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See detailiFixR: bug report driven program repair
Koyuncu, Anil UL; Liu, Kui UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in ESEC/FSE 2019 Proceedings of the 2019 27th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (2019, August)

Issue tracking systems are commonly used in modern software development for collecting feedback from users and developers. An ultimate automation target of software maintenance is then the systematization ... [more ▼]

Issue tracking systems are commonly used in modern software development for collecting feedback from users and developers. An ultimate automation target of software maintenance is then the systematization of patch generation for user-reported bugs. Although this ambition is aligned with the momentum of automated program repair, the literature has, so far, mostly focused on generate-and- validate setups where fault localization and patch generation are driven by a well-defined test suite. On the one hand, however, the common (yet strong) assumption on the existence of relevant test cases does not hold in practice for most development settings: many bugs are reported without the available test suite being able to reveal them. On the other hand, for many projects, the number of bug reports generally outstrips the resources available to triage them. Towards increasing the adoption of patch generation tools by practitioners, we investigate a new repair pipeline, iFixR, driven by bug reports: (1) bug reports are fed to an IR-based fault localizer; (2) patches are generated from fix patterns and validated via regression testing; (3) a prioritized list of generated patches is proposed to developers. We evaluate iFixR on the Defects4J dataset, which we enriched (i.e., faults are linked to bug reports) and carefully-reorganized (i.e., the timeline of test-cases is naturally split). iFixR generates genuine/plausible patches for 21/44 Defects4J faults with its IR-based fault localizer. iFixR accurately places a genuine/plausible patch among its top-5 recommendation for 8/13 of these faults (without using future test cases in generation-and-validation). [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual Report on Migration and Asylum - Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the ... [more ▼]

