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See detailIntroduction to Detection of Non-Technical Losses using Data Analytics
Glauner, Patrick UL; Meira, Jorge Augusto UL; State, Radu UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Electricity losses are a frequently appearing problem in power grids. Non-technical losses (NTL) appear during distribution and include, but are not limited to, the following causes: Meter tampering in ... [more ▼]

Electricity losses are a frequently appearing problem in power grids. Non-technical losses (NTL) appear during distribution and include, but are not limited to, the following causes: Meter tampering in order to record lower consumptions, bypassing meters by rigging lines from the power source, arranged false meter readings by bribing meter readers, faulty or broken meters, un-metered supply, technical and human errors in meter readings, data processing and billing. NTLs are also reported to range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed in countries such as Brazil, India, Malaysia or Lebanon. This is an introductory level course to discuss how to predict if a customer causes a NTL. In the last years, employing data analytics methods such as data mining and machine learning have evolved as the primary direction to solve this problem. This course will compare and contrast different approaches reported in the literature. Practical case studies on real data sets will be included. Therefore, attendees will not only understand, but rather experience the challenges of NTL detection and learn how these challenges could be solved in the coming years. [less ▲]

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See detailDie steuerrechtlichen Herausforderungen der digitalen Wirtschaft - Was passiert in Europa?
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Juergen (Ed.) Tagungsband Herbstakademie 2017: Recht 4.0 - Innovationen aus den rechtswissenschaftlichen Laboren (2017, September)

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See detailComparing Broad-Phase Interaction Detection Algorithms for Multiphysics DEM Applications
Rousset, Alban UL; Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid UL; Liao, Yu-Chung UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Collision detection is an ongoing source of research and optimization in many fields including video-games and numerical simulations [6, 7, 8]. The goal of collision detection is to report a geometric ... [more ▼]

Collision detection is an ongoing source of research and optimization in many fields including video-games and numerical simulations [6, 7, 8]. The goal of collision detection is to report a geometric contact when it is about to occur or has actually occurred. Unfortunately, detailed and exact collision detection for large amounts of objects represent an immense amount of computations, naivly n 2 operation with n being the number of objects [9]. To avoid and reduce these expensive computations, the collision detection is decomposed in two phases as it shown on Figure 1: the Broad-Phase and the Narrow-Phase. In this paper, we focus on Broad-Phase algorithm in a large dynamic three-dimensional environment. We studied two kinds of Broad-Phase algorithms: spatial partitioning and spatial sorting. Spatial partitioning techniques op- erate by dividing space into a number of regions that can be quickly tested against each object. Two types of spatial partitioning will be considered: grids and trees. The grid-based algorithms consist of a spatial partitioning processing by dividing space into regions and testing if objects overlap the same region of space. And this reduces the number of pairwise to test. The tree-based algorithms use a tree structure where each node spans a particular space area. This reduces the pairwise checking cost because only tree leaves are checked. The spatial sorting based algorithm consists of a sorted spatial ordering of objects. Axis-Aligned Bounding Boxes (AABBs) are projected onto x, y and z axes and put into sorted lists. By sorting projection onto axes, two objects collide if and only if they collide on the three axes. This axis sorting reduces the number of pairwise to tested by reducing the number of tests to perform to only pairs which collide on at least one axis. For this study, ten different Broad-Phase collision detection algorithms or framework have been considered. The Bullet [6], CGAL [10, 11] frameworks have been used. Concerning the implemented algorithms most of them come from papers or given implementation [less ▲]

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See detailFacts and Statements of the 12th FIEP European Congress
Bund, Andreas UL

Presentation (2017, September)

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See detailDynamics of Income Rank Volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana

E-print/Working paper (2017)

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions, this paper proposes a framework that is based on individuals’ relative positions in the distribution, and is neutral in relation to structural changes that occur in the economy. Applying this approach to investigate rank volatility in Germany and the US over three decades, we show that while poorer individuals within both countries are the most volatile, the volatility trend for the middle class in each of these countries differs. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory experiment for damage assessment using the DAD-method
Erdenebat, Dolgion UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in Conference proceedings SMAR 2017 (2017, September)

In the following, a new analytical method, the Deformation Area Difference (DAD) method for damage assessment of bridge structures is applied using experimental test results of a statically loaded beam ... [more ▼]

