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See detailRecent Successes with a Meta-Logical Approach to Universal Logical Reasoning (Extended Abstract)
Benzmüller, Christoph UL

in Benzmüller, Christoph (Ed.) Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications - 20th Brazilian Symposium SBMF 2017, Recife, Brazil, November 29 - December 1, 2017, Proceedings (2017, November 11)

The quest for a most general framework supporting universal reasoning is very prominently represented in the works of Leibniz. He envisioned a scientia generalis founded on a characteristica universalis ... [more ▼]

The quest for a most general framework supporting universal reasoning is very prominently represented in the works of Leibniz. He envisioned a scientia generalis founded on a characteristica universalis, that is, a most universal formal language in which all knowledge about the world and the sciences can be encoded. A quick study of the survey literature on logical formalisms suggests that quite the opposite to Leibniz’ dream has become reality. Instead of a characteristica universalis, we are today facing a very rich and heterogenous zoo of different logical systems, and instead of converging towards a single superior logic, this logic zoo is further expanding, eventually even at accelerated pace. As a consequence, the unified vision of Leibniz seems farther away than ever before. However, there are also some promising initiatives to counteract these diverging developments. Attempts at unifying approaches to logic include categorial logic algebraic logic and coalgebraic logic. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Locating Malicious Code in Piggybacked Android Apps
Li, Li UL; Li, Daoyuan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Journal of Computer Science & Technology (2017)

To devise efficient approaches and tools for detecting malicious packages in the Android ecosystem, researchers are increasingly required to have a deep understanding of malware. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

To devise efficient approaches and tools for detecting malicious packages in the Android ecosystem, researchers are increasingly required to have a deep understanding of malware. There is thus a need to provide a framework for dissecting malware and locating malicious program fragments within app code in order to build a comprehensive dataset of malicious samples. Towards addressing this need, we propose in this work a tool-based approach called HookRanker, which provides ranked lists of potentially malicious packages based on the way malware behaviour code is triggered. With experiments on a ground truth of piggybacked apps, we are able to automatically locate the malicious packages from piggybacked Android apps with an accuracy@5 of 83.6% for such packages that are triggered through method invocations and an accuracy@5 of 82.2% for such packages that are triggered independently. [less ▲]

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See detailEducational Trajectories Through Secondary Education in Luxembourg: How does Permeability Affect Educational Inequalities?
Backes, Susanne; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista Svizzera di Scienze dell' Educazione = Revue Suisse des Sciences de l'Education (2017), 39(3), 437-460

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the ... [more ▼]

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the possibility of increasing permeability between school tracks to reduce inequalities. This paper focuses on the occurrence of permeability in the stratified school system of Luxembourg and examines what this permeability entails for certain risk groups, specifically students from lower social background, male students and migrants. Educational pathways were classified (cluster analysis) on the basis of an administrative panel data set (n=5301); mechanisms behind educational decisions were analysed as a second step by estimating logistic regressions (Boudon, 1974). The findings show that reorientations in Luxembourg are often determined by the students’ social group, and that permeability – as blurred educational boundaries – mainly reproduces disparities in track placement. Introduction [less ▲]

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See detailTax Treaty Disputes in Germany
Haslehner, Werner UL

in Eduardo, Baistrocchi (Ed.) A Global Analysis of Tax Treaty Disputes (2017)

Germany has been at the centre of international tax law development for more than 100 years: it is the birthplace of the first-ever double taxation convention, the home of the first and most cited ... [more ▼]

Germany has been at the centre of international tax law development for more than 100 years: it is the birthplace of the first-ever double taxation convention, the home of the first and most cited international commentary on double taxation conventions, and the source of an unsurpassed number of court decisions dealing with problems of international tax law over the course of more than a century. It is not clear, however, that the development of the German perspective on international tax law as perceived through the lens of tax treaty disputes is driven by a coherent policy or overarching objective. Rather, it would appear to emerge as the outcome of the different roles taken on by the German institutions with relevance in international tax policy, such as the legislator, tax administration, and national courts. While this contribution aims at elucidating the development of Germany’s perspective on international taxation, it is thus cautious not to attribute a unitary purpose underlying this development, but to showcase the different elements that have been important for it. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal History: Luxembourg, Schaifmillen. SCHLEIFMÜHLE – GESCHICHTE EINES IMPERIUMS
Ganschow, Inna UL

Article for general public (2017)

The story of one of the most successful jewish families in Luxemburg in the 19th and 20th century - the Godchaux.