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the renewal of the former Government coalition. The coalition agreement provides for a number of changes related to migration policies in Luxembourg. Luxembourg remains a country with significant immigration. The population growth is largely a result of migratory movements. Family and economic migration remains at a high level. The inflow of certain nationalities is stagnating or decreasing, whileothers are progressing. This is above all the result of two phenomena: firstly, a slowdown of overall migratory flows to the country and, secondly, high rates of naturalisation. The number of residence permits issued for economic reasons increased by more than 23% year-on-year compared to 2017, continuing the clear upward trend observed in recent years. This overall increase is due in particular to the larger numbers of residence permits issued to the "salaried worker", "European Blue Card" and "intra-corporate transferee" categories. The Law of 1st August 2018 introduced significant changes in the admission policy for international students and researchers in Luxembourg. This law transposes Directive 2016/801/EU, which allows students and researchers to stay for nine months after successfully completing their master's or doctoral studies in order to find a job or start a business. The Government elected in the parliamentary elections of October 2018 intends to organise legal immigration taking into account the needs of the economy. The 2018 political agenda also saw a large debate regarding Luxembourg signing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). This debate, both in Luxembourg and internationally, gave rise to suspicious and negative reactions, particularly in nationalist circles in some European countries. However, there was broad support for the GCM in Luxembourg with most of the political class (6 of the 7 political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies) defending the GCM alongside the Government The number of people seeking international protection remained high but relatively stable in 2018 compared to the previous two years. The refugee recognition rate has continued to increase. Many beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) remain in applicants for international protection (AIP) homes as they have difficulty finding housing in the private market or social housing. This in turn increases the pressure on accommodation facilities and it is one of the priorities of the national authorities, as reflected by the coalition agreement. Reception and accommodation conditions for AIPs and BIPs have sparked a number of debates and reflections within civil society. They were discussed in most political party manifestos for the 2018 parliamentary elections. It should be noted that the new multiannual National Action Plan on Integration (Integration NAP) has these as central themes, the reception and management of AIPs is one of the two main areas of action. A major institutional development is the extension, following the 2018 legislative elections, of the powers of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs to include the "Reception of applicants for international protection" portfolio. Previous this belonged to the Ministry for Family and Integration. Finally, at the European level the new Government confirmed its commitment to the Common European Asylum System, which emphasises European solidarity. Unaccompanied minors were another area of concern in 2018. A Bill was published, which aims to establish a multidisciplinary team to assess the best interests of the child in the context of a return procedure. In addition, there was a widely publicised debate around the practice of age assessment. The new Government has indicated that it intends to focus on unaccompanied minor AIPs, particularly in terms of improving care for these young people. In the area of integration, the Integration NAP was drafted. This document is the result of a wide consultation process with the different stakeholders involved in the reception and integration of non-Luxembourg nationals. The Integration NAP provides a general, strategic and sustainable framework to firstly develop programmes and tools to promote the integration of all non-Luxembourgers residents in the country, and secondly, to promtoe social cohesion between Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers. The Law of 8 March 2017 on Luxembourg nationality has had consequences for the number of individuals gaining citizenship. The impact of this law explains the stagnation, or even slight decline in the foreign population in Luxembourg and, in particular, of certain specific nationalities, as well as the increased electorate in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg since the law was introduced. Two advisory bodies representing the interests of foreign residents in Luxembourg are in operation: at the national level, the National Council for Foreigners (CNE), and, at the municipal level, Advisory Committees on Integration (CCCI) were renewed following the 2017 municipal elections. The new Government has stated that it intends to further increase the powers of these two bodies. Moreover, it intends to decentralise its Welcome and Integration Contracts (CAI), and to support the municipalities in their local integration work. The education system continues to face major challenges resulting from the heterogeneity of the school population. The second National Report on Education noted inequalities in the educational system caused by social origin and the migratory context of pupils. In order to cope with this situation, the authorities have focused on several measures such as expansion of the number of international and European schools; the development of specific classes for young migrants; the establishment of a mediator service for support, inclusion and school integration; and the introduction of the plurilingual education programme at nursery level. Knowledge of Luxembourgish as an integration factor was another concern throughout the year. The Law of 20 July 2018 presents a number of measures to promote the Luxembourgish language. The objectives of the Luxembourgish language policy, which aim to reinforce the importance of Luxembourgish, are to support the use and study of Luxembourgish, encourage the learning of the Luxembourgish language and culture, and promote culture in the Luxembourgish language. Several bodies have been set up to implement this action plan. The language question was ubiquitous during the election campaign. Most political parties emphasised the importance of the Luxembourgish language as an integration factor in their manifestos, while highlighting the advantage of multilingualism. Finally, there are some changes to note in the return policy of Luxembourg. There were two proposals to amend the Immigration Law: one, which authorises the police to enter residential premises to enforce removal orders in the case of forced return; and a second one, which provides for systematic oversight by the courts of prolonged detention beyond the 4-month period. The new Government has stated that it is committed to improving the current detention system through the creation of a specific detention structure for women, families and vulnerable persons. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2019)

