References of "Toque, Carole"
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See detailCluster Analysis for Investment funds portfolio optimisation: A symbolic data approach
Terraza, Virginie UL; Toque, Carole

in financial Risk Management and Modeling (2021)

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See detailHistogram valued data on Value at Risk measures: a symbolic approach for risk attribution
Toque, Carole; Terraza, Virginie UL

in Applied Economics Letters (2014)

In this article, we develop the concept of histogram-valued data on value at risk for the classification of hedge fund risk. By using recent developments in data mining, it is a question of the ... [more ▼]

In this article, we develop the concept of histogram-valued data on value at risk for the classification of hedge fund risk. By using recent developments in data mining, it is a question of the classification of heterogeneous data in order to sort hedge funds by risk class. In practical terms, risk levels relative to measures of histogram-valued data on VaR are calculated as an aid to decision-making. The empirical study was carried out on 1023 HFR-based hedge funds, where we had estimated monthly ARMA-GARCH or asymmetric GARCH VaR and CVaR measures between 01 January 2003 and 31 December 2008. We identify two sub-periods: from 2003 to 2005, and from 2006 to 2008 in order to identify a recovery period after the 2001–2002 crisis and the impact of the 2007–2008 crisis. First, the symbolic approach allows us to construct the measures of histogram-valued data on VaR by optimizing the definition of categories. A symbolic principal component analysis shows that the indices coming from the VaR of the GARCH and asymmetrical GARCH are the most pertinent. Second, we apply a criterion of inter-class inertia and retain a partitioning of hedge funds into three classes by dynamic K-means cluster analysis. For each of our sub-periods and for each class, a risk level is defined on the basis of the categories of the most discriminating variable. [less ▲]

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