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See detailDoxorubicin increases oxidative metabolism in HL-1 cardiomyocytes as shown by 13C metabolic flux analysis.
Strigun, Alexander; Wahrheit, Judith; Niklas, Jens et al

in Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology (2012), 125(2), 595-606

Doxorubicin (DXR), an anticancer drug, is limited in its use due to severe cardiotoxic effects. These effects are partly caused by disturbed myocardial energy metabolism. We analyzed the effects of ... [more ▼]

Doxorubicin (DXR), an anticancer drug, is limited in its use due to severe cardiotoxic effects. These effects are partly caused by disturbed myocardial energy metabolism. We analyzed the effects of therapeutically relevant but nontoxic DXR concentrations for their effects on metabolic fluxes, cell respiration, and intracellular ATP. (13)C isotope labeling studies using [U-(13)C(6)]glucose, [1,2-(13)C(2)]glucose, and [U-(13)C(5)]glutamine were carried out on HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to 0.01 and 0.02 muM DXR and compared with the untreated control. Metabolic fluxes were calculated by integrating production and uptake rates of extracellular metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids) as well as (13)C-labeling in secreted lactate derived from the respective (13)C-labeled substrates into a metabolic network model. The investigated DXR concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 muM) had no effect on cell viability and beating of the HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Glycolytic fluxes were significantly reduced in treated cells at tested DXR concentrations. Oxidative metabolism was significantly increased (higher glucose oxidation, oxidative decarboxylation, TCA cycle rates, and respiration) suggesting a more efficient use of glucose carbon. These changes were accompanied by decrease of intracellular ATP. We conclude that DXR in nanomolar range significantly changes central carbon metabolism in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, which results in a higher coupling of glycolysis and TCA cycle. The myocytes probably try to compensate for decreased intracellular ATP, which in turn may be the result of a loss of NADH electrons via either formation of reactive oxygen species or electron shunting. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-depth physiological characterization of primary human hepatocytes in a 3D hollow-fiber bioreactor.
Mueller, Daniel; Tascher, Georg; Muller-Vieira, Ursula et al

in Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (2011), 5(8), 207-18

As the major research focus is shifting to three-dimensional (3D) cultivation techniques, hollow-fiber bioreactors, allowing the formation of tissue-like structures, show immense potential as they permit ... [more ▼]

As the major research focus is shifting to three-dimensional (3D) cultivation techniques, hollow-fiber bioreactors, allowing the formation of tissue-like structures, show immense potential as they permit controlled in vitro cultivation while supporting the in vivo environment. In this study we carried out a systematic and detailed physiological characterization of human liver cells in a 3D hollow-fiber bioreactor system continuously run for > 2 weeks. Primary human hepatocytes were maintained viable and functional over the whole period of cultivation. Both general cellular functions, e.g. oxygen uptake, amino acid metabolism and substrate consumption, and liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing capacities and the production of liver-specific metabolites were found to be stable for > 2 weeks. As expected, donor-to-donor variability was observed in liver-specific functions, namely urea and albumin production. Moreover, we show the maintenance of primary human hepatocytes in serum-free conditions in this set-up. The stable basal cytochrome P450 activity 3 weeks after isolation of the cells demonstrates the potential of such a system for pharmacological applications. Liver cells in the presented 3D bioreactor system could eventually be used not only for long-term metabolic and toxicity studies but also for chronic repeated dose toxicity assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiotoxicity testing using pluripotent stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes and state-of-the-art bioanalytics: a review.
Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Steel, Daniella; Noor, Fozia UL et al

in Journal of applied toxicology : JAT (2011), 31(3), 191-205

In this article, recent progress in cardiotoxicity testing based on the use of immortalized cell lines or human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes in combination with state-of-the-art ... [more ▼]

In this article, recent progress in cardiotoxicity testing based on the use of immortalized cell lines or human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes in combination with state-of-the-art bioanalytical methods and sensors is reviewed. The focus is on hESC-derived cells and their refinement into competent testing cells, but the access and utility of other relevant cell types are also discussed. Recent developments in sensor techniques and bioanalytical approaches for measuring critical cardiotoxicity parameters are highlighted, together with aspects of data evaluation and validation. Finally, recommendations for further research are given. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic profiling using HPLC allows classification of drugs according to their mechanisms of action in HL-1 cardiomyocytes.
Strigun, Alexander; Wahrheit, Judith; Beckers, Simone et al

in Toxicology and applied pharmacology (2011), 252(2), 183-91

Along with hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxic side effects remain one of the major reasons for drug withdrawals and boxed warnings. Prediction methods for cardiotoxicity are insufficient. High content screening ... [more ▼]

