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See detailEvent Notification in CAN-based Sensor Networks
Bloom, Gedare; Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan et al

in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (2019), 15(10), 5613-5625

Preventive and reactive maintenance require the collection of an ever-increasing amount of information from industrial plants and other complex systems, like those based on robotized cells, a need that ... [more ▼]

Preventive and reactive maintenance require the collection of an ever-increasing amount of information from industrial plants and other complex systems, like those based on robotized cells, a need that can be fulfilled by means of a suitable event notification mechanism. At the same time, timing and delivery reliability requirements in those scenarios are typically less demanding than in other cases, thus enabling the adoption of best-effort notification approaches. This paper presents, evaluates, and compares some of those approaches, based on either standard CAN messaging or a recently proposed protocol extension called CAN XR. In the second case, the combined use of Bloom filters is also envisaged to increase flexibility. Results show that the latter approaches are advantageous in a range of event generation rates and network topologies of practical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailOn a Software-Defined CAN Controller for Embedded Systems
Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting UL et al

in Computer Standards & Interfaces (2019), 63

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The ... [more ▼]

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The recent standardization of CAN with flexible data rate (CAN FD), as well as other academic proposals, have highlighted the usefulness of enhancing the CAN physical and data link layers to attain better performance and other features. This paper describes a portable software-defined CAN controller called SDCC. Besides being handy as a research tool for experimenting with novel protocol concepts at the data link layer, SDCC is also fully capable of real-time execution. Hence, it can interact with real-world CAN devices through a physical bus interface. [less ▲]

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See detailError detection and management in CAN XR
Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting UL et al

in 2018 14th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS) (2018)

Nowadays, Controller Area Network is still the most popular solution for in-vehicle communications in automotive scenarios. Recently, the CAN with eXtensible in-frame Replyproposal has been introduced ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Controller Area Network is still the most popular solution for in-vehicle communications in automotive scenarios. Recently, the CAN with eXtensible in-frame Replyproposal has been introduced, which permits several nodes to write at the same time on the bus in the data field of legacy CAN frames. This enables several new interesting communication services, including distributed key generation and highly-efficient data exchanges according to the combined message approach. Unfortunately, having several concurrent devices acting as transmitters for the same message impairs the ability of the protocol to detect global errors, hence worsening its robustness against electromagnetic disturbance. In this paper, this problem is analyzed in detail and some solutions are proposed, which make CAN XR as robust as the standard CAN protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailCAN With eXtensible In-Frame Reply: Protocol Definition and Prototype Implementation
Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (2017), 13(5), 2436-2446

Controller area network (CAN) has been the de facto standard in the automotive industry for the past two decades. Recently, CAN with flexible data-rate (CAN FD) has been standardized, which achieves ... [more ▼]

Controller area network (CAN) has been the de facto standard in the automotive industry for the past two decades. Recently, CAN with flexible data-rate (CAN FD) has been standardized, which achieves noticeably higher throughput. Further improvements are still possible for CAN, by exploiting its peculiar physical layer to carry out distributed operations among network nodes, implemented as atomic transactions mapped on quasi-conventional frame exchanges. In this paper, a proposal is made for an extension to the CAN protocol, termed CAN with eXtensible in-frame Reply (CAN XR), which enables upper protocol layers to define new custom services devoted to, e.g., network management, application-specific functions, and high-efficiency data transfer. The key point is that CAN XR retains full backward compatibility with CAN, therefore, there is no need to change the protocol specification once again. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimized event notification in CAN through in-frame replies and Bloom filters
Bloom, Gadare; Cena, Gianluca; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan et al

in 2017 IEEE 13th International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS) (2017)

Thanks to its distributed and asynchronous medium access control mechanism, CAN is the ideal choice for interconnecting devices in event-driven systems. When timing requirements of applications are not ... [more ▼]

Thanks to its distributed and asynchronous medium access control mechanism, CAN is the ideal choice for interconnecting devices in event-driven systems. When timing requirements of applications are not particularly demanding, as in the case of, e.g., reactive and proactive maintenance, constraints on event delivery can be relaxed, so that their notification may rely on best-effort approaches. In this paper, a number of techniques are taken into account for notifying events in such a kind of systems, and their performance has been evaluated. Besides conventional CAN, a recent proposal for extending this protocol, termed CAN XR, is considered. Moreover, the adoption of Bloom filters to cope with rare events in very large systems has also been evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Security Protocols on CAN-Based Networks
Bloom, Gedare; Cena, Gianlua; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan et al

in 2017 IEEE 18th International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT2017) (2017)

The ever-increasing variety of services built on top of the Controller Area Network (CAN), along with the recent discovery of vulnerabilities in CAN-based automotive systems (some of them demonstrated in ... [more ▼]

The ever-increasing variety of services built on top of the Controller Area Network (CAN), along with the recent discovery of vulnerabilities in CAN-based automotive systems (some of them demonstrated in practice) stimulated a renewed attention to security-oriented enhancements of the CAN protocol. The issue is further compounded nowadays because, unlike in the past, security can no longer be enforced by physical bus segregation. This paper describes how CAN XR, a recently proposed extension of the CAN data-link layer, can effectively support the distributed calculation of arbitrary binary Boolean functions, which are the foundation of most security protocols, without necessarily disclosing their operands on the bus. The feasibility of the approach is then shown through experimental evaluation and by confirming its applicability to a shared key generation protocol proposed in literature. [less ▲]

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