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See detailMechanizing Principia Logico-Metaphysica in Functional Type Theory
Kirchner, Daniel; Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Zalta, Edward N.

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Principia Logico-Metaphysica proposes a foundational logical theory for metaphysics, mathematics, and the sciences. It contains a canonical development of Abstract Object Theory [AOT], a metaphysical ... [more ▼]

Principia Logico-Metaphysica proposes a foundational logical theory for metaphysics, mathematics, and the sciences. It contains a canonical development of Abstract Object Theory [AOT], a metaphysical theory (inspired by ideas of Ernst Mally, formalized by Zalta) that differentiates between ordinary and abstract objects. This article reports on recent work in which AOT has been successfully represented and partly automated in the proof assistant system Isabelle/HOL. [less ▲]

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See detailWWII, Interview: "L'amour de la vie l'emporte toujours"
Ganschow, Inna UL; Braun, Frederic

Article for general public (2017)

Inna Ganschow a exploré le destin des Ostarbeiter, ces «travailleurs de l'Est» soviétiques que l'occupant nazi avait déportés par milliers au Luxembourg pour les faire travailler, dans la sidérurgie ... [more ▼]

Inna Ganschow a exploré le destin des Ostarbeiter, ces «travailleurs de l'Est» soviétiques que l'occupant nazi avait déportés par milliers au Luxembourg pour les faire travailler, dans la sidérurgie principalement. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning Finite Automata via Flexible State-Merging and Applications in Networking
Hammerschmidt, Christian UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Being able to model behavior described by a linear sequence of observations (such as log files) goes a long way towards better understanding the underlying processes. This improved understanding can be ... [more ▼]

Being able to model behavior described by a linear sequence of observations (such as log files) goes a long way towards better understanding the underlying processes. This improved understanding can be very helpful in a number of activities, ranging from software (reverse) engineering to network traffic analysis. The developments in this thesis were driven by specific goals in predicting (human) behaviors captured by a software appliance observing network traffic and user requests to specific resources. Its final contributions have exceeded the original goals of the project in two important ways: I present (1) a flexible learning algorithm for finite automata accompanied by theoretical underpinning and its implementation, a contribution towards better learning algorithms, and (2) applications of the algorithm to use-cases in computer networking and beyond. The central algorithm considered in the thesis is a blue-fringe state-merging automaton learning algorithm, conducting a greedy search over feasible solutions. Its key components are a heuristic to search for consistent merges and an evaluation metric to assess the quality of a merge by assigning scores to merges. I generalize this framework by making the heuristic components explicitly parametric. While state-merging algorithms were originally defined for probabilistic and non-probabilistic finite state machines and later used to derive algorithms for more extended models such as real-time automata, the work presented here extends the scope of the algorithms to a wide range of ad-hoc defined models as well as enables the user to implement modifications to the heuristic search process. These modifications help to account for domain knowledge and richer semantics of models with a regular language core. I provide an implementation and a Python interface of the flexible state-merging framework, including stream/online and interactive variants of the algorithm based on a C++ implementation of the blue-fringe greedy search algorithm called DFASAT. The algorithm and the framework encompass and improve upon state-of-the-art approaches. The application problems considered in this thesis can be seen as classical classification and anomaly detection tasks in machine learning. The application domain is network traffic analysis with a focus on network security. I discuss the problematic properties of data from computer networks and address how using automaton models can help mitigate them. I then use the flexible state-merging approach for host profiling. I show how to efficiently learn finite state automata as behavioral profiles. These profiles can serve as digital fingerprints and help to identify malicious traffic such as botnet traffic. Moreover, I show how communication profiles can be used for sequence clustering on NetFlow data to distinguish different behaviors over time. [less ▲]

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See detailAPPROACHES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL AND POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION USING TIME-SERIES EPIGENOMIC DATA
Gerard, Déborah UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular differentiation and development and recapitulate the physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their influence on their target genes ... [more ▼]

Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular differentiation and development and recapitulate the physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their influence on their target genes that ultimately results into a defined cell phenotype. In addition, cellular differentiation represents the path a cell undergoes through multiple stages before reaching a terminally differentiated state and is by nature dynamic. Moreover, epigenetic regulation as well as post-transcriptional control of gene expression are critical for faithful cellular phenotype. Cellular differentiation of progenitor cells into their daughter cells provide a dynamic controllable system to study the epigenetic mechanisms as well as the transcriptional output that take place towards cellular specifications, and the TFs and non-coding RNAs that dictate their differentiation. Here, we have generated time-series transcriptomic and epigenomic data during the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells towards adipocytes and osteoblasts and characterized a novel approach called EPIC-DREM to construct dynamic GRNs of adipocytes and osteoblasts. In order to focus on shared transcriptional regulators of early commitment of bone marrow stromal cells towards adipocytes and osteoblasts, we have concentrated our analysis on dynamic super-enhancers to prioritize the identified TFs and discovered aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) as a transcriptional regulator of the multipotent state. In addition, the generated of time-series epigenomic data were used as input for linear regression analysis that allowed to predict genes that are dynamically controlled by post-transcriptional regulators such as microRNAs (miRs). Indeed, genes that differ from their predicted expression level as assessed by the residuals of the linear regression model can be informative about their mRNA stability. In order to decipher genes that are under dynamic post-transcriptional control, the standard deviation of gene’s residuals was taken as a dynamic measure of changes in mRNA stability and clustering analysis coupled to microRNA motifs enrichment analysis allowed to identify post-transcriptionally co-regulated mRNAs. Based on the linear regressions analysis, miR-204 was identified as a potential regulator of adipogenesis. Integration of these types of data can contribute to the understanding of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of cell differentiation and the here established approaches for key regulators identification can be widely applied to study other cell states transitions. [less ▲]

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See detailGCAI 2017. 3rd Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Lisetti, Christine; Theobald, Martin

Book published by EasyChair Proceedings (2017)

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See detailWWII, Interview: Ungefährliche Archive
Ganschow, Inna UL; Caregari, Luc

Article for general public (2017)

Im Interview geht Ganschow darauf ein, wie sie den Kontakt zum Russischen Militärarchiv herstellte, so dass die Personalakten der Luxemburger Zwangsrekrutierten aus Tambow nun gescannt und für die ... [more ▼]

Im Interview geht Ganschow darauf ein, wie sie den Kontakt zum Russischen Militärarchiv herstellte, so dass die Personalakten der Luxemburger Zwangsrekrutierten aus Tambow nun gescannt und für die Forschung zugänglich gemacht werden [less ▲]

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See detailGeneral and Specific Contributions of RAN to Reading and Arithmetic Fluency in First Graders: A Longitudinal Latent Variable Approach
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017)

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a general cognitive perspective. We investigated whether rapid naming measures (e.g., digit RAN and color RAN) reflect a mainly domain-general factor or domain-specific factors. In a second step, we examined how the best fitting RAN model was related to reading and arithmetic outcomes, assessed several months later. Finally in a third step we took a clinical perspective and investigated specific contributions of RAN measures to reading and arithmetic outcomes. While RAN has emerged as a promising predictor of reading, the relationship between RAN and arithmetic has been less examined in the past. Hundred and twenty-two first graders completed seven RAN tasks, each comprising visually familiar stimuli such as digits, vowels, consonants, dice, finger-numeral configurations, objects, and colors. Four months later the same children completed a range of reading and arithmetic tasks. From a general descriptive perspective, structural equation modeling supports a one-dimensional RAN factor in 6- to -7-year-old children. However, from a clinical perspective, our findings emphasize the specific contributions of RANs. Interestingly, alphanumeric RANs (i.e., vowel RAN) were most promising when predicting reading skills and number-specific RANs (i.e., finger-numeral configuration RAN) were most promising when predicting arithmetic fluency. The implications for clinical and educational practices will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Migration in Luxembourg - SOPEMI Report 2017
Tüske, Annamaria UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

While the proportion of Luxembourgish nationals among the resident working population was above 50.3% in 2015, it dropped below 50% in the first quarter of 2017. Some 44% of the working population were ... [more ▼]

