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See detailNo Random, No Ransom: A Key to Stop Cryptographic Ransomware
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Ryan, Peter UL

in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment (DIMVA 2018) (in press)

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See detailTax Treaty Arbitration in Luxembourg - National Report
Chaouche, Fatima UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Report (in press)

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of ... [more ▼]

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of which only 12 provide for arbitration clauses. In contrast, while the Arbitration procedure is also available, it is barely used in practice as the MAP procedure proves to be the most common form of resolution of tax treaty dispute resolutions in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailÄrgerbezogene kognitive Verhaltenstherapie eines Jugendlichen in der Heimunterbringung. Eine Fallgeschichte.
Reiser, Manon; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (in press)

Jugendliche aus stationären Einrichtungen (z.B. Heime) sind häufig von der Chronifizierung einer psychischen Störung bedroht [Schmid, 2007]. Unter anderem aufgrund von Traumatisierungen sind ... [more ▼]

Jugendliche aus stationären Einrichtungen (z.B. Heime) sind häufig von der Chronifizierung einer psychischen Störung bedroht [Schmid, 2007]. Unter anderem aufgrund von Traumatisierungen sind externalisierende Verhaltensprobleme, z.B. wiederholter unangemessener Ärgerausdruck, festzustellen, die einen Behandlungserfolg in Frage stellen. Erforderlich ist es daher problematische Ärgerreaktionen von Jugendlichen zu thematisieren, und den Umgang mit Ärger zu verändern. In dieser Falldarstellung wird die Umsetzung eines 10-wöchigen kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen Ärgerbewältigungstrainings [Schwenkmezger et al., 1999] bei einem fremdplatzierten verhaltensauffälligen Jugendlichen aufgezeigt [Steffgen et al., 2014]. Die eingesetzten testdiagnostischen Verfahren belegen, dass die Bereitschaft zu aggressiven Verhaltensweisen sowie des nach außen gerichteten Ärgerausdrucks reduziert, und die Ärgerkontrolle erhöht wurde. Insgesamt konnte die Wirksamkeit der programmgestützten Intervention am Einzelfall nachgewiesen werden. Jugendliche in der Heimunterbringung können somit durch die Teilnahme an einer Ärgerintervention Nutzen ziehen, indem sie lernen ihre Emotionsregulation zu optimieren, um dadurch ihre soziale Kompetenz zu erhöhen. Ihre gesellschaftliche Eingliederung ließe sich dadurch erleichtern. [less ▲]

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See detailA rare loss-of function variant of ADAM17 is associated with late-onset familial Alzheimer disease
Hartl, Daniela; May, Patrick UL; Gu, Wei UL et al

in Molecular Psychiatry (in press)

Common variants of about 20 genes contributing to AD risk have so far been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, there is still a large proportion of heritability that might ... [more ▼]

Common variants of about 20 genes contributing to AD risk have so far been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, there is still a large proportion of heritability that might be explained by rare but functionally important variants. One of the so far identified genes with rare AD causing variants is ADAM10. Using whole-genome sequencing we now identified a single rare nonsynonymous variant (SNV) rs142946965 [p.R215I] in ADAM17 co-segregating with an autosomal-dominant pattern of late-onset AD in one family. Subsequent genotyping and analysis of available whole-exome sequencing data of additional case/control samples from Germany, the UK and the USA identified five variant carriers among AD patients only. The mutation inhibits pro-protein cleavage and the formation of the active enzyme, thus leading to loss-of-function of ADAM17 α-secretase. Further, we identified a strong negative correlation between ADAM17 and APP gene expression in human brain and present in vitro evidence that ADAM17 negatively controls the expression of APP. As a consequence, p.R215I mutation of ADAM17 leads to elevated Aß formation in vitro. Together our data supports a causative association of the identified ADAM17 variant in the pathogenesis of AD. [less ▲]

