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See detailA kinase-dead Csf1r mutation associated with adult-onset leukoencephalopathy has a dominant inhibitory impact on CSF1R signalling
Stables, Jennifer; Green, Emma; Sehgal, Anuj et al

in Development (2022), 149(8),

Amino acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the human CSF1R gene are associated with autosomal dominant adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP). To model the ... [more ▼]

Amino acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the human CSF1R gene are associated with autosomal dominant adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP). To model the human disease, we created a disease-associated mutation (pGlu631Lys; E631K) in the mouse Csf1r locus. Homozygous mutation (Csf1rE631K/E631K) phenocopied the Csf1r knockout, with prenatal mortality or severe postnatal growth retardation and hydrocephalus. Heterozygous mutation delayed the postnatal expansion of tissue macrophage populations in most organs. Bone marrow cells from Csf1rE631K/+mice were resistant to CSF1 stimulation in vitro, and Csf1rE631K/+ mice were unresponsive to administration of a CSF1-Fc fusion protein, which expanded tissue macrophage populations in controls. In the brain, microglial cell numbers and dendritic arborisation were reduced in Csf1rE631K/+ mice, as in patients with ALSP. The microglial phenotype is the opposite of microgliosis observed in Csf1r+/- mice. However, we found no evidence of brain pathology or impacts on motor function in aged Csf1rE631K/+ mice. We conclude that heterozygous disease-associated CSF1R mutations compromise CSF1R signalling. We speculate that leukoencephalopathy associated with dominant human CSF1R mutations requires an environmental trigger and/or epistatic interaction with common neurodegenerative disease-associated alleles. [less ▲]

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See detailA transgenic line that reports CSF1R protein expression provides a definitive marker for the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system
Grabert, Kathleen; Sehgal, Anuj; Irvine, Katherine et al

in Journal of Immunology (2020), 205(11), 3154-3166

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M ... [more ▼]

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M-CSF receptor (CSF1R). Cells of the MPS lineage have been identified using numerous surface markers and transgenic reporters, but none is both universal and lineage restricted. In this article, we report the development and characterization of a CSF1R reporter mouse. A FusionRed (FRed) cassette was inserted in-frame with the C terminus of CSF1R, separated by a T2A-cleavable linker. The insertion had no effect of CSF1R expression or function. CSF1R-FRed was expressed in monocytes and macrophages and absent from granulocytes and lymphocytes. In bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was absent in lineage-negative hematopoietic stem cells, arguing against a direct role for CSF1R in myeloid lineage commitment. It was highly expressed in marrow monocytes and common myeloid progenitors but significantly lower in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In sections of bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was also detected in osteoclasts, CD169+ resident macrophages, and, consistent with previous mRNA analysis, in megakaryocytes. In lymphoid tissues, CSF1R-FRed highlighted diverse MPS populations, including classical dendritic cells. Whole mount imaging of nonlymphoid tissues in mice with combined CSF1R-FRed/Csf1r-EGFP confirmed the restriction of CSF1R expression to MPS cells. The two markers highlight the remarkable abundance and regular distribution of tissue MPS cells, including novel macrophage populations within tendon and skeletal muscle and underlying the mesothelial/serosal/capsular surfaces of every major organ. The CSF1R-FRed mouse provides a novel reporter with exquisite specificity for cells of the MPS. [less ▲]

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