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See detailUnderstanding human individuation of unfamiliar faces with oddball fast periodic visual stimulation and electroencephalography
Rossion, B.; Retter, Talia UL; Liu-Shuang, J.

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2020)

To investigate face individuation (FI), a critical brain function in the human species, an oddball fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) approach was recently introduced (Liu‐Shuang et al ... [more ▼]

To investigate face individuation (FI), a critical brain function in the human species, an oddball fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) approach was recently introduced (Liu‐Shuang et al., Neuropsychologia, 2014, 52, 57). In this paradigm, an image of an unfamiliar “base” facial identity is repeated at a rapid rate F (e.g., 6 Hz) and different unfamiliar “oddball” facial identities are inserted every nth item, at a F/n rate (e.g., every 5th item, 1.2 Hz). This stimulation elicits FI responses at F/n and its harmonics (2F/n, 3F/n, etc.), reflecting neural discrimination between oddball versus base facial identities, which is quantified in the frequency domain of the electroencephalogram (EEG). This paradigm, used in 20 published studies, demonstrates substantial advantages for measuring FI in terms of validity, objectivity, reliability, and sensitivity. Human intracerebral recordings suggest that this FI response originates from neural populations in the lateral inferior occipital and fusiform gyri, with a right hemispheric dominance consistent with the localization of brain lesions specifically affecting facial identity recognition (prosopagnosia). Here, we summarize the contributions of the oddball FPVS framework toward understanding FI, including its (a)typical development, with early studies supporting the application of this technique to clinical testing (e.g., autism spectrum disorder). This review also includes an in‐depth analysis of the paradigm's methodology, with guidelines for designing future studies. A large‐scale group analysis compiling data across 130 observers provides insights into the oddball FPVS FI response properties. Overall, we recommend the oddball FPVS paradigm as an alternative approach to behavioral or traditional event‐related potential EEG measures of face individuation. [less ▲]

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See detailAll-or-none face categorization in the human brain
Retter, Talia UL; Jiang, F.; Webster, M.A. et al

in NeuroImage (2020)

Visual categorization is integral for our interaction with the natural environment. In this process, similar selective responses are produced to a class of variable visual inputs. Whether categorization ... [more ▼]

Visual categorization is integral for our interaction with the natural environment. In this process, similar selective responses are produced to a class of variable visual inputs. Whether categorization is supported by partial (graded) or absolute (all-or-none) neural responses in high-level human brain regions is largely unknown. We address this issue with a novel frequency-sweep paradigm probing the evolution of face categorization responses between the minimal and optimal stimulus presentation times. In a first experiment, natural images of variable non-face objects were progressively swept from 120 to 3 ​Hz (8.33–333 ​ms duration) in rapid serial visual presentation sequences. Widely variable face exemplars appeared every 1 ​s, enabling an implicit frequency-tagged face-categorization electroencephalographic (EEG) response at 1 ​Hz. Face-categorization activity emerged with stimulus durations as brief as 17 ​ms (17–83 ​ms across individual participants) but was significant with 33 ​ms durations at the group level. The face categorization response amplitude increased until 83 ​ms stimulus duration (12 ​Hz), implying graded categorization responses. In a second EEG experiment, faces appeared non-periodically throughout such sequences at fixed presentation rates, while participants explicitly categorized faces. A strong correlation between response amplitude and behavioral accuracy across frequency rates suggested that dilution from missed categorizations, rather than a decreased response to each face stimulus, accounted for the graded categorization responses as found in Experiment 1. This was supported by (1) the absence of neural responses to faces that participants failed to categorize explicitly in Experiment 2 and (2) equivalent amplitudes and spatio-temporal signatures of neural responses to behaviorally categorized faces across presentation rates. Overall, these observations provide original evidence that high-level visual categorization of faces, starting at about 100 ​ms following stimulus onset in the human brain, is variable across observers tested under tight temporal constraints, but occurs in an all-or-none fashion. [less ▲]

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See detailFace Perception
Rossion, B.; Retter, Talia UL

in The Cognitive Neurosciences (2020)

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See detailPreserved individual face discrimination in the ventral lateral occipital complex (vloc) of a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient
Dricot, L; Schiltz, Christine UL; Sorger, B et al

Scientific Conference (2006, June 17)

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See detailThe neural basis of human face categorization: A parametric pet study
Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL; Robaye, L et al

Poster (1999, June)

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See detailEffect of familiarity on the processing of human faces
Dubois, S; Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(3), 278289

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was ... [more ▼]

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was to highlight the effects of familiarity on the visual processing of faces. Using [15O]water 3D Positron Emission Tomography, regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured in 11 human subjects performing an identical task (gender categorization) on both unknown and known faces. Subjects also performed two control tasks (a face recognition task and a visual pattern discrimination task). They were scanned after a training phase using videotapes during which they had been familiarized with and learned to recognize a set of faces. Two major results were obtained. On the one hand, we found bilateral activations of the fusiform gyri in the three face conditions, including the so-called fusiform-face area, a region in the right fusiform gyrus specifically devoted to face processing. This common activation suggests that different cognitive tasks performed on known and unknown faces require the involvement of this fusiform region. On the other hand, specific regional cerebral blood flow changes were related to the processing of known and unknown faces. The left amygdala, a structure involved in implicit learning of visual representations, was activated by the categorization task on unknown faces. The same task on known faces induced a relative decrease of activity in early visual areas. These differences between the two categorization tasks reveal that the human brain processes known and unknown faces differently. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific activation related to proper name retrieval associated with faces
Dubois, S; Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (1997, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (1 UL)