Along with hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxic side effects remain one of the major reasons for drug withdrawals and boxed warnings. Prediction methods for cardiotoxicity are insufficient. High content screening comprising of not only electrophysiological characterization but also cellular molecular alterations are expected to improve the cardiotoxicity prediction potential. Metabolomic approaches recently have become an important focus of research in pharmacological testing and prediction. In this study, the culture medium supernatants from HL-1 cardiomyocytes after exposure to drugs from different classes (analgesics, antimetabolites, anthracyclines, antihistamines, channel blockers) were analyzed to determine specific metabolic footprints in response to the tested drugs. Since most drugs influence energy metabolism in cardiac cells, the metabolite "sub-profile" consisting of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and amino acids was considered. These metabolites were quantified using HPLC in samples after exposure of cells to test compounds of the respective drug groups. The studied drug concentrations were selected from concentration response curves for each drug. The metabolite profiles were randomly split into training/validation and test set; and then analysed using multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis). Discriminant analysis resulted in clustering of drugs according to their modes of action. After cross validation and cross model validation, the underlying training data were able to predict 50%-80% of conditions to the correct classification group. We show that HPLC based characterisation of known cell culture medium components is sufficient to predict a drug's potential classification according to its mode of action. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic flux analysis gives an insight on verapamil induced changes in central metabolism of HL-1 cells.
Strigun, Alexander; Noor, Fozia UL; Pironti, Alejandro et al

in Journal of biotechnology (2011), 155(3), 299-307

Verapamil has been shown to inhibit glucose transport in several cell types. However, the consequences of this inhibition on central metabolism are not well known. In this study we focused on verapamil ... [more ▼]

Verapamil has been shown to inhibit glucose transport in several cell types. However, the consequences of this inhibition on central metabolism are not well known. In this study we focused on verapamil induced changes in metabolic fluxes in a murine atrial cell line (HL-1 cells). These cells were adapted to serum free conditions and incubated with 4 muM verapamil and [U-(1)(3)C(5)] glutamine. Specific extracellular metabolite uptake/production rates together with mass isotopomer fractions in alanine and glutamate were implemented into a metabolic network model to calculate metabolic flux distributions in the central metabolism. Verapamil decreased specific glucose consumption rate and glycolytic activity by 60%. Although the HL-1 cells show Warburg effect with high lactate production, verapamil treated cells completely stopped lactate production after 24 h while maintaining growth comparable to the untreated cells. Calculated fluxes in TCA cycle reactions as well as NADH/FADH(2) production rates were similar in both treated and untreated cells. This was confirmed by measurement of cell respiration. Reduction of lactate production seems to be the consequence of decreased glucose uptake due to verapamil. In case of tumors, this may have two fold effects; firstly depriving cancer cells of substrate for anaerobic glycolysis on which their growth is dependent; secondly changing pH of the tumor environment, as lactate secretion keeps the pH acidic and facilitates tumor growth. The results shown in this study may partly explain recent observations in which verapamil has been proposed to be a potential anticancer agent. Moreover, in biotechnological production using cell lines, verapamil may be used to reduce glucose uptake and lactate secretion thereby increasing protein production without introduction of genetic modifications and application of more complicated fed-batch processes. [less ▲]

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See detailToward preclinical predictive drug testing for metabolism and hepatotoxicity by using in vitro models derived from human embryonic stem cells and human cell lines - a report on the Vitrocellomics EU-project.
Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Andersson, Tommy B.; Alves, Paula M. et al

in Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA (2011), 39(2), 147-71

Drug-induced liver injury is a common reason for drug attrition in late clinical phases, and even for post-launch withdrawals. As a consequence, there is a broad consensus in the pharmaceutical industry ... [more ▼]