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives d’octobre 2018 qui ont débouché sur la reconduction de l’ancienne coalition gouvernementale. L’accord de coalition prévoit un certain nombre de mesures relatives aux politiques migratoires. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d’immigration important. Les mouvements migratoires expliquent en grande partie la croissance de la population. Les migrations pour raisons familiales et économiques demeurent à un niveau élevé. Si certaines nationalités stagnent ou reculent tandis que d’autres progressent, cela est avant tout dû à la conjonction de deux phénomènes : d’une part, le ralentissement des flux migratoires et d’autre part, la naturalisation. Le nombre de titres de séjour délivrés pour des raisons économiques a augmenté de plus de 23% par rapport à 2017, confirmant ainsi la nette tendance à la hausse observée depuis ces dernières années. Cette progression est notamment due à l’augmentation de titres de séjour accordés aux catégories « travailleur salarié », « carte bleue européenne » et « travailleur transféré intragroupe » pour experts et cadres. La loi du 1er août 2018 qui transpose la directive n° 2016/801/UE a introduit des modifications significatives dans la politique d’admission des étudiants et des chercheurs internationaux au Luxembourg. Cette loi permet aux étudiants et aux chercheurs de séjourner au Luxembourg pendant neuf mois s’ils ont terminé leurs études de master ou de doctorat et s’ils disposent de ressources suffisantes. Le Gouvernement issu des élections législatives d’octobre 2018 entend organiser l’immigration légale en tenant compte des besoins de l’économie. L’agenda politique de l’année 2018 a également été marqué par le débat autour de la signature du Luxembourg au Pacte mondial pour une migration sûre, ordonnée et régulière (PMM). Ce débat, tant au Luxembourg qu’à l’international, a suscité un certain nombre de réactions de suspicion et de rejet, en particulier dans les milieux nationalistes de certains pays européens. Toutefois, la majorité de la classe politique luxembourgeoise ainsi que le Gouvernement ont défendu le Pacte. Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2018 et demeure relativement stable par rapport aux deux années précédentes. Le taux de reconnaissance des demandes a continué à progresser. De nombreux BPI restent hébergés dans les structures d’accueil prévues pour les DPI en raison de leurs difficultés à trouver un logement sur le marché privé ou un logement social, ce qui augmente la pression exercée sur les structures d’hébergement. Cette question problématique figure parmi les priorités des autorités nationales, comme en témoigne l’accord de coalition. Les conditions d’accueil et d’hébergement ont suscité un certain nombre de débats et de réflexions au sein de la société civile. Elles ont été abordées dans la plupart des programmes des partis politiques dans le cadre des élections législatives de 2018 et occupent une place centrale dans le nouveau plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (PAN), l’accueil et l’encadrement des DPI constituant l’un des deux grands domaines d’action de ce plan. Une évolution institutionnelle majeure a eu lieu à la suite des élections législatives de 2018 : il s’agit de l’extension des compétences du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes qui reprend le volet « Accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale », qui relevait jusque-là du ministère de la Famille et de l’Intégration. Enfin, sur le plan européen, le nouveau gouvernement confirme son engagement en faveur du Régime d’Asile Européen Commun qui tient notamment compte de la solidarité europenne. Les mineurs non accompagnés (MNA) ont été un autre sujet de préoccupation au cours de l’année 2018 comme en témoignent le projet de loi qui vise à instaurer une équipe pluridisciplinaire pour évaluer l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le contexte d’une procédure de retour, le débat largement médiatisé autour de la pratique des examens pour la détermination de l’âge des MNA DPI, ou encore l’accent particulier que le nouveau gouvernement entend donner au renforcement de la prise en charge de ces personnes. Dans le domaine de l’intégration, il convient de souligner l’établissement d’un plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (ou PAN Intégration). Ce document est le résultat d’un large processus de consultation mené par les autorités avec les différentes parties prenantes impliquées dans l'accueil et l'intégration des ressortissants non luxembourgeois. Le PAN Intégration fournit un cadre général, stratégique et durable en vue de développer des programmes et outils en faveur de l’intégration de tous les non-Luxembouregois résidant sur le territoire et de la cohésion sociale entre Luxembourgeois et non-Luxembourgeois. La loi du 8 mars 2017 sur la nationalité luxembourgeoise a généré des conséquences sur le nombre d’acquisitions de nationalité et explique la stagnation, voire le léger recul de la population étrangère au Luxembourg (et en particulier de certaines nationalités) ainsi que l’augmentation du corps électoral au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Les deux organes consultatifs chargés de la défense des intérets des résidents étrangers au Luxembourg ont commencé à fonctionner avec, au niveau national, le Conseil national pour étrangers (CNE) et, au niveau communal, les Commissions consultatives communales d’Intégration (CCCI), renouvelées à la suite des élections communales de 2017. Le nouveau gouvernement entend valoriser ces deux organes. Il propose d’offrir le Contrat d’accueil et d’intégration (CAI) de façon décentralisée et soutenir les communes au niveau de leur travail d’intégration locale. Le système éducatif reste confronté à des défis majeurs résultant de l’hétérogénéité de la population scolaire. Le deuxième rapport national sur l’éducation a permis de mettre en évidence les inégalités du système éducatif dues aux facteurs sociaux et au contexte migratoire des élèves. Pour faire face à cette situtaion, les autorités ont développé plusieurs mesures telles que l’élargissement de l’offre scolaire internationale et européenne, le développement de classes spécifiques pour jeunes migrants, l’établissement d’un service de médiateur au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaire ainsi que l’introduction du programme d’éducation plurilingue au niveau des mini-crèches. La question de la langue luxembourgeoise, en tant que facteur d’intégration, a également fait l’objet de débats tout au long de l’année. La loi du 20 juillet 2018 relative à la promotion de la langue luxembourgeoise a introduit un certain nombre de mesures visant à renforcer l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise, à soutenir son utilisation, son étude et son apprentissage. Plusieurs organes ont été institués afin de mettre en œuvre ce plan d’action de promotion de la langue et de la culture luxembourgeoises. La question linguistique fut également omniprésente lors de la campagne électorale. La plupart des partis politiques ont souligné dans leurs programmes électoraux l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise comme facteur d’intégration tout en mettant en évidence l’atout du multilinguisme pour le pays. Enfin, quelques évolutions sont à signaler au niveau de la politique de retour, en particulier deux propositions de modification de la loi sur l’immigration : l’une autorisant la police à pénétrer dans des locaux d’habitation afin de procéder plus facilement à l’exécution d’une décision d’éloignement en cas de retour forcé ; l’autre prévoyant un contrôle systématique par les juridictions d’une rétention prolongée au-delà de la durée de 4 mois. Le nouveau gouvernement s’engage à compléter le dispositif actuel de rétention à travers la création d’une structure spécifique de rétention pour femmes, familles et personnes vulnérables. [less ▲]

