Last 7 days     Results 1-20 of 68. 1 2 3 4   Domain-Specificity of Need for Cognition Among High School StudentsKeller, Ulrich ; Strobel, Anja; Martin, Romain et alin European Journal of Psychological Assessment (in press)Need for Cognition (NFC) is increasingly being investigated in educational research. In contrast to other non-cognitive constructs in this area, such as academic self-concept and interest, NFC has ... [more ▼]Need for Cognition (NFC) is increasingly being investigated in educational research. In contrast to other non-cognitive constructs in this area, such as academic self-concept and interest, NFC has consistently been conceptualized as domain-general. We employed structural equation modelling to address the question of whether NFC can be meaningfully and gainfully conceptualized as domain-specific. To this end, we developed a domain-specific 20-item NFC scale with parallel items for Science, Mathematics, German, and French. Additionally, domain-general NFC was assessed with five domain-general items. Using a cross-sectional sample of more than 4500 Luxembourgish 9th graders, we found that a nested-factor model incorporating both a general factor and domain-specific factors better accounted for the data than a single- factor or a correlated-factor model. However, the influence of the general factor was markedly stronger than in corresponding models for academic self-concept and interest. When controlling for the domain-specific factors, only Mathematics achievement was significantly predicted by the domain-general factor, while all achievement measures (Mathematics, French, and German) were predicted by the corresponding domain-specific factor. The nested domain-specific NFC factors were clearly empirically distinguishable from first-order domain-specific interest factors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 UL) Automatically Repairing Web Application Firewalls Based on Successful SQL Injection AttacksAppelt, Dennis; Panichella, Annibale ; Briand, Lionel in The 28th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE) (in press)Testing and fixing WAFs are two relevant and complementary challenges for security analysts. Automated testing helps to cost-effectively detect vulnerabilities in a WAF by generating effective test cases ... [more ▼]Testing and fixing WAFs are two relevant and complementary challenges for security analysts. Automated testing helps to cost-effectively detect vulnerabilities in a WAF by generating effective test cases, i.e., attacks. Once vulnerabilities have been identified, the WAF needs to be fixed by augmenting its rule set to filter attacks without blocking legitimate requests. However, existing research suggests that rule sets are very difficult to understand and too complex to be manually fixed. In this paper, we formalise the problem of fixing vulnerable WAFs as a combinatorial optimisation problem. To solve it, we propose an automated approach that combines machine learning with multi-objective genetic algorithms. Given a set of legitimate requests and bypassing SQL injection attacks, our approach automatically infers regular expressions that, when added to the WAF's rule set, prevent many attacks while letting legitimate requests go through. Our empirical evaluation based on both open-source and proprietary WAFs shows that the generated filter rules are effective at blocking previously identified and successful SQL injection attacks (recall between 54.6% and 98.3%), while triggering in most cases no or few false positives (false positive rate between 0% and 2%). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL) A systematic review of self-care assistive technologies for aging populationAbrilahij, Afsaneh ; Boll, Thomas in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because ... [more ▼]A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because the number of people 80+ is projected to more than double from 2010 to 2050 at least in EU and OECD countries. On the other side, there is a strong desire of older people, their relatives and policy makers to maintain the autonomy in old age as long as possible. In reaction to this, there have been strong social policy recommendations to develop and promote the use of assistive technologies (ATs). Whereas systematic reviews already exist for several other kinds of ATs, reviews about self-care ATs are still missing. Based on systematic literature searches in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases 203 papers were identified of which 12 were included according to our selection criteria. The methodological quality of all the reviewed studies is evaluated. We reviewed findings on indicators of independent living as efficiency criteria as well as evidence about facilitators and barriers of using these technologies. Self-care ATs turned out to be efficient with respect to reduced care hours and increased independence level. The actual use of these ATs was associated with personal, contextual, and device factors. Lack of randomized control trial studies and a need for further research about ATs in several domains of self-care activities is revealed. Based on the findings of the current review, we generate recommendations for future research. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (13 UL) Scientific and legal concepts of care dependency: Role for understanding, emotional responding, and acting in the field of elder careBoll, Thomas ; Ferring, Dieter in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care ... [more ▼]In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care. First, two comprehensive concepts from the nursing sciences are contrasted. Then we compare a scientific and two legal concepts (restrictive vs. inclusive) of care dependency from the German long-term care (LTC) system, the last of which regulate older persons´ access to LTC benefits. Here, we consider their different implications for the risk of unmet psychological, social, and temporary care needs. Next, we examine the theoretical and methodological roles of different care dependency concepts for assessment as well as the analysis of prevalence, antecedents, consequences, and the management of care dependency. Following this, we explore possible functions of care dependency concepts as cognitive mediators of various agents’ activities related to elder care, which opens new topics for further research. Among these, we include the ascription of care dependency by various actors, older people´s self-presentation, and family carers´ presentation and LTC administrators´ evaluation of an older person´s care dependency. Further issues addressed are the education of professional care workers and professionals´ provision of elder care. Here, special attention is devoted to the implications of a shift from a restrictive to a more inclusive legal concept of care dependency as recently happened in Germany. Finally, we discuss the implications of inclusive legal concepts of care dependency for the improvement of elder care quality [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 UL) Culture in the Act of Caring: Bringing Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural Psychology togetherBoll, Thomas ; Ferring, Dieter ; Valsiner, Jaanin Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and ... [more ▼]In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology. The authors present arguments for a life-span developmental perspective on care for the elderly and extend this to geropsychology as subsection of life-span developmental psychology. They further emphasize that these disciplines consider to some extent the role of cultural and other contextual factors and that other gerosciences specialized on historical, political, health-and nursing-related aspects of elder care can further supplement this effort. Then three major streams of cultural psychology are mentioned which are particularly relevant to topics of caring: Dialogical Self Theory, Theory of Social Representations, and Cultural Psychology of Semiotic Dynamics. The authors conclude that an increasing population aging and growing gaps between demand and supply of care create a serious practical need for an integration of geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychologies to achieve a better understanding of the individual, interpersonal, and macro social processes involved in elder care. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 UL) Care in aging: Cross-fertilization within and between Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural PsychologyBoll, Thomas ; Ferring, Dieter ; Valsiner, Jaanin Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better ... [more ▼]Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better understand phenomena of elder care and to act successfully in this field. In the final chapter of a multidisciplinary book with contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology the editors draw conclusions about major topics, new insights, and further implications for research and practice. The conclusions refer to four domains. First, the macro-social context—including demographic, historical, political, normative, and other cultural factors—opens and limits the available options for individual care giving and receipt and shapes how these issues are experienced by the participants. Second, elder care at the individual and family level is far more complex than previously thought, due to differentiated individual and social care preferences and due to consequences extending beyond single caregivers to multigenerational caring families. Third, processes involved in formal and informal care turned out to be rather differentiated: Understanding, emotional responding, motivation and acting towards suffering, care dependency and caregiver burden are influenced by multiple individual and social level factors. Fourth, future issues of elder care are shaped by macro level factors such as population aging, social trends in job and family life, and technological developments with implications for ensuring care quality, care staff, culturally sensitive care, and assistive technologies. Cultural psychology emerged as a valuable partner of the gerosciences by contributing essentially to a deeper understanding of the aforementioned issues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 UL) Mining AndroZoo: A RetrospectLi, Li in The International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME) (2017, September)This paper presents a retrospect of an Android app collection named AndroZoo and some research works conducted on top of the collection. AndroZoo is a growing collection of Android apps from various ... [more ▼]This paper presents a retrospect of an Android app collection named AndroZoo and some research works conducted on top of the collection. AndroZoo is a growing collection of Android apps from various markets including the official Google Play. At the moment, over five million Android apps have been collected. Based on AndroZoo, we have explored several directions that mine Android apps for resolving various challenges. In this work, we summarize those resolved mining challenges in three research dimensions, including code analysis, app evolution analysis, malware analysis, and present in each dimension several case studies that experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of AndroZoo. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 UL) Empirische Trennung von Konnektivität und Dynamik in komplexen ProblemlöseaufgabenStadler, Matthias ; Niepel, Christoph ; Greiff, Samuel Scientific Conference (2017, September) Komplexes Problemlösen und IntelligenzGreiff, Samuel Scientific Conference (2017, September) Echtzeit- vs. echtzeitnahe Messungen in Paradigmen der differentiell-psychologischen Forschung.Kunze, Thiemo ; Kemper, Christoph ; Stadler, Matthias et alScientific Conference (2017, September)Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 UL) Die Trainierbarkeit von komplexem Problemlösen im Rahmen eines Trainings für Experimentieren.Stebner, Ferdinand; Kunze, Thiemo ; Kemper, Christoph et alScientific Conference (2017, September)Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 UL) Organizational learning and complex problem solving. Towards a better understanding of the modern workplace.Jaster, Christian ; Mainert, Jakob; Greiff, Samuel Scientific Conference (2017, September) Evolution systems of measures and semigroup properties on evolving manifoldsCheng, Li Juan ; Thalmaier, Anton E-print/Working paper (2017)An evolving Riemannian manifold $(M,g_t)_{t\in I}$ consists of a smooth $d$-dimensional manifold $M$, equipped with a geometric flow $g_t$ of complete Riemannian metrics, parametrized by $I=(-\infty,T ... [more ▼]An evolving Riemannian manifold$(M,g_t)_{t\in I}$consists of a smooth$d$-dimensional manifold$M$, equipped with a geometric flow$g_t$of complete Riemannian metrics, parametrized by$I=(-\infty,T)$. Given an additional$C^{1,1}$family of vector fields$(Z_t)_{t\in I}$on$M$. We study the family of operators$L_t=\Delta_t +Z_t $where$\Delta_t$denotes the Laplacian with respect to the metric$g_t$. We first give sufficient conditions, in terms of space-time Lyapunov functions, for non-explosion of the diffusion generated by$L_t\$, and for existence of evolution systems of probability measures associated to it. Coupling methods are used to establish uniqueness of the evolution systems under suitable curvature conditions. Adopting such a unique system of probability measures as reference measures, we characterize supercontractivity, hypercontractivity and ultraboundedness of the corresponding time-inhomogeneous semigroup. To this end, gradient estimates and a family of (super-)logarithmic Sobolev inequalities are established. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 UL) Belief Change in a Preferential Non-Monotonic FrameworkCasini, Giovanni ; Meyer, Thomasin Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2017, August)Belief change and non-monotonic reasoning are usually viewed as two sides of the same coin, with results showing that one can formally be defined in terms of the other. In this paper we show that we can ... [more ▼]Belief change and non-monotonic reasoning are usually viewed as two sides of the same coin, with results showing that one can formally be defined in terms of the other. In this paper we show that we can also integrate the two formalisms by studying belief change within a (preferential) non-monotonic framework. This integration relies heavily on the identification of the monotonic core of a non-monotonic framework. We consider belief change operators in a non-monotonic propositional setting with a view towards preserving consistency. These results can also be applied to the preservation of coherence—an important notion within the field of logic-based ontologies. We show that the standard AGM approach to belief change can be adapted to a preferential non-monotonic framework, with the definition of expansion, contraction, and revision operators, and corresponding representation results. Surprisingly, preferential AGM belief change, as defined here, can be obtained in terms of classical AGM belief change. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL) Feedforward Chemical Neural Network: An In Silico Chemical System That Learns XORBlount, Drew; Banda, Peter ; Teuscher, Christof et alin Artificial Life (2017), 23(3), 295-317Inspired by natural biochemicals that perform complex information processing within living cells, we design and simulate a chemically implemented feedforward neural network, which learns by a novel ... [more ▼]Inspired by natural biochemicals that perform complex information processing within living cells, we design and simulate a chemically implemented feedforward neural network, which learns by a novel chemical-reaction-based analogue of backpropagation. Our network is implemented in a simulated chemical system, where individual neurons are separated from each other by semipermeable cell-like membranes. Our compartmentalized, modular design allows a variety of network topologies to be constructed from the same building blocks. This brings us towards general-purpose, adaptive learning in chemico: wet machine learning in an embodied dynamical system. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL) Collaborative problem solving behavior. A deep dive into log filesSchweitzer, Nick ; Herborn, Katharina ; Mustafic, Maida et alScientific Conference (2017, August) Panel participantGreiff, Samuel Scientific Conference (2017, August) 1 2 3 4