References of "Kriiska, Aivar"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnvironment and settlement location choice in Stone Age Estonia
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Johanson, Kristiina et al

in Estonian Journal of Archaeology (2020), 2

The location choice of Stone Age settlements has been long considered to be influenced by environmental conditions. Proximity to water and sandy soils are most typical examples of those conditions. The ... [more ▼]

The location choice of Stone Age settlements has been long considered to be influenced by environmental conditions. Proximity to water and sandy soils are most typical examples of those conditions. The notion of the influence resulted from the evidence from a relatively small amount of sites. During the recent decades the number of known settlements has increased to a level where statistical assessment of relation between environmental characteristics and settlement location choice is possible. To undertake this task we collected data about known Estonian Stone Age settlements and acquired environmental data of their locations using publicly available geological datasets. We provide univariate descriptive statistics of the distributions of variables describing site conditions and compare them to characteristics generally present in the environment. We experiment with a set of environmental variables including soil type, distance to water and a selection of geomorphometry derivatives of the digital elevation model. Quantitative assessment confirmed previous observations showing significant effect towards choice of sandy, dry location close to water bodies. The statistical analysis allowed us to assess the effect size of different characteristics. Proximity to water had the largest effect on settlement choice, while soil type was also of considerable importance. Abstract geomorphological variables Topographic Position Index and Topographic Wetness index also inform us about significant effects of surface forms. Differences of settlement locations during stages of the Stone Age are well observable. The environmental conditions of sites from the pre-pottery Mesolithic follow the general pattern but with the greatest variation. Narva and Comb Ware stage settlement locations preferences are nearly identical to each other showing preference of sandy higher areas near the shoreline and indicating increased site investment. For Corded Ware period a new settlement mode is observable which is not any more directly related to water bodies and can be explained by semi-agrarian subsistence and decreasing dependence on aquatic resources. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (6 UL)
See detailConceptual framework of assessing the influence of cultural complexity to settlement pattern formation
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data can reveal information about cultural complexity. The formation of the patterns is influenced by multiple factors from human-environment interactions to complex processes within society. We analyse the forces behind formation of settlement patterns from an agent based modelling perspective. For the purpose we construct a spatial discrete choice model and formulate it using random utility theory. We argue that agent decisions in the models can be decomposed into different rulesets. Those rules are mostly determined by attraction to natural affordances and sociocultural behaviours. Paleoecological and geological data can be used to extract information about human attraction to natural affordances. Analysing the resulting empirical data can reveal the significance of environment as determining settlement choice which we argue is declining with growing cultural complexity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (2 UL)
See detailQuantifying the shoreline connection of the Stone Age settlements in Southern Karelia (Finland)
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Nordqvist, Kerkko et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin ... [more ▼]

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin Grewingk stated already in 1865 that in the Eastern Baltic region “Stone Age people lived by the sea and rivers”. Although there was no empirical data at that time, the following discoveries confirmed this claim. The connection is so obvious that archaeological sites are effectively used as a proxy data for reconstructing past shorelines that have been changing due to isostatic land uplift and changing hydrological conditions. The goal of current paper is to give a statistical description of the settlements’ position relative to the shoreline. The case study is based on the Stone Age settlement site locations in Southern Karelia, Finland. The region is characterized by several water bodies, including lake Saimaa, as well as several smaller lakes and rivers. A small amount of settlements in the south-eastern part of the study area is also located on the paleoshorelines of the Baltic Sea. The following questions are asked: how many and what kind of Stone Age sites are shoreline-connected? How to statistically describe the distribution of distances from the settlements to the closest shoreline? Because of the abundance of lake shores in the region, it also has to be judged if the settlement pattern was formed by the economical/cultural lifeways of past inhabitants or was it just enforced by the landscape. To answer this question, it is analysed if the distribution of distances to shoreline of Stone Age sites significantly differs from the ones of later periods? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (1 UL)
See detailAgent-based modeling as an interdisciplinary bridge in spatial humanities. Designing the modeling framework for simulation of Mesolithic settlement patterns
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018)

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually limited to just defining the areas of the phenomena of interest. Any further deductions about past communities tend to be without additional proof and thus presented as hypotheses in scientific literature. In this paper we introduce a study that seeks to create a general framework for modeling the emergence of settlement patterns. The central concept for modeling is the human / social perception of the environment and how it is related to potential residential space – places that can be used for human habitation. We hypothesize that the human perception can be used to simulate the processes of emergence of immigration and seasonal mobility. The first goal of the research is to identify possible knowledge sources (eg. paleoecology, geography, geology, anthropology) that give information about residential mobility of pre-agricultural societies. The second goal is to translate selected knowledge to algorithmic representation and evaluate its usability for modeling. The purpose of which is to find the determining factors in the emergence of the settlement patterns and to distinguish between emerging and irreducibly complex phenomena. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (1 UL)
See detailLocal or imported? Assessing the flint preferences of the Mesolithic habitants in Estonia and northern Latvia with the help geochemical methods.
Johanson, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL et al

in Borić, D (Ed.) Book of Abstracts: The Ninth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe 14th-18th September (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailKuus ruutmeetrit ajalugu. Sündmused Jägala-Joa IV asulakohal 2013. aasta kaevamistulemuste põhjal.
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Beljaev, Kätrin

Article for general public (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailArchaeological test excavations at the Mesolithic and Iron Age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV
Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL

in Archaeological field works in Estonia (2014), (2013), 45-54

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)