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See detailOn idempotent n-ary uninorms
Devillet, Jimmy UL; Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Torra, Vicenç; Narukawa, Yasuo; Pasi, Gabriella (Eds.) et al Modeling Decisions for Artifical Intelligence (2019, July 24)

In this paper we describe the class of idempotent n-ary uninorms on a given chain.When the chain is finite, we axiomatize the latter class by means of the following conditions: associativity ... [more ▼]

In this paper we describe the class of idempotent n-ary uninorms on a given chain.When the chain is finite, we axiomatize the latter class by means of the following conditions: associativity, quasitriviality, symmetry, and nondecreasing monotonicity. Also, we show that associativity can be replaced with bisymmetry in this new axiomatization. [less ▲]

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See detail“I Feel More Luxembourgish, but Portuguese Too” Cultural Identities in a Multicultural Society
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL

in Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science (2019), First online

The present investigation focused on cultural identity and the dealing with the belonging to different cultural frames as a migrant in a highly culturally diverse context by comparing two generations of ... [more ▼]

The present investigation focused on cultural identity and the dealing with the belonging to different cultural frames as a migrant in a highly culturally diverse context by comparing two generations of Portuguese families living in Luxembourg. Quantitative standardized questionnaires complemented by in-depth qualitative interviews with parent-child dyads were used in order to assess possible (dis)similarities between first generation Portuguese immigrant parents and their adult children (i.e. second generation) concerning their cultural identities. Generational differences were found regarding the dealing with several cultural frames, language competences and attachment to both discussed cultures. Adult children were more prone to find themselves in a “compatible” identity orientation, compared to the parental generation. Yet, when focussing specifically on the second generation, qualitative data highlighted some issues regarding the perceived views of others on one’s own cultural belonging and the perception of a certain sense of cultural identity denial from others. Our findings contribute to the existing theoretical literature on cultural identity by elucidating some major differences between immigrant parents and their adult children on how they enact the sense of belonging and the dealing with multiple cultural frames on a daily-life basis. [less ▲]

