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See detailDer Reaktor als grenzüberschreitende Risikozone in der Großregion. Ökologische, interkulturelle und didaktische Herausforderungen der Kernenergie
Küpper, Achim UL

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Solte-Gresser, Christiane (Eds.) Kulturökologie und ökologische Kulturen in der Großregion (in press)

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See detailShadow Banking in Europe: Idiosyncrasies and their Implications for Regulation
Nabilou, Hossein UL; Prüm, André UL

in European Journal of Risk Regulation (in press)

This paper studies the specificities of the regulation of shadow banking in Europe. It argues that the idiosyncratic features of the EU shadow banking sector call for a different (or indigenized ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the specificities of the regulation of shadow banking in Europe. It argues that the idiosyncratic features of the EU shadow banking sector call for a different (or indigenized) regulatory approach from that of the US. It highlights striking differences between the EU and the US shadow banking sectors based on both market structure and legal micro-infrastructure of the shadow banking sectors in these two jurisdictions. These different institutional and legal infrastructures of the shadow banking activities, instruments, and entities, as well as the different trajectories in the evolution of the banking and shadow banking sectors in terms of business models, size and composition of actors and transactions can be the driving force behind the differential regulatory treatment of shadow banking in the EU and the US. In highlighting the differences between shadow banking across the Atlantic, this paper focuses on the repo markets, as the main instruments and activities that play a significant role in credit intermediation outside the regulatory perimeter of the traditional or regular banking system. It then discusses one specific segment of the shadow banking entities, i.e., Money Market Funds (MMFs), and highlights the fundamental differences in the structure, functioning, and existing regulatory treatment of the MMFs in the US and the EU. The paper concludes that the market structure, business models, as well as legacy legal and regulatory frameworks of shadow banking (as well as banking) display substantial differences in the US and the EU. The findings in this paper rally against one-size-fits-all approaches to addressing the problems of the shadow banking system worldwide and recommends differentiated and more nuanced regulatory approaches to regulating shadow banking across the Atlantic. By implication, any adoption of the US regulatory framework or recommendations of international fora for the shadow banking sector by the EU regulatory authorities should not overlook these differences. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional Breuer-Major theorem
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David

in Probability Theory and Related Fields (in press)

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See detailJudicial Independence & National Judges in the Recent Case law of the Court of Justice
Zinonos, Panagiotis UL

in European Public Law (in press), 25(4),

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See detailChildhood trauma affects stress-related interoceptive accuracy
Schaan, Violetta UL; Schulz, André UL; Rubel, Julian A. et al

in Frontiers in Psychiatry (in press)

Early life adversity (ELA) may cause permanent disturbances in brain-body signaling. These disturbances are thought to contribute to physical symptoms and emotional dysregulation in adulthood. The current ... [more ▼]

Early life adversity (ELA) may cause permanent disturbances in brain-body signaling. These disturbances are thought to contribute to physical symptoms and emotional dysregulation in adulthood. The current study investigated the effects of childhood trauma on young adults’ interoceptive accuracy as an indicator of brain-body communication that may be dysregulated by ELA. Sixty-six participants completed an online-questionnaire followed by a laboratory session including the socially-evaluated cold pressor stress test during which ECG, salivary cortisol and interoceptive accuracy were assessed. Childhood trauma was negatively related to interoceptive accuracy (IAc) after the stressor. This stress-effect could not be observed for heart rate and cortisol, which were unrelated to IAc. Participants reporting higher baseline unpleasantness exhibited lower IAc after the stressor, while increases in unpleasantness due to the stressor were associated with higher IAc. Unpleasantness at baseline mediated the effect of childhood trauma on IAc after the stressor. [less ▲]

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See detailSouth Africa’s incomplete transition towards socio-economic justice: A case study on inequality and populism
Owiso, Owiso UL; Boshoff, Elsabé

in Diritti Umani e Diritto Internazionale (in press)

South Africa is currently one of the world’s most unequal countries, with massive income inequality, millions of people living in poverty without access to basic services and amenities, unemployment rates ... [more ▼]

