to the typical male value profile. Regarding specific value contents, fathers’ and sons’ values about obligations towards family members were related to each other. Moreover, similarities in values about hierarchical gender roles were showed for both mother-daughter and mother-son dyads. This finding was further specified, given that sons agreed more than mothers with values about hierarchical gender roles, indicating thus a relative (not absolute) mother-son value transmission. Results are discussed from theoretical perspectives of gender role socialization as well as gender specific salience of value orientations. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychologische Ambivalenz in Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen: Entwicklung und Teststatistische Überprüfung eines Instrumentes zur direkten Konstruktabbildung
Michels, Tom UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Focus Diagnostica (2011), 57(1), 39-51

Besides the intergenerational solidarity paradigm, the concept of psychological ambivalence has emerged as a key dimension for the description of intergenerational relations. Psychological ambivalence is ... [more ▼]

Besides the intergenerational solidarity paradigm, the concept of psychological ambivalence has emerged as a key dimension for the description of intergenerational relations. Psychological ambivalence is defined as the concomitant occurrence of contradictory motives, emotions, and action tendencies towards one person. The present study aimed at the development of a Questionnaire for the Measurement of Ambivalence in Parent-Child-Relations in Adulthood. It comprises k = 23 items that are available in a maternal and in a paternal version. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were carried out on a sample of N = 210 young and middle-aged adults, and showed different two-factor structures for the two versions. Further, a short version of the questionnaire was developed that allows for comparisons between parental relationships. Examination of the psychometric properties of the scales revealed sound reliability. Further, first substantive evidence for the criterion validity of the scales is reported. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional relations with grandparents and received support: The adolescent view.
Michels, Tom UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Journal of Intergenerational Relationships (2011), 9(3), 1-17

Following concepts of solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence, the present study focuses on the perspectives of high school students (N = 155) aged 12 to 21 to describe their relationships to ... [more ▼]

Following concepts of solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence, the present study focuses on the perspectives of high school students (N = 155) aged 12 to 21 to describe their relationships to maternal and paternal grandparents with respect to (a) emotional quality and (b) grandparental support. Based on the frequency of positive and negative emotions, a classification approach is adopted to determine patterns of relationship quality. Parental lineage differences are found with regard to size and profile of clusters. Cluster comparisons regarding appraisals of received grandparental support (emotional, instrumental, material) indicate that support is significantly diminished if relations become disharmonious or detached. [less ▲]

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See detailZur psychometrischen Abbildung und Erfassung von Ambivalenz in Generationenbeziehungen.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Vortrag beim 2. Werkstattgespräch „Ambivalenz“ (2011)

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See detailIntergenerational support and life satisfaction: a comparison of Chinese, Indonesian, and German elderly mothers.
Schwarz, Beate; Albert, Isabelle UL; Trommsdorff, Gisela et al

in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2010), 41(5-6), 706-722

The exchange of support between generations is a fundamental feature of intergenerational relationships. Although most studies have concentrated on the impact of social support on the receiver, effects on ... [more ▼]

The exchange of support between generations is a fundamental feature of intergenerational relationships. Although most studies have concentrated on the impact of social support on the receiver, effects on subjective well-being of the provider of support have been studied less often. Given cultural differences in the norms and values of intergenerational relationships, the present study compared samples from rural and urban China, Indonesia, and Germany. The results showed that in the different cultural contexts elderly mothers’ well-being was differently related to help that they provided to their adult daughters. The results are discussed from a culture-informed perspective on intergenerational relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailAre older adult German women satisfied with their lives? On the role of life domains, partnership status, and self construal.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Labs, Katrin; Trommsdorff, Gisela

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2010), 23(1), 39-49

Along with increased life expectancy, successful aging and possibilities for increasing well-being in old age have become important research topics in recent years. The present study (a) examines the ... [more ▼]

Along with increased life expectancy, successful aging and possibilities for increasing well-being in old age have become important research topics in recent years. The present study (a) examines the relationship between satisfaction in several life domains (with respect to family, friendships, and health) and general life satisfaction of older adult women in Germany, and (b) determines which factorsmoderate the importance of satisfaction in these different life domains for the evaluation of general life satisfaction. More precisely, we examine the role of partnership status and self-construal. The sample consisted of 98 German women between the age of 58 and 83 years (M = 69.6 years; SD = 5.9 years) who were interviewed in the framework of the interdisciplinary and cross-cultural Value of Children Study. Results showed that for women living with a partner, satisfaction with family was most important for their general life satisfaction, whereas for women without a partner, satisfaction with friendships and with socioeconomic status had prominent roles. In addition, the kind of self-construal moderated the relations between (1) satisfaction with family and general life satisfaction and (2) satisfaction with health and general life satisfaction. Family satisfaction was less important for the general life satisfaction of women who were highly independently oriented; for women who had a strongly pronounced self-construal (either independent or interdependent), satisfaction with health was less important for general life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailActivities and their associations with state and trait components of well-being in old age
Leist, Anja UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Zeitschrift fuer Gerontologie und Geriatrie (2010), 43(S1), 88-88

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See detailPerceived parenting and ambivalence in parent-child relations in adolescence and emerging adulthood.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

in XIIth EARA Conference (2010)

The concept of ambivalence describes dynamics of simultaneous attraction and repulsion in families. Especially transitions during the life span are likely to elicit ambivalence in intergenerational ... [more ▼]