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See detailWilayat Al-Qadi and its Malpractice in Iran, Egypt and Jordan
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

Presentation (2019, July 16)

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See detailRegulating banks for the public? The dilemmas of prudential regulation
Commain, Sébastien UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The regulation of banking activities present policymakers with a conundrum: while essential for a healthy and growing economy, they also present important risks of crises that affect all citizens ... [more ▼]

The regulation of banking activities present policymakers with a conundrum: while essential for a healthy and growing economy, they also present important risks of crises that affect all citizens. Prudential regulation is intended to contain the risks while enabling the socially beneficial functions of banks, but the shadow of financial interests influence hangs over the regulatory process. Assessing the reality and extent of this influence, this paper argues, requires first to acquire asound understanding of the social costs and benefits of banking, and the capacity of regulation to promote social welfare. This paper then offers the reader a review of the main issues covered in the literature and suggests some lessons for the study of financial interest groups. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges in Higher-Order Theorem Proving
Steen, Alexander UL

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailTowards a high-resolution drone-based 3D mapping dataset to optimise flood hazard modelling
Backes, Dietmar UL; Schumann, Guy; Teferle, Felix Norman UL et al

in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2019, June), XLII-2/W13

The occurrence of urban flooding following strong rainfall events may increase as a result of climate change. Urban expansion, ageing infrastructure and an increasing number of impervious surfaces are ... [more ▼]

The occurrence of urban flooding following strong rainfall events may increase as a result of climate change. Urban expansion, ageing infrastructure and an increasing number of impervious surfaces are further exacerbating flooding. To increase resilience and support flood mitigation, bespoke accurate flood modelling and reliable prediction is required. However, flooding in urban areas is most challenging. State-of-the-art flood inundation modelling is still often based on relatively low-resolution 2.5 D bare earth models with 2-5m GSD. Current systems suffer from a lack of precise input data and numerical instabilities and lack of other important data, such as drainage networks. Especially, the quality and resolution of the topographic input data represents a major source of uncertainty in urban flood modelling. A benchmark study is needed that defines the accuracy requirements for highly detailed urban flood modelling and to improve our understanding of important threshold processes and limitations of current methods and 3D mapping data alike. This paper presents the first steps in establishing a new, innovative multiscale data set suitable to benchmark urban flood modelling. The final data set will consist of high-resolution 3D mapping data acquired from different airborne platforms, focusing on the use of drones (optical and LiDAR). The case study includes residential as well as rural areas in Dudelange/Luxembourg, which have been prone to localized flash flooding following strong rainfall events in recent years. The project also represents a cross-disciplinary collaboration between the geospatial and flood modelling community. In this paper, we introduce the first steps to build up a new benchmark data set together with some initial flood modelling results. More detailed investigations will follow in the next phases of this project. [less ▲]

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See detailOral History and Linguistic Analysis. A Study in Digital and Contemporary European History
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

in Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings (2019), (159), 13

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and ... [more ▼]

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and teaching. Two experiments have been devised to analyse how interdisciplinary connections between history and linguistics are built and evaluated within a digital framework. The longer-term objective of this type of enquiry is to draw up an “inventory” of strengths and weaknesses and potentially build an online collection of use cases to share reflections and render more transparent the process of applying language technology to research and teaching in different areas of study in the humanities. [less ▲]

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See detailMelina Mercouri. Una fiera en libertad
Fernandez Soriano, Victor UL

Book published by El País (2019)

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See detailSelf-Organizing Cellulose Nanorods: From the fundamental physical chemistry of self-assembly to the preparation of functional films
Honorato Rios, Camila UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), nanorods isolated by acid hydrolysis from cellulose sources, be- long to a selective type of functional biomaterials. The intriguing ability of these nanoparticles to self ... [more ▼]