South Africa is currently one of the world’s most unequal countries, with massive income inequality, millions of people living in poverty without access to basic services and amenities, unemployment rates consistently above 20% and the top 10% of the population receiving two thirds of the total income. Government economic policies on poverty reduction in the decades since the advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 have been unable to eradicate the extreme racialised inequality which was the basis of the 342 years of colonialism and apartheid which were characterised by systematic dispossession and socio-economic marginalisation of South Africa’s majority Black population and the systematic privileging of the minority White population. While this history is not the primary focus of this paper, it nonetheless provides useful context. The paper’s primary focus is on the more recent normative and legal challenges of post-1994 South Africa that have resulted in further entrenching socio-economic inequality and contributing to the rise of populism. In this paper we argue that the dire living conditions of a large proportion of the population and disillusionment with the State’s ability to deliver on its promises in this regard, along with the poor implementation of social and economic rights have led to the development of a populist culture in South African politics. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat's in an Icon? Promises and Pitfalls of Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Leenes, Ronald; Hallinan, Dara; Gutwirth, Serge (Eds.) et al Data Protection and Privacy: Data Protection and Democracy (in press)

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their ... [more ▼]

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their personal data. The definition of transparency stresses its user-centric nature, while design considerations to comply with this obligation assume central importance. This article focuses on the icons established by the GDPR Art. 12.7 to offer “a meaningful overview of the intended processing”. Existing attempts to represent data protection through icons have not met widespread adoption and reasons about the strengths and weaknesses of their creation and evaluation are here discussed. Building on this analysis, we present an empirical research proposing a new icon set that responds to GDPR requirements. The article also discusses the challenges of creating and evaluating such icon set and provides some future directions of research for effective an effective implementation and standardization. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed-fleet single-terminal bus scheduling problem: Modelling, solution scheme and potential applications
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Picarelli, Erika UL; D'Ariano, Andrea et al

in Omega: the International Journal of Management Science (in press)

Reducing pollutant emissions and promoting sustainable mobility solutions, including Public Transport (PT), are increasingly becoming key objectives for policymakers worldwide. In this work we develop an ... [more ▼]

Reducing pollutant emissions and promoting sustainable mobility solutions, including Public Transport (PT), are increasingly becoming key objectives for policymakers worldwide. In this work we develop an optimal vehicle scheduling approach for next generation PT systems, considering the instance of mixed electric / hybrid fleet. Our objective is that of investigating to what extent electrification, coupled with optimal fleet management, can yield operational cost savings for PT operators. We propose a Mixed In- teger Linear Program (MILP) to address the problem of optimal scheduling of a mixed fleet of electric and hybrid / non-electric buses, coupled with an ad-hoc decomposition scheme aimed at enhancing the scalability of the proposed MILP. Two case studies arising from the PT network of the city of Luxem- bourg are employed in order to validate the model; sensitivity analysis to fleet design parameters is performed, specifically in terms of fleet size and fleet composition. Conclusions point to the fact that careful modelling and handling of mixed-fleet conditions are necessary to achieve operational savings, and that marginal savings gradually reduce as more conventional buses are replaced by their electric counterparts. We believe the methodology proposed may be a key part of advanced decision support systems for policymakers and operators that are dealing with the on-going transition from conventional bus fleets towards greener transport solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailBending and Breaking Europe's Single Resolution Mechanism: the case of Italy
Donnelly, Shawn; Asimakopoulos, Ioannis UL

in Journal of Common Market Studies (in press)

This paper examines the political economy and law of bank resolution in the case of Italy—specifically its treatment of three failing banks that were resolved in 2016/2017—Monte de Paschi, Veneto and ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the political economy and law of bank resolution in the case of Italy—specifically its treatment of three failing banks that were resolved in 2016/2017—Monte de Paschi, Veneto and Vicenza banks. These three cases stand out for the relatively large degree of discretion exercised by national resolution and state aid authorities, ultimately with the permission of their European counterparts. This paper examines the motivations driving Italian authorities to lobby the Commission for leeway in applying the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, and analyses the intricacies of the legal framework to underline the extent of discretion exercised by policy makers. It concludes that the discretion visible in these three cases is not (entirely) contained within EU law, and that bending the law or turning a blind eye to infractions was key to understanding the EU approach to Italy. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral Banks and Regulation of Cryptocurrencies
Nabilou, Hossein UL; Prüm, André UL

in Review of Banking & Financial Law (in press)