Drug-induced liver injury is a common reason for drug attrition in late clinical phases, and even for post-launch withdrawals. As a consequence, there is a broad consensus in the pharmaceutical industry, and within regulatory authorities, that a significant improvement of the current in vitro test methodologies for accurate assessment and prediction of such adverse effects is needed. For this purpose, appropriate in vivo-like hepatic in vitro models are necessary, in addition to novel sources of human hepatocytes. In this report, we describe recent and ongoing research toward the use of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived hepatic cells, in conjunction with new and improved test methods, for evaluating drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Recent progress on the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the functional hepatic phenotype is reported, as well as the development and adaptation of bioreactors and toxicity assay technologies for the testing of hepatic cells. The aim of achieving a testing platform for metabolism and hepatotoxicity assessment, based on hESC-derived hepatic cells, has advanced markedly in the last 2-3 years. However, great challenges still remain, before such new test systems could be routinely used by the industry. In particular, we give an overview of results from the Vitrocellomics project (EU Framework 6) and discuss these in relation to the current state-of-the-art and the remaining difficulties, with suggestions on how to proceed before such in vitro systems can be implemented in industrial discovery and development settings and in regulatory acceptance. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh throughput, non-invasive and dynamic toxicity screening on adherent cells using respiratory measurements.
Beckers, Simone; Noor, Fozia UL; Muller-Vieira, Ursula et al

in Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA (2010), 24(2), 686-94

A dynamic respiration assay based on luminescence decay time detection of oxygen for high throughput toxicological assessment is presented. The method uses 24-well plates (OxoDishes) read with the help of ... [more ▼]

A dynamic respiration assay based on luminescence decay time detection of oxygen for high throughput toxicological assessment is presented. The method uses 24-well plates (OxoDishes) read with the help of a sensor dish reader placed in a humidified CO(2)-incubator. Adherent primary rat hepatocytes and the human hepatic cell line Hep G2 were exposed to known toxic compounds. Dissolved oxygen concentration, a measure of respiration, was measured with an oxygen sensor optode immobilized in the centre of each well. The cells were maintained in the dishes during the assay period and can afterwards be processed for further analyses. This dynamic, non-invasive measurement allowed calculation of 50% lethal concentrations (LC(50)) for any incubation time point giving concentration-time-dependent responses without further manipulation or removal of the cells from the incubator. Toxicokinetic profiles are compared with Sulforhodamine B assay, a common cytotoxicity assay. The novel assay is robust and flexible, very easy to carry out and provides continuous online respiration data reflecting dynamic toxicity responses. It can be adapted to any cell-based system and the calculated kinetics contributes to understanding of cell death mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of drugs in subtoxic concentrations on the metabolic fluxes in human hepatoma cell line Hep G2.
Niklas, Jens; Noor, Fozia UL; Heinzle, Elmar

in Toxicology and applied pharmacology (2009), 240(3), 327-36

Commonly used cytotoxicity assays assess the toxicity of a compound by measuring certain parameters which directly or indirectly correlate to the viability of the cells. However, the effects of a given ... [more ▼]

Commonly used cytotoxicity assays assess the toxicity of a compound by measuring certain parameters which directly or indirectly correlate to the viability of the cells. However, the effects of a given compound at concentrations considerably below EC(50) values are usually not evaluated. These subtoxic effects are difficult to identify but may eventually cause severe and costly long term problems such as idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. We determined the toxicity of three hepatotoxic compounds, namely amiodarone, diclofenac and tacrine on the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 using an online kinetic respiration assay and analysed the effects of subtoxic concentrations of these drugs on the cellular metabolism by using metabolic flux analysis. Several changes in the metabolism could be detected upon exposure to subtoxic concentrations of the test compounds. Upon exposure to diclofenac and tacrine an increase in the TCA-cycle activity was observed which could be a signature of an uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation. The results indicate that metabolic flux analysis could serve as an invaluable novel tool for the investigation of the effects of drugs. The described methodology enables tracking the toxicity of compounds dynamically using the respiration assay in a range of concentrations and the metabolic flux analysis permits interesting insights into the changes in the central metabolism of the cell upon exposure to drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailAn integrated approach to improved toxicity prediction for the safety assessment during preclinical drug development using Hep G2 cells.
Noor, Fozia UL; Niklas, Jens; Muller-Vieira, Ursula et al

in Toxicology and applied pharmacology (2009), 237(2), 221-31

Efficient and accurate safety assessment of compounds is extremely important in the preclinical development of drugs especially when hepatotoxicity is in question. Multiparameter and time resolved assays ... [more ▼]

