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Küpper, Achim UL

in Brittnacher, Hans Richard; Paefgen, Elisabeth (Eds.) Im Blick des Philologen – Literaturwissenschaftler lesen Serien (in press)

See detailDer Reaktor als grenzüberschreitende Risikozone in der Großregion. Ökologische, interkulturelle und didaktische Herausforderungen der Kernenergie
Küpper, Achim UL

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Solte-Gresser, Christiane (Eds.) Kulturökologie und ökologische Kulturen in der Großregion (in press)

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See detailChildhood Emotional Maltreatment and Problematic Social Media Use Among Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Body Image Dissatisfaction
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (in press)

Preliminary evidence suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with higher problematic social media use (PSMU). It has also been established that childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) is ... [more ▼]

Preliminary evidence suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with higher problematic social media use (PSMU). It has also been established that childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) is associated with body image dissatisfaction (BID). However, the direct and indirect impacts of CEM on PSMU via BID remain untested. The present study examined these direct and indirect relationships among a sample of 385 adolescents (mean age 15.62 years, range 14–18 years). Results indicated that female adolescents had higher levels of CEM, BID, and PSMU compared to males. Structural equation modeling indicated that CEM was indirectly associated with PSMU via BID among males. However, only BID was positively associated with PSMU among females. The findings are in accordance with theoretical models suggesting that individuals’ core characteristics including early childhood experiences and psychopathological factors are associated with different types of specific internet-use disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Effective Hybrid Algorithm for an Extended Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem]{An Effective Hybrid Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Tabu Search for an Extended Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem
Tessaro Lunardi, Willian UL; Voos, Holger UL; Cherri, Luiz Henrique

in 34th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing, Limassol, Cyprus April 8-12, 2019 (2019, April 08)

An extended version of the flexible job shop problem is tackled in this work. The investigated extension of the classical flexible job shop problem allows the precedences between the operations to be ... [more ▼]

An extended version of the flexible job shop problem is tackled in this work. The investigated extension of the classical flexible job shop problem allows the precedences between the operations to be given by an arbitrary directed acyclic graph instead of a linear order. The problem consists of designating the operations to the machines and sequencing them in compliance with the supplied precedences. The goal in the present work is the minimization of the makespan. In order to produce reasonable outcomes in acceptable time, a hybrid imperialist competitive algorithm and tabu search is proposed to solve the problem. Numerical experiments assess the efficiency of the proposed method and compare it with well-known scheduling algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ Attitudes toward Students with High- and Low-Educated Parents
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2019, February)

Background In several countries, school tracking is used to group students with similar academic potential to optimize instruction. Teachers often have a more or less deciding vote, which school track ... [more ▼]

