References of "Hein, Lutz"
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See detailInhibition of nuclear import of calcineurin prevents myocardial hypertrophy.
Hallhuber, Matthias; Burkard, Natalie; Wu, Rongxue et al

in Circulation Research (2006), 99(6), 626-35

The time that transcription factors remain nuclear is a major determinant for transcriptional activity. It has recently been demonstrated that the phosphatase calcineurin is translocated to the nucleus ... [more ▼]

The time that transcription factors remain nuclear is a major determinant for transcriptional activity. It has recently been demonstrated that the phosphatase calcineurin is translocated to the nucleus with the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT). This study identifies a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) in the sequence of calcineurin. Furthermore we identified the nuclear cargo protein importinbeta(1) to be responsible for nuclear translocation of calcineurin. Inhibition of the calcineurin/importin interaction by a competitive peptide (KQECKIKYSERV), which mimicked the calcineurin NLS, prevented nuclear entry of calcineurin. A noninhibitory control peptide did not interfere with the calcineurin/importin binding. Using this approach, we were able to prevent the development of myocardial hypertrophy. In angiotensin II-stimulated cardiomyocytes, [(3)H]-leucine incorporation (159%+/-9 versus 111%+/-11; P<0.01) and cell size were suppressed significantly by the NLS peptide compared with a control peptide. The NLS peptide inhibited calcineurin/NF-AT transcriptional activity (227%+/-11 versus 133%+/-8; P<0.01), whereas calcineurin phosphatase activity was unaffected (298%+/-9 versus 270%+/-11; P=NS). We conclude that calcineurin is not only capable of dephosphorylating NF-AT, thus enabling its nuclear import, but the presence of calcineurin in the nucleus is also important for full NF-AT transcriptional activity. [less ▲]

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See detailAT2 receptor activation regulates myocardial eNOS expression via the calcineurin-NF-AT pathway.
Ritter, Oliver; Schuh, Kai; Brede, Marc et al

in FASEB Journal (2003), 17(2), 283-5

The role of AT2-receptors has recently been subject of considerable debate. We investigated the influence of AT2-stimulation/inhibition on myocardial endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS, NOS-III) promoter ... [more ▼]

The role of AT2-receptors has recently been subject of considerable debate. We investigated the influence of AT2-stimulation/inhibition on myocardial endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS, NOS-III) promoter activity and eNOS protein expression. Stimulation of rat cardiomyocytes with angiotensin II (AngII) increased eNOS protein expression 3.3-fold. This was blocked by Cyclosporin A (CsA). Inhibition of the AT1-receptor did not reduce AngII-mediated eNOS protein expression, whereas AT2 stimulation increased it 2.4-fold and AT2 inhibition suppressed it. The modulatory effects of the AT2-receptor on eNOS expression was confirmed in mice with a genetic deletion of the AT2-receptor (AT2-KO). In gel shift assays two putative NF-AT sites in a 1.6 kb eNOS promoter fragment showed NF-AT binding and a supershift by NF-AT2(-c1)-specific antibodies. Stimulation of transfected cells with AngII or specific AT2-receptor agonists resulted in a significant increase in eNOS promoter activity, which was blocked by CsA, MCIP1, and mutation of an upstream NF-AT site. CONCLUSION: 1) AngII-stimulation of the myocardium, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by increased expression of eNOS. 2) This effect is mediated by the calcineurin pathway and is induced by the AT2-receptor. 3) These results define a calcineurin/NF-AT/eNOS pathway as downstream effector of AT2-receptor activation in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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