While the proportion of Luxembourgish nationals among the resident working population was above 50.3% in 2015, it dropped below 50% in the first quarter of 2017. Some 44% of the working population were EU28 nationals and 6% non-EU nationals. Luxembourg’s economy is reliant on its employment of cross-border workers. In 2016, French nationals maintained and increased their proportion of over 50% of the cross-border working population, reaching 51.4% in Q1 2017, at the expense of both Belgian (24.4%) and German (24.2%) cross-border workers. They mainly work in sectors such as construction, administrative/support service, accommodation/food service, as well as in the financial/insurance sector or professional, scientific and technical activities. Between 2010 and 2017, the number of foreign salaried workers showed the greatest continuous increase in sectors such as professional, scientific and technical activities, administrative and support services, and financial and insurance services. Regarding specific permits, nationals of China (119 permits), India (70 permits) and Montenegro (40 permits) accounted for 31% of all first issues of residence permits for salaried workers. Indian nationals were the single largest nationality group receiving their first issue of EU Blue Cards, with 90 issued during 2016. This was followed by US nationals (58 permits) and Russian nationals (36 permits). After reaching a peak in 2015, the number of applications for international protection slightly decreased in 2016, from 2447 in 2015 to 2035 in 2016 (decrease of 16.8%). Even if the trend slowed down, it remains higher than the levels of 2013-2015. Syrian nationals remain the first nationality of applicants for international protection (14.3%), Iraqi nationals dropping to 4th place (7.9%) after Albanian nationals (11.2%) and Kosovars (10.2%). Luxembourg remains the Member State hosting the 4th highest number of applicants for international protection applicants in relation to the national population. The international protection recognition rate increased from 228 (200 refugee status and 28 subsidiary protection) in 2015 to 790 (764 refugee status and 26 subsidiary protection) in 2016. This represents an increase of 246.5% of positive decisions year-on-year. Luxembourg continues to demonstrate its solidarity in respect of the relocation and resettlement of international protection applicants. In 2015, Luxembourg pledged to relocate 557 individuals to Luxembourg in the framework of the EU Council decision to relocate 160,000 international protection applicants from Greece and Italy. Within this framework, 197 refugees had been relocated by the end of 2016. From January 2017 to 18 August 2017, Luxembourg relocated 186 people. With regards to resettlement, 52 refugees were resettled from Turkey in 2016 as a result of Luxembourg’s pledge to resettle 194 refugees from Turkey in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016. 115 people were resettled between 1st January 2017 and 18th August 2017. New pieces of legislation were enacted during 2016/2017 to assist with the specific migration situation in Luxembourg. Major policy developments related to the implementation of changes to asylum legislation and procedures, education and language reform, and revised integration measures in response to changing migration profiles within Luxembourg. A focus on economic migration took place to promote economic diversification, start-ups and the repositioning of the financial centre. [less ▲]

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See detailUsage public normalisé ou anormal: Kant et les Lumières face à Jeffrey Stout
Burks, Deven UL

in Ruffing, Margit; Grapotte, Sophie; Lequan, Mai (Eds.) Kant: L’année 1784: Droit et philosophie de l’histoire (2017, October)

Dans “Réponse à la question: Qu’est-ce que les Lumières?”, Kant se donne pour tâche de garantir “la plus inoffensive de toutes les libertés, celle de faire publiquement usage de sa raison en toutes ... [more ▼]