Background In several countries, school tracking is used to group students with similar academic potential to optimize instruction. Teachers often have a more or less deciding vote, which school track would suit different students based on academic achievement and potential (Ansalone and Biafora, 2004). Given the differential qualifications associated with completion of the different school tracks, teachers’ abilities to correctly assign students to different tracks will not only affect the students´ educational pathways, but also has a long lasting effect on career opportunities and general wellbeing in future adult life. Research shows that tracking recommendations mainly rely on students’ abilities (e.g., Caro, et al., 2009; Klapproth, et al., 2013; Marks, 2006). However, non-academic related student characteristics such as the socioeconomic status (SES) of the parents and —closely related (Reardon, 2011)—the parental educational level also affect teachers´ tracking decisions, either indirectly via grades or directly via the tracking decision itself (Bauer and Riphahn, 2006; Caro et al., 2009; de Boer, et al., 2010; Ditton, Krüsken, and Schauenberg, 2005; Maaz, et al., 2008; Timmermans, et al., 2015; Wagner, et al., 2009). Indeed, research has provided evidence for such stereotype bias in teachers’ judgments, leading to disadvantages for certain social groups (Peterson, et al., 2016; van den Bergh, et al., 2010). Hence, the aim of our study was the investigation of teachers’ attitudes toward students in relation to the educational level of parents. Method The aim of the current study was to investigate teachers´ implicit and explicit attitudes toward students with differentially educated parents. Implicit attitudes were measured using an implicit association task (IAT). The first name of the student was used as a proxy for the educational level of parents (see Onland & Bloothooft, 2008), whereby we created separate versions for boys and girls. Participating teachers (N=70) were randomly divided in two groups whereby the first group completed the IAT-boys version and the other group the IAT-girls version. Explicit attitudes were measured using a questionnaire (adapted from Glock, et al., 2016). Results: Participants indicated positive implicit attitudes toward students with highly educated parents, independent of the gender of the student. More specifically, an independent t test revealed that the mean IAT-D scores for boys and girls did not differ, t(68)=0.47, p=.64, d=0.12. The IAT-D score for the whole sample (M=0.81, SD=0.61) was significantly different from zero, t(69)=11.14, p<.001, d=1.33, reflecting more positive implicit attitudes toward highly educated parents. Teachers did not express differential explicit beliefs regarding the learning and social behaviors of students based on the educational level of the parents (i.e., subscale scores were significantly lower than the mean of the scale, t(65)=4.26, p<.001, d=0.53), whereas their expectations concerning the motivation and ambitions or educational chances of these students were neutral. Although the three subscales within the explicit attitudes measure were substantially associated (correlations ranging from r = .39 to r =.74), no association between explicit and implicit attitudes measures was found (correlations range from r = -.07 to r = .08). Conclusion: Teachers’ attitudes seem to be an important factor, which can guide teachers´ judgments and behaviors, and could partly explain differences in educational equity for students with similar academic profiles, but differentially educated parents. The positive implicit attitudes in favor of students with highly educated parents imply more favorable judgments for and behavior toward these students and deeper work is required to ensure teachers’ fair treatment of all students. The dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes may be an indication of the social sensitivity of the relationship between students´ social background and educational achievements and opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailA System and Method for Monitoring Controlling and Troubleshooting of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting Apparatus
Copertaro, Edoardo UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The invention consists of a system and method for monitoring, controlling and troubleshooting of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting machinery. More in detail, the method exploits a network of sensors for ... [more ▼]

The invention consists of a system and method for monitoring, controlling and troubleshooting of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting machinery. More in detail, the method exploits a network of sensors for continuously monitor its vibroacoustic emission pattern. Relevant features are extracted from the data using an iterative processing method. Deviations from a benchmark are interpreted based on model training then used for automatic control and troubleshooting. The expected outcome is an improvement of waterjet automation and robustness to the excellence of Industry 4.0 with a consequent impact on both its cost effectiveness and the provided quality assurance. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparing for Doomsday: Financial Services after a No-Deal Brexit
Asimakopoulos, Ioannis UL

in DCU Brexit Institute Blog (2019)

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See detailSecond-Chance Alternatives and Maintained Inequality in Access to Higher Education in Israel
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Blank, Carmel

in Social Inclusion (2019), 7(1), 28-37

Abstract Access to higher education (HE) has a long history. To offer a view on the current debates and worldwide issues regarding access to HE, this editorial depicts how the control of educational ... [more ▼]

Abstract Access to higher education (HE) has a long history. To offer a view on the current debates and worldwide issues regarding access to HE, this editorial depicts how the control of educational access has historically been used as an instrument of governance at the interface of two processes: social stratification and the territorialisation of politics. Access to HE has remained embedded in these large structural processes even though HE has expanded from a highly elitist institution into mass education systems with equity of educational opportunities having become a desirable goal across societies. Analysing these processes helps understand the complex mechanisms producing inequalities in HE today, which are brought together by the ten articles composing this special issue. Tacking stock of how inequalities in access are produced in different continents, countries, HE Institutions, applying to different social groups though evolving mechanisms, these articles document the importance of contrasting methodological and theoretical approaches to produce comprehensive knowledge on this sensitive issue for democratic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailComment assurer la qualité de l’évaluation par les pairs des propositions de communication dans le cadre d’un colloque scientifique ?
Milmeister, Marianne UL; Weis, Christiane UL; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

Scientific Conference (2019, January 10)