This paper explores the interface between central banks and cryptocurrencies. Focusing on the European Central Bank (ECB), it identifies the potential threats that the rise of cryptocurrencies would pose ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the interface between central banks and cryptocurrencies. Focusing on the European Central Bank (ECB), it identifies the potential threats that the rise of cryptocurrencies would pose to the basic and ancillary tasks of the ECB, in particular, its monetary policy operations and the exercise of its supervisory functions over credit institutions and payment systems. The paper finds that cryptocurrencies can potentially have both direct – through their potential impact on the price stability and monetary policy, and central banks’ monopoly over issuing base money – and indirect effects on central banks, mainly through the institutions and systems that fall under the ECB’s scope of competence. To address the challenges posed by cryptocurrencies, the ECB may take both legal (including supervisory and oversight) measures and non-legal (or technical) measures. With respect to technical measures, the ECB - to the extent falling within the scope of its competence - may focus on improving the efficiency of existing payment systems and addressing the existing frictions in market infrastructures to indirectly affect the cryptocurrency markets. Alternatively, it can venture into issuing Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). Regarding legal measures, central banks could envisage regulating cryptocurrencies either directly or indirectly. However, as the most significant potential impact of cryptocurrencies on central banks is likely to be indirect through the impact of cryptocurrencies on the banking and payment systems, and given the limitations on the ECB’s mandate and its regulatory and supervisory tools, it is apposite for the ECB to consider using indirect strategies and tools to influence cryptocurrency markets. This indirect approach can be implemented through the ECB’s existing supervisory and oversight powers over the banking and payment systems. This paper specifies the direct and indirect measures and assesses their merits in addressing the concerns about cryptocurrencies. [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporating trip chaining within online demand estimation
Cantelmo, Guido; Qurashi, Moeid; Prakash, Arun et al

in Transportation Research Procedia (in press)

Time-dependent Origin–Destination (OD) demand flows are fundamental inputs for Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems and real-time traffic management. This work introduces a novel state-space framework ... [more ▼]

Time-dependent Origin–Destination (OD) demand flows are fundamental inputs for Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems and real-time traffic management. This work introduces a novel state-space framework to estimate these demand flows in an online context. Specifically, we propose to explicitly include trip-chaining behavior within the state-space formulation, which is solved using the well-established Kalman Filtering technique. While existing works already consider structural information and recursive behavior within the online demand estimation problem, this information has been always considered at the OD level. In this study, we introduce this structural information by explicitly representing trip-chaining within the estimation framework. The advantage is twofold. First, all trips belonging to the same tour can be jointly calibrated. Second, given the estimation during a certain time interval, a prediction of the structural deviation over the whole day can be obtained without the need to run additional simulations. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated first on a toy network and then on a large real-world network. Results show that the model improves the prediction performance with respect to a conventional Kalman Filtering approach. We also show that, on the basis of the estimation of the morning commute, the model can be used to predict the evening commute without need of running additional simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimum Wages and the Gender Gap in Pay: New Evidence from the United Kingdom and Ireland
Bargain, Olivier; Doorley, Karina; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the ... [more ▼]

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the change in the gender wage gap around the introduction of minimum wages in Ireland and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Using survey data for the two countries, we develop a decomposition of the change in the gender differences in wage distributions around the date of introduction of minimum wages. We separate out “price” effects attributed to minimum wages from “employment composition” effects. A significant reduction of the gender gap at low wages is observed after the introduction of the minimum wage in Ireland, while there is hardly any change in the U.K. Counterfactual simulations show that the difference between countries may be attributed to gender differences in non‐compliance with the minimum wage legislation in the U.K. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Breuer-Major theorem: tightness and non-stationarity
Campese, Simon UL; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David

in Annals of Probability (in press)

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See detailLes conditions d'accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale
Silga, Janine UL

in Chaouche, Fatima; Gerkrath, Jörg; Silga, Janine (Eds.) et al Droit d'Asile au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg - Guide pratique (in press)

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See detailLa détermination de l'âge des jeunes demandeurs de protection internationale
Silga, Janine UL; Anibaldi, Johnny

in Chaouche, Fatima; Gerkrath, Jörg; Silga, Janine (Eds.) et al Droit d'Asile au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg - Guide pratique (in press)

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See detailThe Metamorphosis of the European Economic Constitution
Hofmann, Herwig UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL; Zaccaroni, Giovanni

Book published by Elgar Publishing - 1st (in press)

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See detailEnhanced Sketchnoting through Semantic Integration of Learning Material
Atashpendar, Aryobarzan UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Applied Informatics (in press)

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in ... [more ▼]

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in popularity, especially in teaching and learning. While current solutions already reduce the burden of organizing and searching through stacks of paper, they provide little support in finding additional information related to the notes, and search capabilities are mostly limited to textual queries and content. In this paper, we present a novel solution for digital sketchnoting aimed at enhancing the learning experience of students. In addition to common capabilities such as handwriting recognition, our note-taking app integrates semantic annotation and drawing recognition. Handwritten notes are recognized and passed through concept recognition and entity linking tools to enable a knowledge graph-based integration of contextually relevant learning resources. We extend traditional search capabilities by including the semantic metadata from the related material as well as enabling visual queries to find recognized sketches. Finally, resembling the exchange of paper notes among students, our app allows to share the semantically enhanced notes with other devices. [less ▲]

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See detailA dual‐process exploration of binge drinking: Evidence through behavioral and electrophysiological findings
Lannoy, Séverine; Dormal, Valérie; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Addiction Biology (in press)

The dual‐process model, describing addictive disorders as resulting from an imbalance between increased automatic approach behaviors towards the substance and reduced abilities to control these behaviors ... [more ▼]

The dual‐process model, describing addictive disorders as resulting from an imbalance between increased automatic approach behaviors towards the substance and reduced abilities to control these behaviors, constitutes a sound theoretical framework to understand alcohol‐use disorders. The present study aimed at exploring this imbalance at behavioral and cerebral levels in binge drinking, a pattern of excessive alcohol consumption frequently observed in youth, by assessing both reflective control abilities and automatic processing of alcohol‐related stimuli. For this purpose, 25 binge drinkers and 25 comparison participants performed a Go/No‐Go task during electrophysiological recording. Inhibition abilities were investigated during explicit (ie, distinguishing alcoholic versus nonalcoholic drinks) and implicit (ie, distinguishing sparkling versus nonsparkling drinks, independently of their alcohol content) processing of beverage cues. Binge drinkers presented poorer inhibition for the explicit processing of beverage cues, as well as reduced N200 amplitude for the specific processing of alcohol‐related stimuli. As a whole, these findings indicated inhibition impairments in binge drinkers, particularly for alcohol cues processing and at the attentional stage of the cognitive stream. In line with the dual‐process model, these results support that binge drinking is already characterized by an underactivation of the reflective system combined with an overactivation of the automatic system. Results also underlined the influence of explicit processing compared with implicit ones. At the clinical level, our findings reinforce the need to develop intervention methods focusing on the inhibition of approach behaviors towards alcohol‐related stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailA Polynomial Time Subsumption Algorithm for Nominal Safe $ELO_{\bot}$ under Rational Closure
Casini, Giovanni UL; Straccia, Umberto; Meyer, Thomas

in Information Sciences (in press)

Description Logics (DLs) under Rational Closure (RC) is a well-known framework for non-monotonic reasoning in DLs. In this paper, we address the concept subsumption decision problem under RC for nominal ... [more ▼]

Description Logics (DLs) under Rational Closure (RC) is a well-known framework for non-monotonic reasoning in DLs. In this paper, we address the concept subsumption decision problem under RC for nominal safe $ELO_{\bot}$, a notable and practically important DL representative of the OWL 2 profile OWL 2 EL. Our contribution here is to define a polynomial time subsumption procedure for nominal safe $ELO_{\bot}$ under RC that relies entirely on a series of classical, monotonic $EL_{\bot}$ subsumption tests. Therefore, any existing classical monotonic $EL_{\bot}$ reasoner can be used as a black box to implement our method. We then also adapt the method to one of the known extensions of RC for DLs, namely Defeasible Inheritance-based DLs without losing the computational tractability. [less ▲]

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