The concept of ambivalence describes dynamics of simultaneous attraction and repulsion in families. Especially transitions during the life span are likely to elicit ambivalence in intergenerational relations. Adolescence and emerging adulthood are phases of important transformations in parent-child relations entailing an array of developmental tasks, such as identity development and the dual process of individuation, which may give rise to ambivalences and tensions in family relations. Assuming different stages in the individuation process, parental control might be perceived differently by adolescents and emerging adults: while younger children may perceive parental control as kind of support and care, it may be experienced more as intrusion when autonomy demands of adolescents increase. The aims of the present study were to analyse a) the relation of perceived parenting and ambivalence towards parents with age, b) the interrelation of perceived parenting and feelings of ambivalence, as well as c) the moderating role developmental phase may have for the relation between perceived parenting and ambivalence. In the present study, a sample of N = 233 participants between the age of 14 and 25 (M = 19.00, SD = 2.69) living in Luxembourg were interviewed with regard to their relations towards their mothers and their fathers. The standardized questionnaire measured perceived parenting on three dimensions (maternal resp. paternal support, behavioural control and psychological control); further, ambivalence towards mothers and fathers was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire including contradictory emotional, motivational, and behavioural tendencies. Results showed that behavioural control was reduced with growing age; moreover, ambivalence was related positively to psychological control and behavioural control. Developmental phase moderated the relation between behavioural control and feelings of ambivalence towards mothers: This relation showed to be stronger for older participants. Results will be discussed with respect to intrafamilial processes underlying the regulation of ambivalence within the individuation process. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of Emotional Relations and Intergenerational Support in Families: A Three-Generation-Perspective
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Gerontologist (2010), 50(Supplement 1), 110-110

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See detailIntergenerational value transmission within the family and the role of emotions.
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Proceedings of 5th Congress of the European Society of Family Relations 2010 (2010)

The intergenerational transmission of values from one generation to the next is a crucial task of the family as primary socialization agent. Aspects that characterize the family context (such as parenting ... [more ▼]

The intergenerational transmission of values from one generation to the next is a crucial task of the family as primary socialization agent. Aspects that characterize the family context (such as parenting, communication style, relationship quality) may serve as transmission belts enhancing (or hindering) the intrafamilial transfer of values. Although the importance of emotions of parents and their children has been acknowledged, their role in the transmission process has only rarely been addressed empirically. For several reasons one can assume that emotions have an essential function in the transfer of values from parents to their offspring. As demonstrated by cognitive psychology, contents that are linked to emotions are remembered more easily. Further, one can assume that the valence of emotions influences the internalization process: While positive emotions towards the transmitter should enhance attention to value messages and willingness of the recipient to take over these values, negative emotions should reduce the recipient’s readiness to take over specific values. The aim of the present study is to investigate in how far value similarity between mothers and adolescents is linked to their positive or negative emotions towards each other. A sample of N = 95 mother-adolescent dyads living in Luxembourg was studied by means of a standardized questionnaire measuring four general value orientations, namely self-direction, hedonism, conformism and benevolence as well as positive and negative emotions of both mothers and adolescents. Results indicate that positive emotions of adolescents towards their mothers were related with higher value similarity, whereas negative and ambivalent emotions were related to lower value similarity. Also for mothers, negative emotions were related to lower value similarity with their children. Results are discussed with respect to intrafamilial processes underlying the regulation of intergenerational relations and the transmission of values. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of intergenerational support and reciprocity
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

in In R. Zukauskiene (Ed.). Proceedings of the XIV European Conference on Developmental Psychology ECDP. Bologna, Italy: Medimond. (2010)

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See detailPatterns of intergenerational support and reciprocity in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2009)

Background. Along with demographic changes regarding increasing life expectancies and lower fertility rates, members of different generations within the family spend more and more life time together. In ... [more ▼]

Background. Along with demographic changes regarding increasing life expectancies and lower fertility rates, members of different generations within the family spend more and more life time together. In line with these developments, intergenerational relations gain importance with the exchange of support and reciprocity being key issues. Referring to theoretical models of intergenerational solidarity, the present study aims to examine reciprocity of intergenerational support exchange as well as its relation to relationship quality and family norms in Luxembourg. Method. A sample of 31 three-generation families (adolescent daughters, mothers, and grandmothers) with Luxembourgish origin as well as 21 two-generation families with Portuguese origin (adolescent daughters and mothers) living in Luxembourg was studied by means of a standardized questionnaire measuring perceived support provision and reception, relationship quality as well as adherence to family norms. Results. In the first step, patterns of emotional and instrumental support exchange were identified and different generations and cultural groups were compared. Analyses showed that while most participants perceived to give more than to receive regarding emotional support, different patterns occurred with respect to instrumental support: In Portuguese families, the exchange of this kind of support was perceived as balanced, but in Luxembourgish families, middle generation was clearly perceived as net provider by all three generations. In the second step, an indirect measure of reciprocity was applied in order to study the relation between support balance and relationship quality as well as family norms. These analyses underlined the importance of reciprocity especially for the quality of intergenerational relations in Luxembourgish families. Conclusions. Results are discussed with respect to intrafamilial processes underlying the regulation of intergenerational relations by taking into account cross-cultural differences in value orientations and family norms. [less ▲]

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See detail‘‘Forever young’’: On the relationship between subjective and objective age
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Michels, Tom

in Paper presented at the XIXth IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Paris, France (2009)

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