L’évaluation par les pairs joue un rôle important dans le monde universitaire et est souvent considérée comme le garant de la qualité scientifique. En même temps, les biais qui existent pour ce type ... [more ▼]

L’évaluation par les pairs joue un rôle important dans le monde universitaire et est souvent considérée comme le garant de la qualité scientifique. En même temps, les biais qui existent pour ce type d’évaluation sont multiples (partialité des évaluateurs, divergence de jugement entre évaluateurs, etc.) et bien documentés dans la littérature. Dans le cadre d’un colloque que nous avons organisé en 2018, nous avons mené une analyse exploratoire sur la base de données des évaluations réalisées par les pairs. Le but était d’avoir une idée de la qualité de l’évaluation par les pairs, de voir dans quelle mesure on retrouve les biais relevés par la littérature scientifique et, enfin, de définir des pistes qui pourraient contribuer à améliorer la qualité de ce processus. Dans le cas de notre colloque, l’évaluation par les pairs s’est faite via une plateforme en ligne. Chaque proposition de communication était évaluée de manière anonyme par deux personnes et sur base de neuf critères pour lesquels les évaluateurs pouvaient choisir entre quatre modalités d’appréciation : très faible, faible, bon, très bon. Ensuite, l’évaluateur devait donner sa recommandation pour la contribution analysée : acceptation, acceptation sous réserve d’ajustements ou refus. Une première analyse des données montre notamment qu’il existe des différences plus ou moins importantes tant entre les jugements des évaluateurs qu’entre les décisions d’un même évaluateur. Les résultats détaillés de nos analyses seront présentés lors du colloque et des pistes d’amélioration discutées. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a harmonized method for the global reconnaissance of multi-class antimicrobials and other pharmaceuticals in wastewater and receiving surface waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Angeles, Luisa; Butryn, Deena et al

in Environment International (2019), 124

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that is both pressing and challenging due to the rate at which it is spreading, and the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that link human, animal and ... [more ▼]

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that is both pressing and challenging due to the rate at which it is spreading, and the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that link human, animal and environmental sources contributing to its proliferation. One knowledge gap that requires immediate attention is the significance of antimicrobial residues and other pharmaceuticals that are being discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. In this work we provide an approach to develop a harmonized analytical method for 8 classes of antimicrobials and other pharmaceuticals that can be used for global monitoring in wastewater and receiving waters. Analysis of these trace organic chemicals in the influent and effluent wastewater, and in the respective upstream and downstream receiving waters from different countries across the globe is not trivial. Here, we demonstrated that sample preparation using solid-phase extraction (SPE) not only provides a convenient and cost-effective shipping of samples, but also adds stability to the analytes during international shipping. It is important that SPE cartridges are maintained at cold temperature during shipment if the duration is longer than 7 days because a significant decrease in recoveries were observed after 7 days in the cartridges stored at room temperature, especially for sulfonamides and tetracyclines. To compensate for sample degradation during shipment, and matrix effects in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, the use of stable isotope labeled compounds should be employed when available and affordable. The importance of applying a defined tolerance for the ion ratios (Q/q) that have been optimized for wastewater and surface water is discussed. The tolerance range was set to be the mean Q/q of the analyte standard at various concentrations ±40% for the influent, and ±30% for the effluent, upstream, and downstream samples; for tetracyclines and quinolones, however, the tolerance range was ±80% in order to minimize false negative and false positive detection. The optimized procedures were employed to reveal differences in antimicrobial and pharmaceutical concentrations in influent, effluent, and surface water samples from Hong Kong, India, Philippines, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. The antimicrobials with the highest concentrations in influent and effluent samples were ciprofloxacin (48,103 ng/L, Hong Kong WWTP 1) and clarithromycin (5178 ng/L, India WWTP 2), respectively. On the other hand, diclofenac (108,000 ng/L, Sweden WWTP 2), caffeine (67,000 ng/L, India WWTP 1), and acetaminophen (28,000 ng/L, India WWTP 1) were the highest detected pharmaceuticals in the receiving surface water samples. Hong Kong showed the highest total antimicrobial concentrations that included macrolides, quinolones, and sulfonamides with concentrations reaching 60,000 ng/L levels in the influent. Antidepressants were predominant in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic Decision Theory: Lecture notes and presentation slides
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Learning material (2019)