In the following, a new analytical method, the Deformation Area Difference (DAD) method for damage assessment of bridge structures is applied using experimental test results of a statically loaded beam. An essential prerequisite for the application of this method is a high precise measurement of the deflection line. In this paper, the results from a laboratory experiment using modern measurement techniques such as photogrammetry and displacement sensors are discussed. A reinforced concrete beam is stepwise loaded until reaching the ultimate limit state. The DAD-method is applied to the resulting data from the measurements and the outcome is discussed for further optimisation of the method. In principle, the measured deflection line of the beam contains already essential information on discontinuities which occur due to cracking. These entries are processed and visualised using the DAD-method. This study shows that a high accuracy of the measurement techniques in combination with the DAD-method can become an effective tool for damage detection. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Genomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome Reveals a Broad Distribution of Metabolic Pathways for the Degradation of Host-Synthetized Mucin Glycans and Utilization of Mucin-Derived Monosaccharides
Ravcheev, Dmitry UL; Thiele, Ines UL

in Frontiers in Genetics (2017), 8

The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose ... [more ▼]

The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans. Commensals are mostly involved in the cleavage of glycans, while pathogens mostly utilize monosaccharides released by commensals. This HGM-derived degradation of the mucus layer increases pathogen susceptibility and causes many other health disorders. Here, we analyzed 397 individual HGM genomes to identify pathways for the cleavage of host-synthetized mucin glycans to monosaccharides as well as for the catabolism of the derived monosaccharides. Our key results are as follows: (i) Genes for the cleavage of mucin glycans were found in 86% of the analyzed genomes, which significantly higher than a previous estimation. (ii) Genes for the catabolism of derived monosaccharides were found in 89% of the analyzed genomes. (iii) Comparative genomic analysis identified four alternative forms of the monosaccharide-catabolizing enzymes and four alternative forms of monosaccharide transporters. (iv) Eighty-five percent of the analyzed genomes may be involved in potential feeding pathways for the monosaccharides derived from cleaved mucin glycans. (v) The analyzed genomes demonstrated different abilities to degrade known mucin glycans. Generally, the ability to degrade at least one type of mucin glycan was predicted for 81% of the analyzed genomes. (vi) Eighty-two percent of the analyzed genomes can form mutualistic pairs that are able to degrade mucin glycans and are not degradable by any of the paired organisms alone. Taken together, these findings provide further insight into the inter-microbial communications of the HGM as well as into host-HGM interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Unemployment Insurance – a good initiative missing proper foundation
Tkalec, Igor UL

Article for general public (2017)

The European Unemployment Insurance is a reawakened EU initiative imagined to function as a supranational coordination and stabilization mechanism. While its purpose is justified and its design viable, a ... [more ▼]

The European Unemployment Insurance is a reawakened EU initiative imagined to function as a supranational coordination and stabilization mechanism. While its purpose is justified and its design viable, a pre-condition that underpins such a scheme is currently absent. [less ▲]

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See detailDemocratic legitimacy [glossary]
Chiocchetti, Paolo UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

A political institution is legitimate when it succeeds in persuading people of the normative necessity of its existence. In a democratic system, this can be based both on various forms of popular consent ... [more ▼]

A political institution is legitimate when it succeeds in persuading people of the normative necessity of its existence. In a democratic system, this can be based both on various forms of popular consent (democratic legitimacy) and on other kinds of foundations (generic legitimacy). With reference to the European Union, debates have focused on empirical support for the EU, the nature of its "democratic deficit", and the potential conflict between European integration and national democratic sovereignty. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct metabolomic signature in cerebrospinal fluid in early parkinson's disease: Early Parkinson'S CSF Metabolic Signature
Trezzi, Jean-Pierre UL; Galozzi, Sara; Jäger, Christian UL et al

in Movement Disorders (2017)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from early-stage PD patients for disease-related metabolic changes and to determine a robust biomarker signature for early ... [more ▼]

