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See detailLow-density lipoprotein receptor is a calcium/magnesium sensor - role of LR4 and LR5 ion interaction kinetics in low-density lipoprotein release in the endosome.
Martinez-Olivan, Juan; Rozado-Aguirre, Zurine; Arias-Moreno, Xabier et al

in The FEBS journal (2014), 281(11), 2638-58

The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) captures circulating lipoproteins and delivers them in the endosome for degradation. Its function is essential for cholesterol homeostasis, and mutations in the ... [more ▼]

The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) captures circulating lipoproteins and delivers them in the endosome for degradation. Its function is essential for cholesterol homeostasis, and mutations in the LDLR are the major cause of familiar hypercholesterolemia. The release of LDL is usually attributed to endosome acidification. As the pH drops, the affinity of the LDLR/LDL complex is reduced, whereas the strength of a self-complex formed between two domains of the receptor (i.e. the LDL binding domain and the beta-propeller domain) increases. However, an alternative model states that, as a consequence of a drop in both pH and Ca2+ concentration, the LDLR binding domain is destabilized in the endosome, which weakens the LDLR/LDL complex, thus liberating the LDL particles. In the present study, we test a key underlying assumption of the second model, namely that the lipoprotein binding repeats of the receptor (specifically repeats 4 and 5, LR4 and LR5) rapidly sense endosomal changes in Ca2+ concentration. Our kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding to LR4 and LR5, as well as to the tandem of the two (LR4-5), shows that both repeats spontaneously release Ca2+ in a time scale much shorter than endosomal delivery of LDL, thus acting as Ca2+ sensors that become unfolded under endosomal conditions. Our analysis additionally explains the lower Ca2+ affinity of repeat LR4, compared to LR5, as arising from a very slow Ca2+ binding reaction in the former, most likely related to the lower conformational stability of apolipoprotein LR4, compared to apolipoprotein LR5, as determined from thermal unfolding experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. [less ▲]

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