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See detailHow unemployment scarring affects skilled young workers: evidence from a factorial survey of Swiss recruiters
Shi, Lulu P.; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Journal for Labour Market Research = Zeitschrift für Arbeitsmarktforschung (in press)

We ask how employers contribute to unemployment scarring in the recruitment process in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. By drawing on recruitment theories, we aim to better understand how ... [more ▼]

We ask how employers contribute to unemployment scarring in the recruitment process in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. By drawing on recruitment theories, we aim to better understand how recruiters assess different patterns of unemployment in a job candidate’s CV and how this affects the chances of young applicants being considered for a vacancy. We argue that in contexts with tight school-work linkage and highly standardised Vocational Education and Training (VET) systems, the detrimental effect of early unemployment depends on how well the applicant’s profile matches the requirements of the advertised position. To test this assumption, we surveyed Swiss recruiters who were seeking to fill positions during the time of data collection. We employed a factorial survey experiment that tested how the (un)employment trajectories in hypothetical young job applicants’ CVs affected their chances of being considered for a real vacancy. Our results show that unemployment decreases the perceived suitability of an applicant for a specific job, which implies there is a scarring effect of unemployment that increases with the duration of being unemployed. But we also found that these effects are moderated by how well the applicant’s profile matches the job’s requirements. Overall, the worse the match between applicant’s profile and the job profile, the smaller are the scarring effects of unemployment. In sum, our findings contribute to the literature by revealing considerable heterogeneity in the scarring effects of unemployment. Our findings further suggest that the scarring effects of unemployment need to be studied with regard to country-specific institutional settings, the applicants’ previous education and employment experiences, and the job characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detail‘État de droit’ : Why import the German term ‘Rechtsstaat’ ?
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Meierhenrich, Jens; Loughlin, Martin (Eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Rule of Law (in press)

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See detailReductions of elliptic curves
Perucca, Antonella UL

in Proceedings of the Roman Number Theory Association (2019), 4

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See detailTest Case Prioritization for Acceptance Testing of Cyber Physical Systems: A Multi-Objective Search-Based Approach
Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA'18) (2018, July)

Acceptance testing validates that a system meets its requirements and determines whether it can be sufficiently trusted and put into operation. For cyber physical systems (CPS), acceptance testing is a ... [more ▼]

Acceptance testing validates that a system meets its requirements and determines whether it can be sufficiently trusted and put into operation. For cyber physical systems (CPS), acceptance testing is a hardware-in-the-loop process conducted in a (near-)operational environment. Acceptance testing of a CPS often necessitates that the test cases be prioritized, as there are usually too many scenarios to consider given time constraints. CPS acceptance testing is further complicated by the uncertainty in the environment and the impact of testing on hardware. We propose an automated test case prioritization approach for CPS acceptance testing, accounting for time budget constraints, uncertainty, and hardware damage risks. Our approach is based on multi-objective search, combined with a test case minimization algorithm that eliminates redundant operations from an ordered sequence of test cases. We evaluate our approach on a representative case study from the satellite domain. The results indicate that, compared to test cases that are prioritized manually by satellite engineers, our automated approach more than doubles the number of test cases that fit into a given time frame, while reducing to less than one third the number of operations that entail the risk of damage to key hardware components. [less ▲]

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See detailHighway Network Block with Gates Constraints for Training Very Deep Networks
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Shabayek, Abd El Rahman UL; Aouada, Djamila UL et al

in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop, June 18-22, 2018 (2018, June 19)