Objective: The purpose of this study was to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from early-stage PD patients for disease-related metabolic changes and to determine a robust biomarker signature for early-stage PD diagnosis. Methods: By applying a non-targeted and mass spectrometry-driven approach, we investigated the CSF metabolome of 44 early-stage sporadic PD patients yet without treatment (DeNoPa cohort). We compared all detected metabolite levels with those measured in CSF of 43 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. After this analysis, we validated the results in an independent PD study cohort (T€ubingen cohort). Results: We identified that dehydroascorbic acid levels were significantly lower and fructose, mannose, and threonic acid levels were significantly higher (P <.05) in PD patients when compared with healthy controls. These changes reflect pathological oxidative stress responses, as well as protein glycation/glycosylation reactions in PD. Using a machine learning approach based on logistic regression, we successfully predicted the origin (PD patients vs healthy controls) in a second (n518) as well as in a third and completely independent validation set (n536). The biomarker signature is composed of the three markers—mannose, threonic acid, and fructose—and allows for sample classification with a sensitivity of 0.790 and a specificity of 0.800. Conclusion: We identified PD-specific metabolic changes in CSF that were associated with antioxidative stress response, glycation, and inflammation. Our results disentangle the complexity of the CSF metabolome to unravel metabolome changes related to earlystage PD. The detected biomarkers help understanding PD pathogenesis and can be applied as biomarkers to increase clinical diagnosis accuracy and patient care in early-stage PD. [less ▲]

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See detailLived Histories of Science Education in Modern Luxembourg: Interactions between Global Policies, National Curriculum and Local Practices.
Reuter, Bob UL; Schreiber, Catherina

Scientific Conference (2017, August 23)

The current paper is part of a larger research project, that seeks to gain insights into the policy and curricular reform of science education in Luxembourg’s primary schools through a state of the art ... [more ▼]

The current paper is part of a larger research project, that seeks to gain insights into the policy and curricular reform of science education in Luxembourg’s primary schools through a state of the art approach that integrates research in educational sciences (interviews and classroom observations) with research in the history of education (interviews and document analyses). Beginning with the premise that “science education” as a school discipline is the product of culturally shaped expectations, we examine the interface of international and national educational policy with local educational practice through the lens of primary school science education in Luxembourg (from 1920 through the present). This papers focuses on the historical analysis of science education and policy changes in modern Luxembourg using (1) a document-based historical analysis of curricula, textbooks and public discourses and (2) interviews with curriculum developers from the 1980s and 1990s and with key participants in science education in Luxembourg to examine the lived practices in a local context. In the synergy of the different approaches, local analysis of historically shaped notions of science education can be integrated with a transnational global perspective. Our analysis shows, among other findings, that the science education curriculum was conceived as a response to a variety of specific national educational needs (e.g. environmental protection, love of nature, scientific rational thinking, economy development, technological progress, social progress, demographic changes and challenges). But at the same time, it was covertly in line with international “scientization” policies (e.g. Drori & Meyer, 2009) building on transnational ideas such as the “spiral curriculum”. The analysed educational reform is thus a relevant example to understand culturally and historically embedded perspectives of what “science” is, and how this shapes ideals of “science education” as a discipline in school. [less ▲]

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See detailPrototype Incorporated Emotional Neural Network (PI-EmNN)
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Khashman, Adnan

in IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems (2017)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ‘engineering’ prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So ... [more ▼]

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ‘engineering’ prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, prototype learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype and adaptive learning theories. We refer to our new model as “PI-EmNN” (Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network). Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely; static hand gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional back propagation neural network (EmNN), deep networks and an exemplar classification model, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). [less ▲]

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See detailHerman Van Rompuy [biography]
Chiocchetti, Paolo UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Herman Van Rompuy (b. 1947) is a Belgian and European politician. In his capacity as President of the European Council (2009-2014), he played a key role in the EU's response to the financial crisis and in ... [more ▼]

Herman Van Rompuy (b. 1947) is a Belgian and European politician. In his capacity as President of the European Council (2009-2014), he played a key role in the EU's response to the financial crisis and in the strengthening of the European framework of economic governance. [less ▲]

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See detailWolfgang Schäuble [biography]
Chiocchetti, Paolo UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Wolfgang Schäuble (b. 1942) is an active German politician. He played a key role in the German reunification process (1989-90) and in the management of the Eurozone crisis (since 2009).

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See detailBoard gender diversity and corporate social performance: Is there really a link?
Derouiche, Imen UL; Boubaker, Sabri; Dang, Rey et al

Scientific Conference (2017, July 05)

Our study aims to see whether and how board gender diversity (BGD) may influence the corporate social performance (CSP). Theoretically, we rely on the stakeholders’ theory. From an empirical standpoint ... [more ▼]

Our study aims to see whether and how board gender diversity (BGD) may influence the corporate social performance (CSP). Theoretically, we rely on the stakeholders’ theory. From an empirical standpoint, we employ a dynamic panel system GMM (generalized moments method) estimator to estimate a dynamic model of CSP. Our study is carried out on a sample of 101 listed firms on Euronext Paris that made up the SBF Index 250 over the 2006-2010 (be-fore the enactment of the Copé-Zimmermann on gender quota on boards). We find that board gender diversity significantly impacts CSP. Furthermore, a critical mass of female directors is significantly and positively correlated with CSP. The effect is economically significant. Finally, we take into account French specificities by examining the influence of family firms. We found that family firms contribute to the role of female directors regarding CSR activities, especially there is a critical mass of female directors in these firms. [less ▲]

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See detailAchtsamkeit als Determinante von Glück im Alter - Theoretische und Empirische Analysen
Theisen, Marie-Paule Gaby UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In den späten siebziger Jahren entwickelte der Molekularbiologe und Zen-Praktiker Jon Kabat-Zinn in den USA das „Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program – MBSR“ (dt.: das Programm zur Stressreduzierung ... [more ▼]

In den späten siebziger Jahren entwickelte der Molekularbiologe und Zen-Praktiker Jon Kabat-Zinn in den USA das „Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program – MBSR“ (dt.: das Programm zur Stressreduzierung durch Achtsamkeit). Der Medizinprofessor begann mit Erfolg, das Programm an Schmerzpatienten der University of Massachusetts Medical School Stress Reduction Clinic zu vermitteln. Parallel dazu untersuchte der Forscher die Auswirkungen dieses Stressreduzierungsprogramms auf das psychische und physische Wohlbefinden der Patienten. Diese Forschungsergebnisse veranlassten mich dazu, das bestehende Programm MBSR an die Bedürfnisse und Wünsche von gesunden, existenziell verängstigten, gestressten Menschen im Vorrentenalter und Rentenalter anzupassen und das Programm „Achtsamkeit Entdecken – Leben im Augenblick“ (AELA) für Senioren zu entwickeln. Als theoretische Grundlage dieses Programms wurden einschlägige Theorien zu Achtsamkeit, Glück und dem Alternsprozess beschrieben und in ihrem Zusammenhang elaboriert. Anschließend daran wurden über eine Kombination von quantitativem und qualitativem Vorgehen die Nützlichkeit und die Wirkungen von Achtsamkeit auf das Glücksempfinden „betagter“ Menschen im Alltag untersucht. Im Rahmen einer quantitativ angelegten Trainingsstudie wurden über den Zeitraum von vier Wochen Achtsamkeitselemente vermittelt, die über die Selbstberichte der Teilnehmer evaluiert wurden. Insgesamt zeichneten sich dabei positive Effekte auf das Befinden der Teilnehmer ab und diese betrachteten die Achtsamkeitsübungen als nützlich, um bewusster zu leben. Im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie wurden fünfzehn Interviews zum Leben im Alter durchgeführt und dabei unterschiedliche Aspekte – wie z.B. Wünsche und Ziele, aber auch Ängste und Befürchtungen – exploriert. In den Interviews wurde zudem erfragt, inwieweit die Personen bereits mit dem Konzept der Achtsamkeit vertraut sind und inwieweit sie dieses nutzen. Auch diese Studie belegt die Bedeutsamkeit dieses Konzeptes für das Leben im Alter. Alle Befunde sprechen somit dafür, dass der gesunde ältere Mensch durch eine regelmäßige Achtsamkeitspraxis – im Sinne eines bewussten Lebens von Augenblick zu Augenblick – Stressfreiheit und Glück erfahren kann.   [less ▲]

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See detailMAGNETIC SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING ON BULK METALLIC GLASSES
Mettus, Denis UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Birringer, Rainer et al

Scientific Conference (2017, July 03)

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