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), nanorods isolated by acid hydrolysis from cellulose sources, be- long to a selective type of functional biomaterials. The intriguing ability of these nanoparticles to self-organize and develop a chiral nematic liquid crystal phase when suspended in aqueous suspensions, is increasing interest regardless of the diverse range of research fields. Unfortu- nately (or fortunately, for this thesis), pristine CNCs are always disperse, with great variations in rod length within a single sample. Of particular interest is the fractionation of CNC rods by separation of the coexisting phases: isotropic phase from the liquid crystalline (LC) part. Since the aspect ratio is considered to be the critical parameter that dictates the particle fraction at which cholesteric-isotropic phase separation starts, it is expected that the high aspect ratio rods will separate from low aspect ratio rods, and this is indeed what I found in this thesis. By a systematic repetition of separation of phases, I could reach a quality of separation of long from short rods that is remarkable. The fractionation procedure was then improved by varying the equilibrium phase volume fraction at which the phases were separated, reducing with this new procedure the multiple separations from five cycles to only one. The onset of liquid crystallinity was drastically reduced in the long rod fraction and the decrease in the threshold for complete liquid crystallinity was even stronger. The mass fraction threshold at which gelation of the CNC suspension is triggered is not at all affected by the fractionation. Since gelation is a percolation phenomenon, the expectation was that also the onset of gelation would move to lower mass fractions, but this remained at about the same value. Together with the shift to lower mass fractions of the cholesteric liquid crystal phase formation we have thus opened access to a whole new range of the equilibrium phase diagram, where the full sample is cholesteric yet not gelled. I demonstrate that the critical parameter for inducing gelation is in fact not the fraction of CNC, but the concentration of counterions in the solution. This suggests that the gelation is more complex than direct percolation between individual CNC rods, and instead is related to loss of colloidal stability due to reduced electrostatic screening. I also show that the behavior of key parameters, such as the period of the helical modulation, so-called pitch, that is characteristic of the cholesteric phase, is very different in the range of phase coexistence compared to the range of complete liquid crystallinity. In addition, I found that the dependence of the pitch on CNC mass fraction has less to do with the size of the nanorods but rather than with the variation of effective volume fraction as a result of more rods in the suspension or higher counterion concentration. I corroborate this hypothesis by adding different amounts of salt to CNC suspensions of varying mass fraction such that the ion concentration is held constant, thereby tuning the pitch to the same value throughout the suspensions. In films prepared by drying CNC suspensions, the pitch can go down to a few hundred nanome- ters, resulting in circularly polarized colorful Bragg re ection of visible light. By working with the long-rod fraction we can absolutely obtain a highly-ordered monodomain structure that results in uniform color of films, with only one circular polarization re ected, as should be the case. While the study is carried out on CNCs, the implications go far beyond this particular nanoma- terial, revealing new challenges and opportunities in general liquid crystal and colloid physics, as well as in strategic research where fractionation and the drying of initially disperse populations of nanorods is desirable. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tale of Two Theories: Government by Judiciary Theory Versus Guardianship of the Jurist Theory
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

in Emory International Law Review (2019), 33

This research argues that Muslim scholars developed two theories of government over time. Even tough Islamic scholars—Shia and Sunni—agree on mandating the highest level of legal knowledge in any member ... [more ▼]

