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See detailThe Worldwide Triumph of the Research University and Globalizing Science
Powell, Justin J W UL; Fernandez, Frank; Crist, John T. et al

in International Perspectives on Education and Society (2017), 33

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an ... [more ▼]

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an international research team. The chapter synthesizes the results of a series of country-level case studies and cross-national and regional comparisons on the growth of scientific research from 1900 until 2011. Additionally, the chapter provides a quantitative analysis of global trends in scientific, peer-reviewed publishing over the same period. The introduction identifies common themes that emerged across the case studies examined in-depth during the multi-year research project Science Productivity, Higher Education, Research Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE). First, universities have long been and increasingly are the primary organizations in science production around the globe. Second, the chapters describe in-country and cross-country patterns of competition and collaboration in scientific publications. Third, the chapters describe the national policy environments and institutionalized organizational forms that fostered scientific research. The introduction reviews selected findings and limitations of previous bibliometric studies and explains that the chapters in the volume overcome these limitations by applying neo-institutional theoretical frameworks to analyze bibliometric data over an extensive period. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Qatar
Crist, John T.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (2017)

The tertiary education sector in Qatar has grown very rapidly, viewed as key to national development on the path to the “knowledge society,” also to reduce its reliance on limited natural resources. The ... [more ▼]

The tertiary education sector in Qatar has grown very rapidly, viewed as key to national development on the path to the “knowledge society,” also to reduce its reliance on limited natural resources. The states of the Islamic world, with a significant but long-obscured past of scientific achievement, are witnessing a contemporary renaissance. The establishment of international offshore, satellite or branch campuses in the Persian or Arabian Gulf region emphasizes the dynamism of higher education development. With a history of several decades, Qatar’s higher education and science policies join contrasting strategies prevalent in capacity building attempts worldwide – to emulate the strongest global exemplars through importation as well as to cultivate local, indigenous assets. Thus, university-related and science policymaking on the peninsula has been designed to directly connect with global developments while building local capacity in higher education and scientific productivity [less ▲]

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See detailScience Productivity, Higher Education Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE Project) Final Report
Baker, David P.; Crist, John T.; Zhang, Liang et al

Report (2015)

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education ... [more ▼]

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education developed and grew nations’ capacity for scientific research. The analysis resulted in a series of new insights about global scientific production that were only possible with a consideration of long-term trends. First, despite predictions as early as the 1960s that the growth rate of “big science” would slow, the dataset shows in fact that “big science” started a phase of exponential growth in the early 1960s that has continued unabated for decades. “Big science” has transformed into “mega-global science” and the trends of global diffusion and regional differentiation began much earlier in the 20th century than is commonly understood. Second, the analysis of rates of regional journal article production also depicts clear shifts in the competition for ascendancy in scientific production. For the first half of the 20th century, global competition for scientific impact was primarily an Atlantic battle between the top producers of Europe (Germany, France, and the U.K.) and the United States. The locus of competition shifted by the, end of the 20th century to a contest between the current research “superpower, ” the United States, and the fast-growing producer, China, along with the many less populous countries of Western Europe with their highly productive science systems. With the contributions of other East Asian, high volume producers such as Japan and South Korea in the later decades of the 20th century, and simultaneous slowing of research production in U.S. science, the center of gravity for research production has been pulled eastward for the past two decades. Third, while science may indeed be an inherently global and collaborative enterprise, the trend toward global collaboration of authors is a relatively recent one. Historically, one-third of all research articles worldwide result from international collaboration, and less than 26 percent are the product of one researcher alone. In 1980 however only about 2 percent of all SCIE publications involved a collaboration across international lines. Three decades later this proportion is eleven times what it was in 1980. Finally, the study also concluded that overall volume of production is not a sufficient measure of scientific capacity by itself. When adjusting for the size of population and the economy the proportion of GDP spent on R&D or the number of researchers some smaller countries (especially in Europe) are more productive on a per capita basis than mid-sized or even larger ones. Similarly the ratio of investment in science to scientific production is much higher in the high volume producers than it is in some small states. While output is smaller in these states, they have maximized R&D investments more efficiently than their larger competitors. [less ▲]

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