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See detailHealth benefits of walking in nature: a randomized controlled study under conditions of real-life stress.
Olafsdottir, Gunnthora; Cloke, Paul; Schulz, André UL et al

in Environment & Behavior (in press)

We investigated the effects of recreational exposure to the natural environment on mood and psychophysiological responses to stress. We hypothesized that walking in nature has restorative effects over and ... [more ▼]

We investigated the effects of recreational exposure to the natural environment on mood and psychophysiological responses to stress. We hypothesized that walking in nature has restorative effects over and above the effects of exposure to nature scenes (viewing-nature-on-TV) or physical exercise alone (walking-on-a-treadmill-in-a-gym) and that these effects are greater when participants were expected to be more stressed. Healthy university students (N=90) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 conditions and tested during an exam-free period and again during their exam time. Mood and psychophysiological responses were assessed before and after the interventions, and again after a laboratory stressor. All interventions had restorative effects on cortisol levels (p < .001), yet walking in nature resulted in lower cortisol levels than did nature viewing (p < .05) during the exam period. Walking in nature improved mood more than watching nature scenes (p < .001) or physical exercise alone (p < .05). [less ▲]

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See detailInformation sharing, credit booms and financial stability: Do developing economies differ from advanced countries?
Leon, Florian UL; Guérineau, Samuel

in Journal of Financial Stability (in press)

This paper analyses the impact of credit information sharing on financial stability, drawing special attention to its interactions with credit booms. A probit estimation of financial vulnerability ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the impact of credit information sharing on financial stability, drawing special attention to its interactions with credit booms. A probit estimation of financial vulnerability episodes—identified by jumps in the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans—is run for a sample of 159 countries divided into two sub-samples according to their level of development: 80 advanced or emerging economies and 79 less developed countries. The results show that: i) credit information sharing reduces financial fragility for both groups of countries; ii) for less developed countries, the main effect is the direct effect (reduction of NPL ratio once credit boom is controlled), suggesting a portfolio quality effect; iii) credit information sharing also mitigates the detrimental impact of a credit boom on financial fragility but this result holds only for advanced and emerging countries and for household credit booms; and iv) the depth of information sharing has a negative impact on the likelihood of credit booms (but not the coverage of IS). [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional bias to pain-related information: A meta-analysis of dot-probe studies
Todd, Jemma; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Sharpe, Louise et al

in Health Psychology Review (in press)

Studies investigating attentional biases towards pain information vary widely in both design and results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the degree to which attentional biases towards pain ... [more ▼]

Studies investigating attentional biases towards pain information vary widely in both design and results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the degree to which attentional biases towards pain occur when measured with the dot-probe task. A total of 2168 references were screened, resulting in a final sample of 4466 participants from 52 articles. Participants were grouped according to pain experience: chronic pain, acute pain, anticipating experimental/procedural pain, social concern for pain, or healthy people. In general, results revealed a significant, but small bias towards pain words (d= 0.136), and pain pictures (d= 0.110) in chronic pain patients, but not in those with acute pain, those anticipating pain, or healthy people. Follow-up analyses revealed an attentional bias towards sensory pain words in the chronic pain group (d= 0.198), and the acute pain group (d= 0.303), but not other groups. In contrast, attentional biases towards affective pain stimuli were not significant for any pain groups. This meta-analysis found support for attentional biases towards sensory pain stimuli in patients with chronic pain in comparison to healthy individuals across a range of common parameters. Future researchers need to consider task design when seeking to optimally measure pain-relevant attentional biases [less ▲]

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See detailA transdiagnostic dimensional approach towards a neuropsychological assessment for addiction: an international Delphi consensus study.
Yucel, Murat; Oldenhof, Erin; Ahmed, Serge et al

in Addiction (Abingdon, England) (in press)

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness symptoms and diagnoses. The RDoC framework comprises 39 functional constructs designed to be revised and refined, with the overall goal to improve diagnostic validity and treatments. This study aimed to reach a consensus among experts in the addiction field on the 'primary' RDoC constructs most relevant to substance and behavioural addictions. METHODS: Forty-four addiction experts were recruited from Australia, Asia, Europe and the Americas. The Delphi technique was used to determine a consensus as to the degree of importance of each construct in understanding the essential dimensions underpinning addictive behaviours. Expert opinions were canvassed online over three rounds (97% completion rate), with each consecutive round offering feedback for experts to review their opinions. RESULTS: Seven constructs were endorsed by >/=80% of experts as 'primary' to the understanding of addictive behaviour: five from the Positive Valence System (Reward Valuation, Expectancy, Action Selection, Reward Learning, Habit); one from the Cognitive Control System (Response Selection/Inhibition); and one expert-initiated construct (Compulsivity). These constructs were rated to be differentially related to stages of the addiction cycle, with some more closely linked to addiction onset, and others more to chronicity. Experts agreed that these neuropsychological dimensions apply across a range of addictions. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers a novel and neuropsychologically informed theoretical framework, as well as a cogent step forward to test transdiagnostic concepts in addiction research, with direct implications for assessment, diagnosis, staging of disorder, and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Empirical Evaluation of Evolutionary Algorithms for Unit Test Suite Generation
Campos, Jose; Ge, Yan; Albunian, Nasser et al