Efficient and accurate safety assessment of compounds is extremely important in the preclinical development of drugs especially when hepatotoxicity is in question. Multiparameter and time resolved assays are expected to greatly improve the prediction of toxicity by assessing complex mechanisms of toxicity. An integrated approach is presented in which Hep G2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes are compared in frequently used cytotoxicity assays for parent compound toxicity. The interassay variability was determined. The cytotoxicity assays were also compared with a reliable alternative time resolved respirometric assay. The set of training compounds consisted of well known hepatotoxins; amiodarone, carbamazepine, clozapine, diclofenac, tacrine, troglitazone and verapamil. The sensitivity of both cell systems in each tested assay was determined. Results show that careful selection of assay parameters and inclusion of a kinetic time resolved assay improves prediction for non-metabolism mediated toxicity using Hep G2 cells as indicated by a sensitivity ratio of 1. The drugs with EC(50) values 100 microM or lower were considered toxic. The difference in the sensitivity of the two cell systems to carbamazepine which causes toxicity via reactive metabolites emphasizes the importance of human cell based in-vitro assays. Using the described system, primary rat hepatocytes do not offer advantage over the Hep G2 cells in parent compound toxicity evaluation. Moreover, respiration method is non invasive, highly sensitive and allows following the time course of toxicity. Respiration assay could serve as early indicator of changes that subsequently lead to toxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies of organometallic bioconjugates of the NLS peptide in Hep G2 cells.
Noor, Fozia UL; Kinscherf, Ralf; Bonaterra, Gabriel A. et al

in Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology (2009), 10(3), 493-502

SPACE INVADERS: Organometallic fragments such as the ferrocenyl group (shown in red in the picture) help to enhance cellular entry of NLS peptides. Eventually, these nontoxic conjugates find their way to ... [more ▼]

SPACE INVADERS: Organometallic fragments such as the ferrocenyl group (shown in red in the picture) help to enhance cellular entry of NLS peptides. Eventually, these nontoxic conjugates find their way to the cellular nucleus as shown by fluorescence microscopy studies in this work. Intracellular delivery to biomolecular targets is still a major challenge in molecular and cell biology. We recently found that attaching an organometallic group, namely the cobaltocenium cation, to the SV 40 large T antigen nuclear localisation signal (NLS) greatly enhances cellular uptake of the conjugate (Noor et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 45, 2429). In addition, nuclear localisation of the conjugate was observed. In this work, we present a thorough investigation of this novel cellular delivery system with respect to the nature of the metal complex and the peptide sequence. A number of ferrocene ((Fe(II)), neutral metal complex) and cobaltocenium ((Co(III)), cationic metal complex) bioconjugates with both the NLS wild-type sequence PKKKRKV and a scrambled sequence (NLS(scr), KKVKPKR) were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Cellular and nuclear uptake of these bioconjugates was studied by fluorescence microscopy on living Hep G2 cells. In addition, cytotoxicity screening on the conjugates was carried out, as the toxic effects of several simple metallocenes have been noted previously. Rapid cellular uptake as well as nuclear localisation was observed for the metal-NLS conjugates, but not for any dipeptide controls, the metal-NLS(scr) conjugates or any metal-free conjugates. It thus appears that the presence of a metallocene, but not its charge, and the correct NLS sequence is essential for cellular uptake. Fluorescence microscopy co-localisation studies did not reveal a significant endosomal entrapment of the conjugates. The metallocene not only provides a hydrophobic handle for membrane translocation but also facilitates the localisation and distribution of the conjugate in the cytoplasm. The NLS peptide on the other hand is responsible for the nuclear localisation of the bioconjugate. Finally, none of the conjugates were found to be toxic up to the highest concentrations that was tested (1 mM) against the Hep G2 cells that were used in this study. In conclusion, this work supports metallocene-NLS bioconjugates, in particular with the very robust cobaltocenium group, as a simple but potent, nontoxic system for cellular uptake and nuclear delivery. Concurrently, our finding is relevant to the still-unresolved question of cytotoxicity of metallocenes because it excludes binding and/or damage to the DNA as a mechanism of metallocene cytotoxicity. This finding is confirmed by a combined yeast cytotoxicity/genotoxicity assay, which also shows very little toxic effects for all organometal-NLS conjugates that were tested. [less ▲]

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See detailA cobaltocenium-peptide bioconjugate shows enhanced cellular uptake and directed nuclear delivery.
Noor, Fozia UL; Wustholz, Annette; Kinscherf, Ralf et al

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (2005), 44(16), 2429-32

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL)