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See detailStatic and fatigue strength of a novel anatomically contoured implant compared to five current open-wedge high tibial osteotomy plates
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Belsey, James et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2017), 4(39),

Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate “Activmotion” with the following five other common implants for ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate “Activmotion” with the following five other common implants for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis: the TomoFix small stature, the TomoFix standard, the Contour Lock, the iBalance and the second generation PEEKPower. Methods Six fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), according to standard techniques, using size 2 Activmotion osteotomy plates. All bone-implant constructs were subjected to static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclic fatigue failure testing, according to a previously defined testing protocol. The mechanical stability was investigated by considering different criteria and parameters: maximum forces, the maximum number of loading cycles, stiffness, the permanent plastic deformation of the specimens during the cyclic fatigue tests, and the maximum displacement range in the hysteresis loops of the cyclic loading responses. Results In each test, all bone-implant constructs with the size 2 Activmotion plate failed with a fracture of the lateral cortex, like with the other five previously tested implants. For the static compression tests the failure occurred in each tested implant above the physiological loading of slow walking (> 2400 N). The load at failure for the Activmotion group was the highest (8200 N). In terms of maximum load and number of cycles performed prior to failure, the size 2 Activmotion plate showed higher results than all the other tested implants except the ContourLock plate. The iBalance implant offered the highest stiffness (3.1 kN/mm) for static loading on the lateral side, while the size 2 Activmotion showed the highest stiffness (4.8 kN/mm) in cyclic loading. Conclusions Overall, regarding all of the analysed strength parameters, the size 2 Activmotion plate provided equivalent or higher mechanical stability compared to the previously tested implant. Implants with a metaphyseal slope adapted to the tibia anatomy, and positioned more anteriorly on the proximal medial side of the tibia, should provide good mechanical stability. [less ▲]

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See detailA finite element model of the lower limb during stance phase of gait cycle including the muscle forces
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean et al

in BioMedical Engineering OnLine (2017), 16(138),

Abstract Background Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities of daily life, are considered in the finite element modelling. So far, many simplifications of the boundary conditions are currently made. This study presents an approach for FE modelling of the lower limb for which muscle forces were included. Method The stance phase of normal gait was simulated. Muscle forces were calculated using a musculoskeletal rigid body (RB) model of the human body, and were subsequently applied to a FE model of the lower limb. It was shown that the inertial forces are negligible during the stance phase of normal gait. The contact surfaces between the parts within the knee were modelled as bonded. Weak springs were attached to the distal tibia for numerical reasons. Results Hip joint reaction forces from the RB model and those from the FE model were similar in magnitude with relative differences less than 16%. The forces of the weak spring were negligible compared to the applied muscle forces. The maximal strain was 0.23% in the proximal region of the femoral diaphysis and 1.7% in the contact zone between the tibia and the fibula. Conclusions The presented approach based on FE modelling by including muscle forces from inverse dynamic analysis of musculoskeletal RB model can be used to perform analyses of the lower limb with very realistic boundary conditions. In the present form, this model can be used to better understand the loading, stresses and strains of bones in the knee area and hence to analyse osteotomy fixation devices. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Technology - Arsenal for a Shariah-Compliant Financial Ecosystem
Lacasse, Rcihard-Marc; Lambert, Berthe; Khan, Nida UL

Scientific Conference (2017, December 05)

The authors’ first challenge is to decipher the complexity of Islamic Finance despite the opacity of the sector. A second focal point is the agent’s agenda; in the Islamic Finance industry, contributors ... [more ▼]

The authors’ first challenge is to decipher the complexity of Islamic Finance despite the opacity of the sector. A second focal point is the agent’s agenda; in the Islamic Finance industry, contributors mandate intermediaries (agents) to transfer their contributions to social causes according to the Shariah; in principle, Islamic financial institutions must create value for their stakeholders by offering Shariah-compliant products and services. An underlying assumption of agency theory is that agents attempt to maximize their personal welfare and compensation, but such behaviour may not always be in the best interests of other stakeholders, and an analysis of the agent’s agenda can help explain how agents can fall off the pedestal of altruism. Relationships between Islamic banks and three key stakeholders (contributors, beneficiaries and regulators) are also explored via a complexity-aware monitoring process. Contributors provide funds to an Islamic bank (agent), and in return, the agent should be accountable to the contributors, but the form and degree of accountability can vary depending on the organization’s mission. There are many unanswered questions regarding the monitoring process. One objective of the article is to consider whether agents act in the best interests of the stakeholders. Finally, the authors explore the following question: Can blockchain technology and smart contracts support and enhance the transparency feature, which is the core underlying principle of all transactions in the Islamic Finance industry? A qualitative research framework was adopted because of the constraints of the enigmatic, secretive Islamic Finance culture. [less ▲]

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See detailPatrimoine et identités
Kmec, Sonja UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

A partir de deux exemples du Luxembourg - les vieux quartiers et fortifications de la Ville de Luxembourg (patrimoine mondial depuis 1994) et la procession dansante d’Echternach (patrimoine culturel ... [more ▼]

A partir de deux exemples du Luxembourg - les vieux quartiers et fortifications de la Ville de Luxembourg (patrimoine mondial depuis 1994) et la procession dansante d’Echternach (patrimoine culturel immatériel depuis 2010) - cette conférence se penche sur les arguments avancés en faveur de leur inscription et les critères appliqués. Elle décrit trois types de discours qui relient patrimoine et identités. La conférence sera diffusée sur la radio 100,7. [less ▲]

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See detailWWII: Die Suche nach dem alten Freund
Ganschow, Inna UL

Article for general public (2017)

The article treats a friendship between a Soviet POW and a Luxemburger in 1944, both working at the Reichsbahn under the German occupation in Luxembourg.

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See detailDas postfaktische Drängen des Buchstaben in Zeiten rechtlich-sprachlicher Entgrenzung
Becker, Katrin UL

Presentation (2017, December 01)

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See detailCombined Use of Lifecycle Management and IoT in Smart Cities
Hefnawy, Ahmed; Elhariri, Taha; Bouras, Abdelaziz et al

in Combined Use of Lifecycle Management and IoT in Smart Cities (2017, December)

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See detailMechanical strength assessment of a drilled hole in the contralateral cortex at the end of the open wedge for high tibial osteotomy.
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Hoffmann, Alexander et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2017), 4(1),

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate, by means of finite element analysis, the effect of a drill hole at the end of a horizontal osteotomy to reduce the risk of lateral cortex fracture while ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate, by means of finite element analysis, the effect of a drill hole at the end of a horizontal osteotomy to reduce the risk of lateral cortex fracture while performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The question was whether drilling a hole relieves stress and increases the maximum correction angle without fracture of the lateral cortex depending on the ductility of the cortical bone. METHODS: Two different types of osteotomy cuts were considered; one with a drill hole (diameter 5 mm) and the other without the hole. The drill holes were located about 20 mm distally to the tibial plateau and 6 mm medially to the lateral cortex, such that the minimal thickness of the contralateral cortical bone was 5 mm. Based on finite element calculations, two approaches were used to compare the two types of osteotomy cuts considered: (1) Assessing the static strength using local stresses following the idea of the FKM-guideline, subsequently referred to as the "FKM approach" and (2) limiting the total strain during the opening of the osteotomy wedge, subsequently referred to as "strain approach". A critical opening angle leading to crack initiation in the opposite lateral cortex was determined for each approach and was defined as comparative parameter. The relation to bone aging was investigated by considering the material parameters of cortical bones from young and old subjects. RESULTS: The maximum equivalent (von-Mises) stress was smaller for the cases with a drill hole at the end of the osteotomy cut. The critical angle was approximately 1.5 times higher for the specimens with a drill hole compared to those without. This corresponds to an average increase of 50%. The calculated critical angle for all approaches is below 5°. The critical angle depends on the used approach, on patient's age and assumed ductility of the cortical bone. CONCLUSIONS: Drilling a hole at the end of the osteotomy reduces the stresses in the lateral cortex and increases the critical opening angle prior to cracking of the opposite cortex in specimen with small correction angles. But the difference from having a drill hole or not is not so significant, especially for older patients. The ductility of the cortical bone is the decisive parameter for the critical opening angle. [less ▲]

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See detailDetachment in Normative Systems: Examples, inference Patterns, Properties
Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

in IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017), 4(9), 2295-3039

There is a variety of ways to reason with normative systems. This partly reflects a variety of semantics developed for deontic logic, such as traditional semantics based on possible worlds, or alternative ... [more ▼]

There is a variety of ways to reason with normative systems. This partly reflects a variety of semantics developed for deontic logic, such as traditional semantics based on possible worlds, or alternative semantics based on algebraic methods, explicit norms or techniques from non-monotonic logic. This diversity raises the question how these reasoning methods are related, and which reasoning method should be chosen for a particular application. In this paper we discuss the use of examples, inference patterns, and more abstract properties. First, benchmark examples can be used to compare ways to reason with normative systems. We give an overview of several benchmark examples of normative reasoning and deontic logic: van Fraassen’s paradox, Forrester’s paradox, Prakken and Sergot’s cottage regulations, Jeffrey’s disarmament example, Chisholm’s paradox, Makinson’s Möbius strip, and Horty’s priority examples. Moreover, we distinguish various interpretations that can be given to these benchmark examples, such as consistent interpretations, dilemma interpretations, and violability interpretations. Second, inference patterns can be used to compare different ways to reason with normative systems. Instead of analysing the benchmark examples semantically, as it is usually done, in this paper we use inference patterns to analyse them at a higher level of abstraction. We discuss inference patterns reflecting typical logical properties such as strengthening of the antecedent or weakening of the consequent. Third, more abstract properties can be defined to compare different ways to reason with normative systems. To define these more abstract properties, we first present a formal framework around the notion of detachment. Some of the ten properties we introduce are derived from the inference patterns, but others are more abstract: factual detachment, violation detection, substitution, replacements of equivalents, implication, para-consistency, conjunction, factual monotony, norm monotony, and norm induction. We consider these ten properties as desirable for a reasoning method for normative systems. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration und Migration im ländlichen Raum
Nienaber, Birte UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

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See detailL’IDENTIFICATION DES VICTIMES DE LA TRAITE DES ÊTRES HUMAINS LORS DES PROCÉDURES DE PROTECTION INTERNATIONALE ET DE RETOUR FORCÉ
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2013 et actualisée en 2017 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du European Migration Network sur «L’identification des ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2013 et actualisée en 2017 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du European Migration Network sur «L’identification des victimes de la traite des êtres humains lors des procédures de protection internationale et de retour forcé». [less ▲]

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See detailMigration internationale au Luxembourg - SOPEMI Report 2017
Tüske, Annamaria UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

Suite au pic constaté en 2015, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale a légèrement diminué en 2016, passant de 2 447 en 2015 à 2 035 en 2016 (soit une baisse de 16,8 %). Malgré le ... [more ▼]

Suite au pic constaté en 2015, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale a légèrement diminué en 2016, passant de 2 447 en 2015 à 2 035 en 2016 (soit une baisse de 16,8 %). Malgré le ralentissement de la tendance, ces chiffres restent supérieurs aux niveaux de 2013-2014. Les ressortissants syriens sont toujours la première nationalité de demandeurs de protection internationale (14,3 %), les ressortissants irakiens chutent à la 4ème place (7,9 %), après les ressortissants albanais (11,2 %) et kosovars (10,2 %). Le Luxembourg continue d’occuper la 4ème place parmi les Etats membres en termes d’accueil de demandeurs de protection internationale par rapport à sa population nationale. Le taux de reconnaissance de protection internationale est passé de 228 (200 statuts de réfugiés et 28 protections subsidiaires) en 2015 à 790 (764 statuts de réfugiés et 26 protections subsidiaires) en 2016. Ces chiffres représentent une augmentation de 246,5 % des décisions positives par rapport à 2015. Le Luxembourg continue de démontrer sa solidarité à l’égard de la relocalisation et de la réinstallation des demandeurs de protection internationale. En 2015, le Luxembourg s’est engagé à relocaliser 557 personnes sur son territoire dans le cadre de la décision du Conseil européen de relocaliser 160 000 demandeurs de protection internationale depuis la Grèce et l’Italie. Dans ce contexte, 197 réfugiés ont été relocalisés fin 2016. Entre janvier 2017 et août 2017, le Luxembourg a relocalisé 186 personnes. Sur le plan de la réinstallation, 52 réfugiés ont été réinstallés depuis la Turquie en 2016, suite à l’engagement du Luxembourg de réinstaller 194 réfugiés en provenance de Turquie dans le cadre de l’accord UE-Turquie du mois de mars 2016. 115 personnes ont été réinstallées entre le 1er janvier 2017 et le 18 août 2017. De nouvelles lois sont entrées en vigueur en 2016/2017 qui concernent la situation migratoire du Luxembourg. Des évolutions politiques d’envergure ont porté sur la mise en œuvre de changements apportés à la législation et aux procédures d’asile, à l’éducation et à la réforme linguistique ainsi que sur des mesures d’intégration révisées en réponse à l’évolution des profils de migration au Luxembourg. L’accent mis sur la migration économique a permis de promouvoir la diversification économique et le repositionnement du centre financier. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid approaches to historical research: analysing the Anne Frank diaries with digital tools
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2017, November 28)

This paper argues for a hybrid approach to historical research that combines ’traditional’ with digital hermeneutical approaches in a new practice of doing history. As the digital turn alters and affects ... [more ▼]

This paper argues for a hybrid approach to historical research that combines ’traditional’ with digital hermeneutical approaches in a new practice of doing history. As the digital turn alters and affects all parts of the historical research process, this is a pressing challenge and need for all historians, not just for those engaged in ‘big data’ projects. Indeed, hybridity is, and should be, the new normal. Yet while most historians are accustomed to deploying digital approaches in the information gathering stage of their research, they often refrain from ‘going digital’ in its processing and especially analysis stages. Describing a number of digital tools used in work done on the diaries of Anne frank, the paper critically analyses and demonstrates the added value of incorporating them in all stages of historical research. Digital approaches enhance the methodological repertoire furnished by ‘traditional’ close reading practices. Hybrid approaches thus expand our intellectual horizons and the analytical power we bring to bear upon our sources. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative approaches for microfinance for youth
Leist, Anja UL; Chapet, Jérémie; Szelest, Linda

Scientific Conference (2017, November 28)

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See detailWorking conditions and work-related anger: A longitudinal perspective
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November 24)

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See detailPan-European pension schemes – a way to close the pension gap
Tkalec, Igor UL

Article for general public (2017)

The pan-European Personal Pension is the Commission led proposal to close the pension gap in a cost-effective manner. Its benefits spread across multiple fronts: improving pension system sustainability ... [more ▼]

The pan-European Personal Pension is the Commission led proposal to close the pension gap in a cost-effective manner. Its benefits spread across multiple fronts: improving pension system sustainability, strengthening current fiscal and macroeconomic coordination framework, unlock long-term investment, and contributing to deeper economic integration. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre vérité et dire du vrai. Ein geschichtstheoretischer Grenzgang
Fickers, Andreas UL

in Fickers, Andreas (Ed.) Jeux sans frontières? Grenzgänge der Geschichtswissenschaft (2017)

This article reflects on the borderline between factual and fictional storytelling in history, arguing that the different narrative formats of historical storytelling are based on narrative conventions ... [more ▼]

This article reflects on the borderline between factual and fictional storytelling in history, arguing that the different narrative formats of historical storytelling are based on narrative conventions that play with rhetorical and stylistic strategies of authentification and objectivation. [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi et comment enseigner l’histoire luxembourgeoise ? Au-delà de l’amour de la patrie
Kmec, Sonja UL

Article for general public (2017)

L’histoire "transnationale" est souvent perçue comme une sorte de rédemption ou de sortie de secours. Cet article explique cette approche et montre en quoi elle est différente du concept d’histoire ... [more ▼]

L’histoire "transnationale" est souvent perçue comme une sorte de rédemption ou de sortie de secours. Cet article explique cette approche et montre en quoi elle est différente du concept d’histoire "métanationale". Il s'attèlera au paradoxe qui consiste d’un côté à s’émanciper du cadre national et d’un autre côté à se focaliser sur l’histoire de l’espace dans lequel on vit. Le lien entre nous et nos ancêtres (ou les personnes ayant occupé ce même endroit il y a des siècles) doit être problématisé.Ceci permet une auto-réflexion sur la manière dont les historiens produisent le savoir. [less ▲]

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