In this paper, we propose to reformulate the learning of the highway network block to realize both early optimization and improved generalization of very deep networks while preserving the network depth ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose to reformulate the learning of the highway network block to realize both early optimization and improved generalization of very deep networks while preserving the network depth. Gate constraints are duly employed to improve optimization, latent representations and parameterization usage in order to efficiently learn hierarchical feature transformations which are crucial for the success of any deep network. One of the earliest very deep models with over 30 layers that was successfully trained relied on highway network blocks. Although, highway blocks suffice for alleviating optimization problem via improved information flow, we show for the first time that further in training such highway blocks may result into learning mostly untransformed features and therefore a reduction in the effective depth of the model; this could negatively impact model generalization performance. Using the proposed approach, 15-layer and 20-layer models are successfully trained with one gate and a 32-layer model using three gates. This leads to a drastic reduction of model parameters as compared to the original highway network. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Fashion-MNIST and USPS datasets are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Particularly, we outperform the original highway network and many state-ofthe- art results. To the best our knowledge, on the Fashion-MNIST and USPS datasets, the achieved results are the best reported in literature. [less ▲]

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See detailPOSTER: WLAN Device Fingerprinting using Channel State Information (CSI)
Adamsky, Florian UL; Retunskaia, Tatiana UL; Schiffner, Stefan UL et al

in 11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (ACM WiSec) (2018, June)

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See detailInclusive education in Luxembourg: implicit and explicit attitudes toward inclusion and students with special educational needs
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in International Journal of Inclusive Education (2018)

The aim of the current study was to investigate attitudes of Luxemburgish adults toward students with special educational needs (SEN) and their inclusion into mainstream schools. Positive attitudes can ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate attitudes of Luxemburgish adults toward students with special educational needs (SEN) and their inclusion into mainstream schools. Positive attitudes can facilitate inclusion, furthering the acceptance of students with SEN. Implicit and explicit attitudes may have differential impact on behaviour toward students with SEN, however, to date, there is little research combining explicit and implicit attitudes measurement tools. Participants (N = 161) completed an evaluative priming task, the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education in the Population questionnaire as well as the German version of the Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale. Results show that participants expressed positive attitudes toward inclusive education in general. Participantś implicit attitudes toward students with differing types of SEN varied, with neutral attitudes toward students with learning difficulties and negative attitudes toward students with challenging behaviour. In addition, participantś explicit attitudes toward the inclusion of students with learning difficulties or challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms were negative. In sum, although people may support the general idea of inclusion, when asked about their attitudes toward students with specific types of SEN, and the inclusion of these students in mainstream schools, participantś attitudes were rather negative. The implications of these findings for the inclusion and acceptance of students with SEN in education and society are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification patterns and subjective well-being in native and migrant emerging adults: The mediating role of self-efficacy
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL

Poster (2018, May 18)

Background: Luxembourg is one of the most diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of 47%. National identification processes become complex for young adults growing up in this ... [more ▼]

Background: Luxembourg is one of the most diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of 47%. National identification processes become complex for young adults growing up in this multicultural context with important implications for psychological outcomes. Research has shown that salience of national identification is heightened within this multicultural context (Murdock, Hirst, & Ferring, 2014) while higher levels of national identification are associated with life satisfaction and better health outcomes. Other findings suggest that intercultural contact can contribute to the development of a shared identity in highly diverse areas. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in identification patterns among native and non-native emerging adults and potential factors that mediate their impact on subjective well-being. As the native population is almost in the minority within its own country, we wanted to explore the relationships between well-being, ethnic, and transnational identification among this group. Methods: The sample included 260 young adults, ranging from 18 to 29 years old (M = 21.78, SD = 2.36). Participants were native citizens of Luxembourg and immigrants from different ethnic backgrounds. They completed standardized self-report questionnaires, including the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Identification with Luxembourg was assessed with the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Based on previous studies (van de Vijver et al, 2015), a 7-item scale was developed for the assessment of cosmopolitan/transnational identification, including items that assess beliefs about global citizenship and the level of contact with people from different ethnic groups. Results: All participants reported high levels of Luxembourgish and cosmopolitan identification with average scores M = 3.23 (SD = .79) and M = 4.15 (SD = .49) respectively. There were no significant differences for Luxembourgish identification and well-being between natives and non-natives but participants with migratory background scored significantly higher on the cosmopolitan identity scale. Luxembourgish and cosmopolitan identity correlated positively with self-efficacy in both groups and self-efficacy perceptions were positively related to well-being. To examine the direct and indirect relationships among these variables, we tested path mediation models with the two identity domains as predictors. The first model tested the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between identification patterns and well-being among native Luxembourgish citizens. The model showed a good fit χ²(1, N = 112) = .087, p = .768, RMSEA = .000, CFI = 1.00, indicating that ethnic identity was a significant predictor of self-efficacy perceptions which indeed mediated the effect of ethnic identification on well-being. Ethnic and transnational identification were not directly associated with the outcome variable. A second path model tested these relationships in the immigrant group χ²(1, N =145) = 2.452, p = .117, RMSEA = .100, CFI = .946. Neither identity component (Luxembourgish or cosmopolitan identity) was a significant predictor of subjective well-being but the findings suggest a mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between transnational identification and well-being. Discussion: The present study contributes to the literature by exploring potential individual difference variables that affect the link between identification patterns and life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évaluation du système scolaire par les "Épreuves Standardisées" au Luxembourg
Ugen, Sonja UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailSmall RNA profiling of low biomass samples: identification and removal of contaminants
Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Kaysen, Anne UL et al