Dans “Réponse à la question: Qu’est-ce que les Lumières?”, Kant se donne pour tâche de garantir “la plus inoffensive de toutes les libertés, celle de faire publiquement usage de sa raison en toutes choses” et, par là même, de fonder le progrès des lumières dans un discours public de type normalisé. La démarche de Kant se révèle normalisante dans la mesure où elle “rend commensurable toute contribution au discours dans un domaine” (Jeffrey Stout, Ethics After Babel, p. 294, ma traduction): dans l’usage public, tout interlocuteur part d’un vocabulaire épuré, “à titre de savant”, pour s’adresser à un public de “lecteurs” de sorte que tout autre interlocuteur peut accepter les raisons du premier, peu importe sa fonction dans la société. Une telle normalisation des conditions de pratiques discursives peut-elle réellement faire progresser la société humaine comme le prétend Kant? Certes, un discours normalisé rend compte de la fragmentation de l’autorité dans la société moderne. Mais il résiste à l’effort de certains interlocuteurs, peu satisfaits de ses prétentions libérales fondationnalistes, d’y apporter des éléments justificatifs issus non pas des usages publics de la raison mais de ceux dits “privés”. Car, pour Jeffrey Stout, la discussion qui fait réellement progresser la société cosmopolite passe par l’écoute, “l’interaction conversationnelle” et la critique improvisée dans un “discours anormal” (idem.). À force de vouloir fixer les critères du débat en avance, on le rendrait en même temps stérile. Si cela constitue une critique forte d’un discours normalisé kantien dont les principes sont fondationnalistes, il n’exclut nullement un discours normalisé kantien de type non-fondationnaliste. A cet effet, il suffirait de supposer une raison pratique et un discours modaux, sensibles aux particularités des interlocuteurs, selon lesquels l’usage public exige des interlocuteurs des raisons qui pourraient être adoptées de façon cohérente par tout interlocuteur dans le domaine en question (cf. Towards justice and virtue, Onora O’Neill). Dans cet optique modal, l’usage public résiste-il mieux ou finit-il par se rapprocher de ses critiques plus qu’on ne le soupçonne? [less ▲]

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See detailStout’s unconstrained discourse: Does reason-giving apply across the board?
Burks, Deven UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October)

If considerable scholarly attention has, to this point, focused on the content permitted in Jeffrey Stout’s pragmatist-expressivist account of political discourse and justification as reason-giving, set ... [more ▼]

If considerable scholarly attention has, to this point, focused on the content permitted in Jeffrey Stout’s pragmatist-expressivist account of political discourse and justification as reason-giving, set out in 2004’s Democracy and Tradition, little enough has been said on the scope which he envisions therefor. Can time-consuming and intensely individual reason-giving shape institutional and governmental discourse in the same way as it does face-to-face encounters, associational life and broad-based organizing? While one can concede that unconstrained discourse and appeal to an individual standpoint are appropriate to building consensus and legitimacy in the latter forms, as 2010’s Blessed are the Organized purports to show, one may nonetheless harbour doubts whether public officials could likewise engage in earnest personal narration and exchange of individual perspectives. For, despite the limited number of participants, it remains an open question whether such discourse represents either an appropriate or a practicable way of proceeding in such settings. Indeed, Stout’s own questions, in his 2010 book, as to the efficacy of grassroots groups and broad-based organizing at the state, national or international level, may leave one with the impression that there exists a gap between the individual and associational context and the institutional and governmental. This leaves us with two questions going forwards about unconstrained discourse and the individual standpoint. First, are these different settings sufficiently similar such that Stout’s version of political discourse displaces liberal public reason in institutional and governmental settings? Otherwise, does the former merely complement the latter, contrary to Stout’s assertions? Second, from a systemic point of view, is Stout’s version of public discourse deliberatively net-positive? In other words, as formulated, can it make an important contribution to the balance of the overall deliberative system? If these questions do not admit of an unqualified yes or no, there is reason to suspect that Stout’s account cannot be implemented equally at all levels of political discourse. In the end, we will argue that unconstrained discourse and the individual standpoint, while salutary, are incomplete in themselves and are best suited to a complementary role in institutional and governmental settings as, at most, one tactic among others. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal History: Differdange, De klenge Casino. DAS KLEINE CASINO IN DIFFERDINGEN: SALVE!
Ganschow, Inna UL

Article for general public (2017)

The story of the so called "Small Casino" on the main market place of Differdange - build as a pharmacy, transformed in to a restaurant.

