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See detailDeveloping Multilingual Literacies – Views from four countries
Little, Sabine; Günther-van der Meij, Mirjam; Kirsch, Claudine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around multilingualism and literacy across four nations, specifically Germany, England, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Children with ethnic minority background and low socio-economic status are more likely to have poor literacy skills and poorer academic outcomes (Farver et al., 2013). It is therefore essential to develop their preliteracy skills early because they are strong predictors of both their literacy development (e.g. Skibbe et al., 2011) and general educational attainment (Bialystok, 2013; Gogolin, 2014). Being biliterate has also been found to be a good predictor of successful additional language learning (Sanz, 2000). In multilingual contexts, students develop (multi)literacy skills in complex, ever changing contexts and through rich and heterogeneous experiences (Hammer et al., 2014). However, the linguistic resources of students with migrant background and lower socioeconomic status are often neglected throughout their school years, even though the languages in their repertoires provide valuable and mutually enriching resources. For example, bilinguals may strategically apply the acquired literacy skills in one language to write in another (Cenoz & Gorter, 2011). The omission to draw on the entire repertoire of multilinguals leads to inequality, which results in lower literacy outcomes and in discrepancies in competences in the various languages of bilinguals (Dworin, 2003). The quality of the home environment and institutions (e.g. early childhood and care) influences children’s language and literacy outcomes and predicts school success (NICHHD, 1998). Books remain the most favoured resource of multilingual families to engage children in literacy activities both in societal and the heritage languages, especially in the early years and early stages of education (Little, 2019). Studies in the field of home literacies have shown that parents, grandparents and children who engaged in book reading and in related activities such as telling and retelling stories, drew on their cultural funds of knowledge, made connections between the knowledge and skills gained in different learning contexts (e.g. home, school, community school), and blended the diverse literacy practices (Gregory, 2001). Engaging children in multilingual literacies does not only further their development of cognitive skills related to language and literacy but it also contributes to identity development. Projects where teachers and parents engage together with children in multilingual literacy activities, including multimodal digital ones, have shown that children are more motivated, engage deeper in their own learning and develop cognitive, language, and social skills, that teachers can work in more culturally and linguistically and inclusive way, and that parents feel more included in the school (Kirsch, 2018). [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana

Book published by Routledge (2020)

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from ... [more ▼]

Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges o multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from several officially monolingual,bilingual, and multilingual countries in Europe, discusses approaches to multilingual education which capitalise on students’ multilingual resources from early childhood to higher education. This book synthesises research on multilingual education, relates theory to practice, and discusses different pedagogical approaches from diverse perspectives. The first section of the book outlines multilingual approaches in early childhood education and primary school, the second looks at multilingual approaches in secondary school and higher education, and the third examines the influence of parents, policy-makers, and professional development on the implementation and sustainability of multilingual approaches. The book demonstrates that educators can leverage students’ multilingualism to promote learning and help students achieve their full potential. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of language education, psychology, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective professional development and sustainability of multilingual approaches
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Duarte, Joana; Palviainen, Åsa

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an ... [more ▼]

Policies and professional development which focusses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an overview of research studies on language policies, teacher agency and beliefs with a focus on multilingual settings. The intertwining of policy and teaching practice is then illustrated by means of the Finnish case, demonstrating how recent ECEC policies advocating diversity and plurilingualism have gradually changed teacher beliefs. The second part of the chapter focuses on professional development (PD) in so far as it is able to support teachers in implementing policies, changing pedagogical practices, and amending beliefs. This section presents different pathways for professional learning and explores the effectiveness of various models of professional development. These observations are taken up in two empirical studies on teachers’ professional development within multilingual preschool classes in Luxembourg and primary schools in the Netherlands. The interview and observation data provided in the two contexts point to the centrality of teacher beliefs and agency in moving towards multilingual practices and sustainable change. Furthermore, it unveils the ways in which teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices change over time, and how effective PD programmes can support teachers in interpreting policies and developing new practices. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: multilingual approaches to teaching and learning
Duarte, Joana; Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the increasing societal diversity in Europe, it is imperative that teachers reflect on their teaching approaches and adjust them to cater for the growing number of multilingual pupils. This introductory chapter outlines the monolingual mindset and language hierarchies that still exist in European education systems, and explains these are a result of the nation-forming movements of the nineteenth century. Next, four types of language instruction are presented: foreign language instruction; second language pedagogy; bilingual/monoglossic instruction; and plurilingual/heteroglossic instruction. The chapter continues with different types of multilingual approaches in mainstream educational settings that capitalise on multilingualism for teaching and learning, among them intercomprehension and translanguaging. Having explained these, the chapter explores the importance of partnerships with parents, professional development, and language policies because these actors and factors contribute to the effectiveness and sustainability of the approaches. The chapter concludes with a presentation of the structure of this volume as well as of the individual chapters. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher Education Partnerships (TEPs): New structures for an innovative teacher education in Europe
Duarte, Joana; Roth, Hans-Joachim; Weis, Christiane UL

in Masson, Philippe; Baumfield, Vivienne; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin (Eds.) et al (Re)thinking Partnership in Education / (Re)penser le partenariat en éducation (2010)

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