The objective of this course is to introduce students to ADT, a new interdisciplinary field at the intersection of decision theory, discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science and artificial ... [more ▼]

The objective of this course is to introduce students to ADT, a new interdisciplinary field at the intersection of decision theory, discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. ADT proposes new ideas, approaches and tools for supporting decision making processes in presence of massive databases, combinatorial structures, partial and/or uncertain information, and distributed, possibly inter-operating, decision makers. Such problems arise in several real-world decision making problems such as humanitarian logistics, epidemiology, risk assessment and management, e-government, electronic commerce, and the implementation of recommender systems [less ▲]

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See detailEin europäisches CERN für die Künstliche Intelligenz
Schommer, Christoph UL

Article for general public (2019)

Ein europäisches CERN für die Künstliche Intelligenz

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See detailWege zur Ernährungsdemokratie. Rückblick auf den 2. Vernetzungskongress der Ernährungsräte in Frankfurt.
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Schneider, Norry

Article for general public (2019)

Face à la mondialisation et l’intégration verticale des maillons de la chaîne alimentaire aux mains des géants multinationaux de l’industrie agroalimentaire, des initiatives alternatives se développent ... [more ▼]

Face à la mondialisation et l’intégration verticale des maillons de la chaîne alimentaire aux mains des géants multinationaux de l’industrie agroalimentaire, des initiatives alternatives se développent pour relocaliser et transformer la gouvernance de nos systèmes alimentaires. Au cœur de ce mouvement, on retrouve l’émergence de Conseils de Politique Alimentaire (en anglais : Food Policy Council). Il s’agit d’organes et de plateformes multi-acteurs qui ont pour objectif d’identifier et de proposer des solutions innovantes et transdisciplinaires en vue d’améliorer les systèmes alimentaires à l’échelle territoriale, en s’assurant qu’ils soient plus durables du point de vue environnemental et plus justes du point de vue social. Le Conseil alimentaire intègre des représentants des différents secteurs tout au long de la chaîne alimentaire (production, transformation, distribution, consommation et recyclage), mais également des acteurs de la gouvernance du système alimentaire (politique, administration, éducation, société civile, recherche). En Allemagne, ces initiatives foisonnent depuis que le premier Cpnseil de politique alimentaire ait été créé en 2016 à Cologne. Le 2ème congrès des initiatives germanophones, à Frankfort fin novembre 2018, a permis une meilleure compréhension de cet instrument participatif de promotion de la souveraineté alimentaire et du droit à l’alimentation et à la nutrition. Si vous voulez en savoir plus, merci de nous contacter : norry@cell.lu et rachel.reckinger@uni.lu [less ▲]

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See detailNAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) deficiency: a novel neurodegenerative disorder exacerbated by febrile illnesses
Van Bergen, Nicole; Guo, Yiran; Rankin, Julia et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2019), 142(1), 50-58

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX ... [more ▼]

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) is essential for intracellular repair of NAD(P)HX. Here we present a series of infants and children who suffered episodes of febrile illness-induced neurodegeneration or cardiac failure and early death. Whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing identified recessive NAXD variants in each case. Variants were predicted to be potentially deleterious through in silico analysis. Reverse-transcription PCR confirmed altered splicing in one case. Subject fibroblasts showed highly elevated concentrations of the damaged cofactors S-NADHX, R-NADHX and cyclic NADHX. NADHX accumulation was abrogated by lentiviral transduction of subject cells with wild-type NAXD. Subject fibroblasts and muscle biopsies showed impaired mitochondrial function, higher sensitivity to metabolic stress in media containing galactose and azide, but not glucose, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recombinant NAXD protein harbouring two missense variants leading to the amino acid changes p.(Gly63Ser) and p.(Arg608Cys) were thermolabile and showed a decrease in Vmax and increase in KM for the ATP-dependent NADHX dehydratase activity. This is the first study to identify pathogenic variants in NAXD and to link deficient NADHX repair with mitochondrial dysfunction. The results show that NAXD deficiency can be classified as a metabolite repair disorder in which accumulation of damaged metabolites likely triggers devastating effects in tissues such as the brain and the heart, eventually leading to early childhood death. [less ▲]