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See detailHuman-Robot Cooperation in Surface Inspection Aerial Missions
Molina, Martin; Frau, Pedro; Maraval, Dario et al

in 2017 International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition (IMAV), Toulouse, France, 18-21 Septembre 2017 (2017, September 21)

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of ... [more ▼]

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of human collaborative control with a mixed ini- tiative interaction. In the paper, we present our human-robot cooperation model based on the combination of a supervisory mode and an as- sistance mode with a set of interaction patterns. We developed a software system implementing this interaction model and carried out several real flight experiments that proved that this ap- proach can be used in aerial robotics for sur- face inspection missions (e.g., in vision based indoor missions). Compared to a conventional tele-operated inspection system, the solution pre- sented in this paper gives more autonomy to the aerial systems, reducing the cognitive load of the operator during the mission development. [less ▲]

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See detailANALYSIS OF NEURONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN GENETIC FORMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE REVEALS A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL CONTRIBUTION
Walter, Jonas UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

During the mammalian embryonic neurodevelopment, all neurons descend from neuroepithelial stem cells. Accumulating evidences indicate a contribution of neurodevelopmental processes to the vulnerability to ... [more ▼]

During the mammalian embryonic neurodevelopment, all neurons descend from neuroepithelial stem cells. Accumulating evidences indicate a contribution of neurodevelopmental processes to the vulnerability to diseases. Here, we elucidate such developmental contribution in the context of Parkinson’s disease by combining high content imaging approaches, single-cell RNA sequencing, 3D image analysis, and multifactorial functional mitochondrial readouts. We found that the prominent PD-associated LRRK2-G2019S mutation accelerates dopaminergic neuron differentiation, accompanied by a reduced viability, resulting in indistinguishable dopaminergic neuron quantities. Our data indicate that the unexpected dynamics is driven by LRRK2-G2019S-dependent aberrations in gene expression as well as mitochondrial health and biogenesis of the neuroepithelial stem cell population. We conclude that LRRK2-G2019S modifies the dynamics of dopaminergic neuron fate specification during development, what may constitute a predisposition to parts of the PD-associated clinical manifestations. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing the journey of the New Math reform from the United States to Luxembourg in the 1960s and 1970s
Nadimi Amiri, Shaghayegh UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This research investigates the process of the New Math, an internationally disseminated reform of school mathematics in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, during the 1960s and 1970s. This mathematics reform ... [more ▼]

This research investigates the process of the New Math, an internationally disseminated reform of school mathematics in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, during the 1960s and 1970s. This mathematics reform was propagated in the Western side of the Cold War to promote the mathematical and scientific power of Western countries. With this initial objective as a core of the study, the research then expands the area of the research to look at the mathematics education in the western countries. Timewise also, this expansion goes beyond the 1960s and 1970s, the era of the New Math reform. Thus, in a broader perspective, the research attempts to study what school policymakers expect from school mathematics historically in Western countries. It studies how the background idea and reasoning of the New Math reform through the journey of the reform from the United States to Europe and Luxembourg was changed and adapted to be applicable in the educational context of Luxembourg. The three main questions of the research are: 1 How was the New Math reform received and advanced in Luxembourg? 2 What did Luxembourgers expect from their school mathematics? Or Why students in Luxembourg should learn mathematics? 3 What was the reasoning behind mathematics education in Western countries through the history of schooling? The research began by exploratory methods to clear the property of the research and to determine the data collection method and other features that research needed to improve its design. This approach led to a collection of data including documents related to the context of Luxembourg, and context outside Luxembourg. This collection included both primary and secondary sources. The research studied texts of laws, regulations, newspapers, conference proceedings of the era, mathematics textbooks, teacher journals and other officially published sources as well as unpublished sources such as correspondences between different actors related to the school system and math education. For reading and analyzing data, the research was inspired by Foucault’s archeological approach in historical research and the study of different layers, which shape the discourse. In addition to Foucault, Popkewitz (e.g., 1997, 2009; Popkewitz & Lindblad, 2004) and Hacking (2012) inspired the work in developing the historical study of the reasoning. The research indicated two paradigms, which shaped the answers to the questions “why students should learn mathematics.” The first paradigm supports the reasoning, which argues that mathematics education should improve thinking ability, mental power and intellectuality. The research showed that these two paradigms shaped the discourse before and during the New Math reform and in different contexts and culture. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal History: Beggen, Castle. EIN SCHLOSS, DAS KEINES IST
Ganschow, Inna UL

Article for general public (2017)

The story of the Mansion Emile Metz (1835-1904) called Castle fo Beggen which after the WWII became the residence of the Soviet and later Russian embassy.

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 UL)