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See detailTo Score and to Protect? Big Data (and Privacy) Meet SME Credit Risk in the UK
Robinson, Gavin UL; Marriott, Jane

in International Data Privacy Law (2017), 7(1), 48-69

Recent UK legislation facilitating the credit scoring of small and medium-sized enterprises using Big Data techniques and Open Data sources threatens to further hollow out information management norms and ... [more ▼]

Recent UK legislation facilitating the credit scoring of small and medium-sized enterprises using Big Data techniques and Open Data sources threatens to further hollow out information management norms and data subject rights enshrined in privacy and data protection law just as it is gathering unprecedented momentum in courts and on statute books across the EU. After examining the economic rationale for such measures and their envisaged impact on the credit risk industry, we argue that the associated regulatory re-shuffling and privacy-related safeguards are highly unlikely to address adequately the serious accuracy, transparency, and accountability concerns of individual data subjects. Would the effective, full enforcement of data protection principles and data subject rights really cripple the credit reference industry to the detriment of the nascent economic recovery, or is there a middle path and will the forthcoming EU General Data Protection Regulation provide it? [less ▲]

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See detail15 Jahre PISA: Eine Bilanz für Luxemburg
Ugen, Sonja UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailInsights into ligand stimulation effects on gastro-intestinal stromal tumors signalling.
Bahlawane, Christelle; Schmitz, Martine UL; Letellier, Elisabeth UL et al

in Cell Signal (2017)

Mutations in KIT or PDGFRA are responsible for >85% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The introduction of imatinib in the GIST therapy scheme revolutionized the patient outcome. Unfortunately, the ... [more ▼]

Mutations in KIT or PDGFRA are responsible for >85% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The introduction of imatinib in the GIST therapy scheme revolutionized the patient outcome. Unfortunately, the therapy allows the disease stabilization instead of curation. Furthermore the resistance to the inhibitor arises in most cases within two first years of therapy. A thorough investigation of the signalling pathways activated by the major PDGFRA and KIT mutants encountered in the GIST landscape allowed to identify striking differences between the two receptor tyrosine kinases. PDGFRA mutants were not responsive to their ligand, PDGFAA, and displayed a high constitutive kinase activity. In contrast, all KIT mutants retained, in addition to their constitutive activation, the ability to be stimulated by their ligand. Kit mutants displayed a lower intrinsic kinase activity relative to PDGFRA mutants, while the KIT Exon 11 deletion mutant exhibited the highest intrinsic kinase activity among KIT mutants. At the transcriptomic level, the MAPK pathway was established as the most prominent activated pathway, which is commonly up-regulated by all PDGFRA and KIT mutants. Inhibition of this pathway, using the MEK inhibitor PD0325901, reduced the proliferation of GIST primary cells at nanomolar concentrations. Altogether, our data demonstrate the high value of MEK inhibitors for combination therapy in GIST treatment and more importantly the interest of evaluating the SCF expression profile in GIST patients presenting KIT mutations. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulism [glossary]
Chiocchetti, Paolo UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

A chameleonic concept, populism can be defined as an ideology, a communication style, a political strategy, or a misguided category. Its key elements are a positive appreciation of people, a negative view ... [more ▼]

A chameleonic concept, populism can be defined as an ideology, a communication style, a political strategy, or a misguided category. Its key elements are a positive appreciation of people, a negative view of the elite, and the exaltation of untrammeled popular sovereignty against representative democracy and liberal constitutionalism. The fortune of the term, despite its theoretical and practical drawbacks, is the reflection of intrinsic antinomies of modern democracy and of a growing popular dissatisfaction toward the performance of representative governments and institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes #like4like indeed provoke more likes?
zhang, Yang; Ni, Minyue; Han, Weili et al

in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'17) (2017)

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See detailImpulsivity influences betting under stress in laboratory gambling
Canale, Natale; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Vieno, Alessio et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested ... [more ▼]

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested whether impulsivity traits and acute stress differentially influence the way in which a prior feedback is incorporated into further decisions involving ambiguity. Sixty college students (50% male; aged 18–25 years) were randomly assigned to a stress versus a non-stress condition before completing a laboratory gambling task. The results revealed that independently of the stress condition, subjects behaved as if the odds of winning increase after a single loss. Additionally, stress effects varied as a function of impulsivity traits. Individuals who lacked perseverance (i.e., had difficulty focusing on a difficult or boring task) gambled more after experiencing a loss in the stress condition than did those in the control condition. The present study supports that impulsivity traits can explain the differential effect of stress on the relationship between prior feedback and choices made under ambiguity [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying Irregular Power Usage by Turning Predictions into Holographic Spatial Visualizations
Glauner, Patrick UL; Dahringer, Niklas; Puhachov, Oleksandr et al

in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW 2017) (2017)