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See detailFlexible body scanning without template models
Munoz-Salinas, Rafael; Sarmadi, Hamid; Cazzato, Dario UL et al

in Signal Processing (2019), 154

The apparition of low-cost depth cameras has lead to the development of several reconstruction methods that work well with rigid objects, but tend to fail when used to manually scan a standing person ... [more ▼]

The apparition of low-cost depth cameras has lead to the development of several reconstruction methods that work well with rigid objects, but tend to fail when used to manually scan a standing person. Specific methods for body scanning have been proposed, but they have some ad-hoc requirements that make them unsuitable in a wide range of applications: they either require rotation platforms, multiple sensors and a priori template model. Scanning a person with a hand-held low-cost depth camera is still a challenging unsolved problem. This work proposes a novel solution to easily scan standing persons by combining depth information with fiducial markers without using a template model. In our approach, a set of markers placed in the ground are used to improve camera tracking by a novel algorithm that fuses depth information with the known location of the markers. The proposed method analyzes the video sequence and automatically divides it into fragments that are employed to build partial overlapping scans of the subject. Then, a registration step (both rigid and non-rigid) is applied to create a final mesh of the scanned subject. The proposed method has been compared with the state-of-the-art KinectFusion [1], ElasticFusion [2], ORB-SLAM [3, 4], and BundleFusion [5] methods, exhibiting superior performance. [less ▲]

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See detailMotor tests for primary school aged children: A systematic review
Scheuer, Claude UL; Herrmann, Christian; Bund, Andreas UL

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2019)

Motor testing in education has gained in relevance in light of recent developments in educational systems (Köller & Baumert, 2012). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies using ... [more ▼]

Motor testing in education has gained in relevance in light of recent developments in educational systems (Köller & Baumert, 2012). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies using motor tests in primary school children aged 4 to 12 years and to synthetize information about the quality and application of the test instruments used. A systematic review of 910 records identified by a search of nine databases yielded 144 papers reporting motor testing in primary school age children,including 25 articles reporting on the quality of 20 test instruments. In the selected articles, tests grounded on the constructs of “motor abilities” and/or “motor skills” are the most frequent and are mostly used for monitoring purposes or for impact research. Tests based on the construct “motor competencies” have become popular only recently, being relevant for educational motor testing due to their curricular validity. The test instruments have been investigated towards their validity and reliability to different extents. However, for several test instruments factorial validity has not been established and more validation studies are needed to improve their psychometric quality especially if used in educational contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing Intra-Limb Coordination and Timing of Performing a Baseball-Pitch in Skilled and Unskilled Pitchers with Emphasis on Different Movement Phases
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Motor Behavior (2019), 10(33), 17-34

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare ... [more ▼]

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare the coordination between the shoulder-elbow joints and timing during execution of a Baseball-pitch by skilled and unskilled subjects emphasizing movement phases. The subjects consisted of a skilled male pitcher and eight beginner pitchers. Intra-limb coordination was obtained for the shoulder-elbow joints and was shown by angle-angle plots. Start and end points of all pitchers were normalized by linear interpolation method to 250 points. Timing, angles of the beginning and end of each phase, and the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in each phase were compared between skilled and unskilled pitchers. The results indicated that there is a relatively clear difference in the coordination patterns between the joints of the shoulder-elbow, especially in the first and second phases between skilled and unskilled pitchers. There were also many differences between unskilled pitchers with the skilled pitcher at the beginning and end as well as the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in different phases. Considering the timing variable, the time of performing the whole movement and the first, fourth, and fifth phases in unskilled pitchers was significantly shorter than that of the skilled pitcher. The results were discussed with regard to spatiotemporal characteristics of the performing Baseball-pitch in skilled and unskilled pitchers. Also, were discussed practical considerations for improving skills and preventing injury. [less ▲]

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