This research argues that Muslim scholars developed two theories of government over time. Even tough Islamic scholars—Shia and Sunni—agree on mandating the highest level of legal knowledge in any member of the Islamic government, they disagree on the legal nature of these members, whether they are judges, or jurists. Shia Islamic scholars adopted the theory of the guardianship of the jurist (Wilayat al-Faqih in Arabic, or Vilayat e-Faqih in Farsi). Unlike Sunni scholars, the Shia has developed a practical approach to apply their theory of government in practice. A prominent example of this theory is the Iranian practice of the Guardianship of the Jurist Theory. Sunni Islamic scholars adopt the theory of government by judiciary (Wilayat Al-Qadi). The assumption of this theory is that member of the government are judges. This is based on the assumption that Prophet Mohamed was a judge with enumerated executive authorities, namely the collection of Sadaqat (state financial revenue), military power, and foreign affairs’ representation. This theory has never been in practice since the assassination of the first four successors of the Prophet. This research is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the theory of Sunni-Muslim scholars, which is government by judiciary. The second section presents the theory of Shia-Muslim scholars, which is guardianship of the jurist. The last section deals with the major five distinctions between the two theories. [less ▲]

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See detailConvex Combination of Constraint Vectors for Set-membership Affine Projection Algorithms
Nagashima Ferreira, Tadeu; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Lima, Markus et al

in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2019, May)

Set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) adaptive filters have been increasingly employed in the context of online data-selective learning. A key aspect for their good performance in terms of both ... [more ▼]

Set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) adaptive filters have been increasingly employed in the context of online data-selective learning. A key aspect for their good performance in terms of both convergence speed and steady-state mean-squared error is the choice of the so-called constraint vector. Optimal constraint vectors were recently proposed relying on convex optimization tools, which might some- times lead to prohibitive computational burden. This paper proposes a convex combination of simpler constraint vectors whose performance approaches the optimal solution closely, utilizing much fewer computations. Some illustrative examples confirm that the sub-optimal solution follows the accomplishments of the optimal one. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotion Regulation Difficulties in Adolescents with ADHD and/or Dyslexia
Battistutta, Layla UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Poster (2019, April 26)

Objectives: ADHD is commonly associated with emotion regulation (ER) problems. Although around 10-45% of adolescents with ADHD also present with specific learning disorders such as dyslexia, studies on ER ... [more ▼]

Objectives: ADHD is commonly associated with emotion regulation (ER) problems. Although around 10-45% of adolescents with ADHD also present with specific learning disorders such as dyslexia, studies on ER in dyslexia or comorbid cases of ADHD/dyslexia remain limited. The aim was to examine potential differences in ER abilities between 11 to 16-year-old adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, dyslexia as well as comorbid dyslexia/ADHD. Method: Preliminary data from an ongoing research project was analyzed for 3 diagnostic groups (AD(H)D: n=15; dyslexia: n=12; dyslexia/AD(H)D: n=9) paired on age (F<1, n.s.), gender (X2(2)=0.68, p=.71) and IQ (F<1, n.s.). ER was investigated experimentally using a frustration inducing task (Behavioral Indicator of Resiliency to Distress; BIRD; Lejuez et al., 2006) while assessing adolescents’ subjective positive and negative affect before and after the task (PANAS-C; Laurent et al., 1999). Additionally, adolescents completed questionnaires on alexithymia (AQC, Rieffe, Oosterveld & Terwogt, 2006) and difficulties in ER (DERS-SF; Kaufman et al., 2016). Results: Preliminary findings showed a significant effect of time (F(1,33)=6.46, p=.02, n2=.16) with higher negative affect reported after the task and a marginal diagnostic group effect (F(2,33)=3.05, p=.06, n2=.16) showing marginally higher negative affect for the comorbid group compared to the dyslexia group (p=.06). Marginally significant group differences (F(2, 33)=3.21, p=.05, n2=.16) also showed higher alexithymia scores for the comorbid group compared to the dyslexia group (p=.06) but alexithymia and post-task negative affect were not found to be correlated (r=.25, p=.13). No differences in self-reported ER difficulties were found (F(2,33)=2.52, p=.10, n2=.13) between the three diagnostic groups. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that, compared to a single diagnosis of dyslexia, a dyslexia/ADHD comorbidity might potentially entail less developed ER skills. The ongoing data collection (bigger sample, control group) will help to further elucidate these tentative results in the future. [less ▲]

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