Power grids are critical infrastructure assets that face non-technical losses (NTL) such as electricity theft or faulty meters. NTL may range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed in emerging ... [more ▼]

Power grids are critical infrastructure assets that face non-technical losses (NTL) such as electricity theft or faulty meters. NTL may range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed in emerging countries. Industrial NTL detection systems are still largely based on expert knowledge when deciding whether to carry out costly on-site inspections of customers. Electricity providers are reluctant to move to large-scale deployments of automated systems that learn NTL profiles from data due to the latter's propensity to suggest a large number of unnecessary inspections. In this paper, we propose a novel system that combines automated statistical decision making with expert knowledge. First, we propose a machine learning framework that classifies customers into NTL or non-NTL using a variety of features derived from the customers' consumption data. The methodology used is specifically tailored to the level of noise in the data. Second, in order to allow human experts to feed their knowledge in the decision loop, we propose a method for visualizing prediction results at various granularity levels in a spatial hologram. Our approach allows domain experts to put the classification results into the context of the data and to incorporate their knowledge for making the final decisions of which customers to inspect. This work has resulted in appreciable results on a real-world data set of 3.6M customers. Our system is being deployed in a commercial NTL detection software. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Incidence of Taxation in Matching Markets.
Dupuy, Arnaud UL

Presentation (2017)

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See detail(Education for) Sustainable Development in Geography Education
Sprenger, Sandra; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Journal of Geography in Higher Education (2017)

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See detailCHILDCARE, QUALITY AND LOCATION: AN HEDONIC APPROACH
Dupuy, Arnaud UL

Presentation (2017)

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See detailVoluntary disclosure, ownership structure, and corporate debt maturity: A study of French listed firms
Derouiche, Imen UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

This study examines the effect of voluntary disclosure on the corporate debt maturity structure when control is concentrated and explores the role of controlling shareholder’s excess control rights in ... [more ▼]

This study examines the effect of voluntary disclosure on the corporate debt maturity structure when control is concentrated and explores the role of controlling shareholder’s excess control rights in this effect. Using a sample of 440 French listed firms over the period 2007-2013, the empirical results indicate that firms with higher voluntary disclosure have more long-term debt, suggesting that voluntary disclosure is valuable for lenders, thus allowing firms to access to more long-maturity debt. We also find that this positive effect is significant only in firms where controlling owners have high levels of excess control rights, meaning that the presence of entrenched controlling shareholders makes voluntary disclosure more highly valued by lenders. Our results provide interesting evidence of the substitution-monitoring effects between short-term debt and voluntary disclosure in firms with concentrated control. Our research also lends support to the findings of recent work that better disclosure policies are viewed more positively by the market in environments where the risk of wealth expropriation by controlling shareholders is higher. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction of non-mobile vs.mobile postgraduates intra EU and outside EU Universities, and its associations with mental health and career attitudes.
Karavdic, Senad UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Innovative ideas in Health Psychology - 31st Conference of the EHPS (2017)

Specific attention should be devoted to the needs of young adults enrolled in a mobility abroad programme of their universities. Among mobile vs. non-mobile postgraduates, our study analysed their life ... [more ▼]

Specific attention should be devoted to the needs of young adults enrolled in a mobility abroad programme of their universities. Among mobile vs. non-mobile postgraduates, our study analysed their life satisfaction (LS) as well as the associations with mental health-related factors and career attitudes. We determined factors contributing to their LS. Method. In 2012/13, three groups (non-mobile = 66; mobile intra-EU = 382; mobile outside-EU = 44) who had obtained a financial aid from the Luxembourgish government, without family’s socioeconomic criteria. Master students completed an online questionnaire, and analyses included multiple linear regression models in which only relationships (p<0.05) were introduced. Results. Further mobility showed higher levels of LS (outside-EU 8.5/10, intra-EU 7.8 and 7.9 non-mobile). For all groups, health satisfaction (HS) was positively correlated with LS; for mobile outside-EU, it is the only determinant. For mobile intra-EU, the quality of their autonomy and their career adaptability were also associated to LS (regression parameter estimates β: 0.208 and 0.128, respectively), and worry (β:-0.146). For non-mobile, in addition to HS, their career optimism and planning were positively correlated to their LS (β: 0.402 and 0.214, respectively). Conclusion. Promoting programmes proposed by the universities’ services towards counselling and an accompaniment to their career project may enhance postgraduates’ LS which is a major indicator for a successful mobility. The assessment of outside-EU’ LS was higher than the EU-28 LS’ indicator (age group 25-34 years; in 2013: 7.5/10). More cross-cultural research would be warranted to better understand the etiology of their LS. [less ▲]

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See detailControl-ownership wedge and the survival of French IPOs
Derouiche, Imen UL; Narjess, Toumi

Presentation (2017)

This paper investigates the effect of separation between cash flow and control rights of the ultimate controlling shareholders (excess control) on the survival of French initial public offerings (IPOs ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the effect of separation between cash flow and control rights of the ultimate controlling shareholders (excess control) on the survival of French initial public offerings (IPOs). Using a sample of 434 French IPOs issued during the 1997-2006 period, we estimate the Cox proportional hazard model based on the information that is available to investors from the prospectuses. The results show that excess control is positively associated with the rate of survival, meaning that failure is less likely to occur in IPOs with greater separation between ultimate cash flow and voting rights. Our findings are consistent with the notion that the potentially high private benefits of controlling shareholders with high levels of excess control give them strong incentives to preserve these benefits by preventing the failure of their firms. We also find support of prior evidence that IPOs are more likely to survive when they are older at the offering, when they have smaller number of risk factors listed in the firm prospectus, and when they have lower degree of underpricing. Our results hold under the use of accelerated-failure-time models as robustness checks. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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See detailTowards a 21st-century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: consensus report and recommendations.
Langley, Gillian R.; Adcock, Ian M.; Busquet, Francois et al

in Drug discovery today (2017), 22(2), 327-339

Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research ... [more ▼]

Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies, and the corporate and non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors, in this consensus report, we analyse, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. [less ▲]

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See detailAccessing 3D microtissue metabolism: Lactate and oxygen monitoring in hepatocyte spheroids.
Weltin, Andreas; Hammer, Steffen; Noor, Fozia UL et al

in Biosensors & bioelectronics (2017), 87

3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage ... [more ▼]

3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage due to drug exposure in toxicology. However, there is a need for thorough metabolic characterization of these microtissues for mechanistic understanding of effects on culture behaviour. We measured metabolic parameters from single human HepaRG hepatocyte spheroids online and continuously with electrochemical microsensors. A microsensor platform for lactate and oxygen was integrated in a standard 96-well plate. Electrochemical microsensors for lactate and oxygen allow fast, precise and continuous long-term measurement of metabolic parameters directly in the microwell. The demonstrated capability to precisely detect small concentration changes by single spheroids is the key to access their metabolism. Lactate levels in the culture medium starting from 50microM with production rates of 5microMh-1 were monitored and precisely quantified over three days. Parallel long-term oxygen measurements showed no oxygen depletion or hypoxic conditions in the microwell. Increased lactate production by spheroids upon suppression of the aerobic metabolism was observed. The dose-dependent decrease in lactate production caused by the addition of the hepatotoxic drug Bosentan was determined. We showed that in a toxicological application, metabolic monitoring yields quantitative, online information on cell viability, which complements and supports other methods such as microscopy. The demonstrated continuous access to 3D cell culture metabolism within a standard setup improves in vitro toxicology models in replacement strategies of animal experiments. Controlling the microenvironment of such organotypic cultures has impact in tissue engineering, cancer therapy and personalized medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailL'essentiel de la mobilité internationale: aspects fiscaux et sociaux
Chaouche, Fatima UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Fiscalité – contexte luxembourgeois Fiscalité – perspective internationale Fiscalité – travailleurs frontaliers au Luxembourg Sécurité sociale – contexte européen et international

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See detailRecurrence and Transience of Frogs with Drift on Z^d
Döbler, Christian UL; Gantert, Nina; Höfelsauer, Thomas et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

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See detailHepatocytes of Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats differ significantly in their central metabolism.
Garg, Richa; Heinzle, Elmar; Noor, Fozia UL

in Journal of cellular biochemistry (2017)

Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are most commonly used experimental rats. They have similar genetic background and are therefore, not discriminated in practical research. In this study, we compared ... [more ▼]

Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are most commonly used experimental rats. They have similar genetic background and are therefore, not discriminated in practical research. In this study, we compared metabolic profiles of Wistar and SD rat hepatocytes from middle (6 months) and old (23 months) age groups. Principle component analysis (PCA) on the specific uptake and production rates of amino acids, glucose, lactate and urea indicated clear differences between Wistar and SD rat hepatocytes. SD rat hepatocytes showed higher uptake rates of various essential and non-essential amino acids, particularly in early culture phases (0-12 h) compared to later phases (12-24 h). SD hepatocytes seem to be more sensitive to isolation procedure and in vitro culture requiring more amino acids for cellular maintenance and repair. Major differences between Wistar and SD rat hepatocytes were observed for glucose and branched chain amino acid metabolism. We conclude that the observed differences in the central carbon metabolism of isolated hepatocytes from these two rats should be considered when using one or the other rat type in studies on metabolic effects or diseases such as diabetes or obesity. [less ▲]

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