in BMC Biology (2018), 16(52),

Background: Sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and ... [more ▼]

Background: Sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA contamination has been previously reported, however contamination with RNA is usually considered to be unlikely due to its inherent instability. Small RNAs (sRNAs) identified in tissues and bodily fluids such as blood plasma, have implications for physiology and pathology, and therefore the potential to act as disease biomarkers. Thus, the possibility for RNA contaminants demands a careful evaluation. Results: Here we report the presence of small RNA contaminants in widely used microRNA extraction kits and propose an approach for their depletion. We sequenced sRNAs extracted from human plasma samples and detected important levels of non-human (exogenous) sequences whose source could be traced to the microRNA extraction columns through a careful qPCR-based analysis of several laboratory reagents. Furthermore, we also detected the presence of artefactual sequences related to these contaminants in a range of published datasets, arguing for a re-evaluation of reports suggesting the presence of exogenous RNAs of microbial and dietary origins in blood plasma. To avoid artefacts in future experiments, we also devise several protocols of contaminant RNAs, define minimal amounts of starting material for artefact-free analyses, and confirm the reduction of contaminant levels for identification of bona fide sequences using ‘ultra-clean’ extraction kits. Conclusion: This is the first report of the presence of RNA molecules as contaminants in RNA extraction kits. The described protocols should be applied in the future to avoid confounding sRNA studies. [less ▲]

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See detailLa présence militaire belge en Allemagne 1945-2004: une esquisse
Brüll, Christoph UL

Presentation (2018, May 14)

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See detailWozu Mittelalterforschung?
Pauly, Michel UL

Article for general public (2018)

Deutsche Fassung der Rede bei Gelegenheit von 30 Jahren Centre luxembourgeois de documentation et d'études médiévales (CLUDEM)

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See detailEnvironmental economic geography and environmental inequality: challenges and new research prospects
Braun, Boris; Oßenbrügge; Schulz, Christian UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2018), 62(2), 120-134

The environmental dimension and sustainability- related issues have increasingly gained momentum in Economic Geography. This paper argues that integrating the inequality perspective into Environmental ... [more ▼]

The environmental dimension and sustainability- related issues have increasingly gained momentum in Economic Geography. This paper argues that integrating the inequality perspective into Environmental Economic Geography (EEG) and trying to disentangle the manifold interrelationships between economic, social, and environmental disadvantage could be worthwhile efforts. Based on three case studies – the debate on urban environmental justice in German cities, the spread of alternative food systems and food-sharing initiatives in Germany, and the socially selective migration in hazard prone areas in rural coastal Bangladesh – we demonstrate that aspects of social inequality indeed matter for EEG thinking. [less ▲]

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