in Information and Software Technology (in press)

Context: Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be e ective at generating unit test suites optimised for code coverage. While many speci c aspects of these algorithms have been evaluated in detail (e ... [more ▼]

Context: Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be e ective at generating unit test suites optimised for code coverage. While many speci c aspects of these algorithms have been evaluated in detail (e.g., test length and di erent kinds of techniques aimed at improving performance, like seeding), the in uence of the choice of evolutionary algorithm has to date seen less attention in the literature. Objective: Since it is theoretically impossible to design an algorithm that is the best on all possible problems, a common approach in software engineering problems is to rst try the most common algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, and only afterwards try to re ne it or compare it with other algorithms to see if any of them is more suited for the addressed problem. The objective of this paper is to perform this analysis, in order to shed light on the in uence of the search algorithm applied for unit test generation. Method: We empirically evaluate thirteen di erent evolutionary algorithms and two random approaches on a selection of non-trivial open source classes. All algorithms are implemented in the EvoSuite test generation tool, which includes recent optimisations such as the use of an archive during the search and optimisation for multiple coverage criteria. Results: Our study shows that the use of a test archive makes evolutionary algorithms clearly better than random testing, and it con rms that the DynaMOSA many-objective search algorithm is the most e ective algorithm for unit test generation. Conclusions: Our results show that the choice of algorithm can have a substantial in uence on the performance of whole test suite optimisation. Although we can make a recommendation on which algorithm to use in practice, no algorithm is clearly superior in all cases, suggesting future work on improved search algorithms for unit test generation [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying elastoplastic parameters with Bayes' theorem considering double error sources and model uncertainty
Rappel, Hussein UL; Beex, Lars UL; Noels, Ludovic et al

in Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics (in press)

We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in ... [more ▼]

We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in the strain measurements. Since a difference between the model and the experimental data may still be present if the data is not contaminated by noise, we also incorporate the possible error of the model itself. The three formulations to describe model uncertainty in this contribution are: (1) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with constant parameters, (2) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with an input-dependent mean, and (3) a Gaussian random process with a stationary covariance function. Our results show that incorporating model uncertainty often, but not always, improves the results. If the error in the strain is considered as well, the results improve even more. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance location routing for rolling stock under line and fleet planning uncertainty
Arts, Joachim UL; Tönissen, Denise; Shen, Zuo-Jun

in Transportation Science (in press)

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See detailOracles for Testing Software Timeliness with Uncertainty
Wang, Chunhui UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (in press)

Uncertainty in timing properties (e.g., detection time of external events) is a common occurrence in embedded software systems since these systems interact with complex physical environments. Such time ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty in timing properties (e.g., detection time of external events) is a common occurrence in embedded software systems since these systems interact with complex physical environments. Such time uncertainty leads to non-determinism. For example, time-triggered operations may either generate different valid outputs across different executions, or experience failures (e.g., results not being generated in the expected time window) that occur only occasionally over many executions. For these reasons, time uncertainty makes the generation of effective test oracles for timing requirements a challenging task. To address the above challenge, we propose STUIOS (Stochastic Testing with Unique Input Output Sequences), an approach for the automated generation of stochastic oracles that verify the capability of a software system to fulfill timing constraints in the presence of time uncertainty. Such stochastic oracles entail the statistical analysis of repeated test case executions based on test output probabilities predicted by means of statistical model checking. Results from two industrial case studies in the automotive domain demonstrate that this approach improves the fault detection effectiveness of tests suites derived from timed automata, compared to traditional approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailNew synthetic opioids: Part of a new addiction landscape.
Karila, Laurent; Marillier, Maude; Chaumette, Boris et al

in Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews (in press)

Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has ... [more ▼]

Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has emerged on the drug market since 2010. North America is currently facing an opioid epidemic of morbi-mortality, caused by over-prescription of opioids, illegally diverted prescribed medicines, the increasing use of heroin, is and the emergence of SO. Furthermore, this opioid crisis is also seen in Europe. SO are new psychoactive substances characterized by different feature such as easy availability on the Internet, low price, purity, legality, and lack of detection in laboratory tests. They have not been approved or are not recommended for human use. Opioid misuse is associated with somatic and psychiatric complications. For many substances, limited pharmacological information is available, increasing the risk of harmful adverse events. Health actors and the general population need to be clearly informed of the potential risks and consequences of the diffusion and use of SO. [less ▲]

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See detailWie? Warum? Oder warum nicht? Mobilitätsfelder sowie Motivationen und Barrieren für Jugendmobilität in Europa
Hemming, Karen; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL; Schlimbach, Tabea et al

in Forum Jugendarbeit International (in press)

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See detailDevelopper la pensée algébrique à travers une activité de généralisation basée sur des motifs (patterns) figuratifs
Vlassis, Joëlle UL; Demonty, Isabelle; Squalli, Hassane

in Nouveaux cahiers de la recherche en éducation (in press), 3

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See detailSchool Attitude and Perceived Teacher Acceptance: Developmental Trajectories, Temporal Relations, and Gender Differences
Arens, Anne Katrin; Niepel, Christoph UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (in press)

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See detailThe English and German versions of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Establishing measurement invariance across nationality and gender groups
Niepel, Christoph UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Mohr, Jonathan J. et al

in Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity (in press)

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See detailOn a Software-Defined CAN Controller for Embedded Systems
Gianluca, Cena; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting UL et al

in Computer Standards and Interfaces (in press)

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The ... [more ▼]

Controller Area Network (CAN) technology is nowadays ubiquitous in vehicular applications and is also gaining popularity in other contexts, for instance, embedded and industrial automation systems. The recent standardization of CAN with flexible data rate (CAN FD), as well as other academic proposals, have highlighted the usefulness of enhancing the CAN physical and data link layers to attain better performance and other features. This paper describes a portable software-defined CAN controller called SDCC. Besides being handy as a research tool for experimenting with novel protocol concepts at the data link layer, SDCC is also fully capable of real-time execution. Hence, it can interact with real-world CAN devices through a physical bus interface. [less ▲]

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See detailShape optimization of structures with cutouts by an efficient approach based on XIGA and chaotic particle swarm optimization
Wang, Chao; Yu, Tiantang; Shao, Guojian et al

in European Journal of Mechanics. A, Solids (in press)

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See detailA tutorial on Bayesian inference to identify material parameters in solid mechanics
Rappel, Hussein UL; Beex, Lars UL; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering (in press)

The aim of this contribution is to explain in a straightforward manner how Bayesian inference can be used to identify material parameters of material models for solids. Bayesian approaches have already ... [more ▼]

The aim of this contribution is to explain in a straightforward manner how Bayesian inference can be used to identify material parameters of material models for solids. Bayesian approaches have already been used for this purpose, but most of the literature is not necessarily easy to understand for those new to the field. The reason for this is that most literature focuses either on complex statistical and machine learning concepts and/or on relatively complex mechanical models. In order to introduce the approach as gently as possible, we only focus on stress-strain measurements coming from uniaxial tensile tests and we only treat elastic and elastoplastic material models. Furthermore, the stress-strain measurements are created artificially in order to allow a one-to-one comparison between the true parameter values and the identified parameter distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailEqualization Taxes and the EU's 'Digital Services Tax'
Kofler, Georg; Sinnig, Julia UL

in Intertax, International Tax Review (in press)

Equalization taxes have a number of potential disadvantages and shortcomings, including their negative impact on growth, innovation and productivity, non-neutrality, double taxation, and problems in ... [more ▼]

Equalization taxes have a number of potential disadvantages and shortcomings, including their negative impact on growth, innovation and productivity, non-neutrality, double taxation, and problems in compliance and administration. However, some also view them as a politically feasible way to address perceived ‘unfairness’ in the territorial allocation of taxing rights in a digitalized economy. In any event, however, there are also certain technical features any such tax should comply with, including, e.g. compliance with international obligations (e.g. EU and tax treaty law), administrative simplicity, and a scope that is not overreaching. This contribution will address the general background of ‘equalization taxes’, the fundamental objections raised against it, and the relevant design features, both on a general level and specifically with regard to the proposal for an EU ‘Digital Services Tax’. [less ▲]

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See detailQualification of the Digital Services Tax Under Tax Treaties
Hohenwarter, Daniela; Kofler, Georg; Mayr, Gunter et al

in Intertax, International Tax Review (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL)