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See detailWhat we know about testing embedded software
Garousi, Vahid UL; Felderer, Michael; Karapıçak, Çağrı Murat et al

in IEEE Software (in press)

To cost-effectively test embedded software, practitioners and researchers have proposed many test techniques, approaches, tools, and frameworks. However, obtaining an overview of the state of the art and ... [more ▼]

To cost-effectively test embedded software, practitioners and researchers have proposed many test techniques, approaches, tools, and frameworks. However, obtaining an overview of the state of the art and state of the practice in this area is challenging for practitioners or new researchers. In addition, owing to an inadequate overview of what already exists in this area, some companies often reinvent the wheel by designing a test approach that’s new to them but already exists. To address these problems, the authors conducted a systematic literature review of this area that covered the testing topics, testing activities, test artifacts, and industries on which the studies focused. The results can benefit both practitioners and researchers by serving as an index to the vast body of knowledge in this important, fast-growing area. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Luxembourg
Harmsen, Robert UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (in press)

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and ... [more ▼]

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The country has experienced remarkable migratory flows, resulting in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system at all levels emphasizes language learning. Historically an agrarian society, a century ago it developed a very strong steelmaking industry and over the past decades has witnessed extraordinary growth in its financial services sector. Established to broaden the economic bases of the country, thus reducing overreliance on the steel and banking industries, yet against considerable pecuniary and ideological resistance, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL) was founded in 2003 upon initiative of a small group of elite decisionmakers. As a private, government-dependent institution (établissement public) directed by a Board of Governors (Conseil de Gouvernance), the university’s major funding is provided by the state, although its third-party funding has increased rapidly and substantially. Ironically, while spatial mobility is everywhere supported, Luxembourg has invested considerable capital and strategic planning in establishing its own national university. It aims to compete globally by concentrating its intellectual and financial resources and by building on the country’s strengths and priorities. The state took this ambitious step in scientific capacity-building in founding a research-oriented university, in so doing also providing a stay-at-home alternative for Luxembourg’s youth, traditionally educated abroad. The long-standing custom of educating elites in other countries was ostensibly justified by the establishment of cosmopolitan, Europe-wide networks. Today, rising international competition and supranational coordination have increased pressure on Luxembourg to grow its higher education system and thus also foster educational and scientific innovation. The University provides a means to diversify the economy and to integrate citizens from diverse cultural background, while the polity remains dominated by local elites. Oriented towards the Grand Duchy’s unique context—small size, but simultaneously flourishing center of European governance and international business—the University was founded upon the principles of internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailCultures of care in aging
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

Book published by Information Age Publishing (in press)

Care for elderly persons has many facets and is influenced by many factors of the care-dependent person, the care giver(s) and the micro-, and macro-social context. A co-operation of multiple disciplines ... [more ▼]

Care for elderly persons has many facets and is influenced by many factors of the care-dependent person, the care giver(s) and the micro-, and macro-social context. A co-operation of multiple disciplines is required to better understand phenomena of elder care and to act adequately in this field. This is even more urgent given the increasing population aging and the impending gaps between demand and supply of care. The present book provides a first substantive integration of knowledge from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychologies to reach these goals —through a multi-disciplinary and international cast of authors. Macro-social context—including demographic, historical, political, normative, and other cultural factors—turned out to open and limit the available options for individual care giving and receipt and shapes how these issues are experienced by the participants in elder care. Elder care is shown to be far more complex than previously thought, because its consequences extend beyond single care givers to multigenerational caring families. Thinking, feeling and acting in relation to care dependency, caregiving and care receipt emerged as being influenced by multiple individual and social level factors. Future issues of elder care are seen as being shaped to a large extent by macro level factors such as population aging, social trends in job and family life, and development of assistive technologies. All this has far reaching implications for ensuring quality of care and the life quality on part of care recipients and care providers and for the coherence of social communities. [less ▲]

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See detailA systematic review of self-care assistive technologies for aging population
Abrilahij, Afsaneh UL; Boll, Thomas UL

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because ... [more ▼]

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because the number of people 80+ is projected to more than double from 2010 to 2050 at least in EU and OECD countries. On the other side, there is a strong desire of older people, their relatives and policy makers to maintain the autonomy in old age as long as possible. In reaction to this, there have been strong social policy recommendations to develop and promote the use of assistive technologies (ATs). Whereas systematic reviews already exist for several other kinds of ATs, reviews about self-care ATs are still missing. Based on systematic literature searches in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases 203 papers were identified of which 12 were included according to our selection criteria. The methodological quality of all the reviewed studies is evaluated. We reviewed findings on indicators of independent living as efficiency criteria as well as evidence about facilitators and barriers of using these technologies. Self-care ATs turned out to be efficient with respect to reduced care hours and increased independence level. The actual use of these ATs was associated with personal, contextual, and device factors. Lack of randomized control trial studies and a need for further research about ATs in several domains of self-care activities is revealed. Based on the findings of the current review, we generate recommendations for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety-aware Location Privacy in VANET: Evaluation and Comparison
Emara, Karim Ahmed Awad El-Sayed UL

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (in press)

VANET safety applications broadcast cooperative awareness messages (CAM) periodically to provide vehicles with continuous updates about the surrounding traffic. The periodicity and the spatiotemporal ... [more ▼]

VANET safety applications broadcast cooperative awareness messages (CAM) periodically to provide vehicles with continuous updates about the surrounding traffic. The periodicity and the spatiotemporal information contained in these messages allow a global adversary to track vehicle movements. Many privacy schemes have been proposed for VANET, but only few schemes consider their impact on safety applications. Also, each scheme is evaluated using inconsistent metrics and unrealistic vehicle traces, which makes comparing the actual performance of different schemes in the wild more difficult. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap and compare different privacy schemes not only in terms of the privacy gained but also their impact on safety applications. A distortion-based privacy metric is initially proposed and compared with other popular privacy metrics showing its effectiveness in measuring privacy. A practical safety metric which is based on Monte Carlo analysis is then proposed to measure the QoS of two safety applications: forward collision warning and lane change warning. Using realistic vehicle traces, six state-of-the-art VANET privacy schemes are evaluated and compared in terms of the proposed privacy and safety metrics. Among the evaluated schemes, it was found that the coordinated silent period scheme achieves the best privacy and QoS levels but fully synchronized silence among all vehicles is a practical challenge. The CAPS and CADS schemes provide a practical compromise between privacy and safety since they employ only the necessary silence periods to prevent tracking and avoid changing pseudonyms in trivial situations. [less ▲]

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See detailCare in aging: Cross-fertilization within and between Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural Psychology
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better ... [more ▼]

Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better understand phenomena of elder care and to act successfully in this field. In the final chapter of a multidisciplinary book with contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology the editors draw conclusions about major topics, new insights, and further implications for research and practice. The conclusions refer to four domains. First, the macro-social context—including demographic, historical, political, normative, and other cultural factors—opens and limits the available options for individual care giving and receipt and shapes how these issues are experienced by the participants. Second, elder care at the individual and family level is far more complex than previously thought, due to differentiated individual and social care preferences and due to consequences extending beyond single caregivers to multigenerational caring families. Third, processes involved in formal and informal care turned out to be rather differentiated: Understanding, emotional responding, motivation and acting towards suffering, care dependency and caregiver burden are influenced by multiple individual and social level factors. Fourth, future issues of elder care are shaped by macro level factors such as population aging, social trends in job and family life, and technological developments with implications for ensuring care quality, care staff, culturally sensitive care, and assistive technologies. Cultural psychology emerged as a valuable partner of the gerosciences by contributing essentially to a deeper understanding of the aforementioned issues. [less ▲]

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See detailCulture in the Act of Caring: Bringing Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural Psychology together
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and ... [more ▼]

In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology. The authors present arguments for a life-span developmental perspective on care for the elderly and extend this to geropsychology as subsection of life-span developmental psychology. They further emphasize that these disciplines consider to some extent the role of cultural and other contextual factors and that other gerosciences specialized on historical, political, health-and nursing-related aspects of elder care can further supplement this effort. Then three major streams of cultural psychology are mentioned which are particularly relevant to topics of caring: Dialogical Self Theory, Theory of Social Representations, and Cultural Psychology of Semiotic Dynamics. The authors conclude that an increasing population aging and growing gaps between demand and supply of care create a serious practical need for an integration of geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychologies to achieve a better understanding of the individual, interpersonal, and macro social processes involved in elder care. [less ▲]

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See detailHochschul- und Berufsbildung in Europa
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Hönig, Barbara; Bach, Maurizio (Eds.) Handbuch Europasoziologie (in press)

Neben Globalisierung und Digitalisierung haben Fragen der Meritokratie und (Aus-)Bildung einen festen Platz im öffentlichen, politischen und privaten Diskurs, denn wir leben in Europa zunehmend in ... [more ▼]

Neben Globalisierung und Digitalisierung haben Fragen der Meritokratie und (Aus-)Bildung einen festen Platz im öffentlichen, politischen und privaten Diskurs, denn wir leben in Europa zunehmend in Bildungsgesellschaften. Die Zeit, die wir in Bildungsorganisationen verbringen, wird immer länger, der absolvierte Fächerkanon wird immer breiter und die Bildungsabschlüsse, die wir erwerben, werden immer höher (vgl. Leemann et al. 2016). Zugleich steigen mit dem Übergang von der Industrie- zur modernen Dienstleistungsgesellschaft die Ansprüche an fachliche und soziale Kompetenzen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt (vgl. Mayer und Solga 2008). Mit dem Wandel der Wirtschaftsstrukturen hin zu wissensbasierten Tätigkeiten, der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der Arbeitswelt, den demographischen Veränderungen und dem in diesem Zusammenhang befürchteten Fachkräftemangel stehen europäische Gesellschaften vor der Aufgabe ihre Bildungssysteme zu reformieren. Auf europäischer, nationaler wie auch regionaler und lokaler Ebenen versuchen Bildungspolitiker den Zugang zu Hochschul- und Berufsbildung und lebenslanges Lernen für immer mehr Mitglieder jeder Kohorte zu ermöglichen. Alle müssen sich mehr denn je um Bildungszertifikate bemühen, weil diese für erfolgreiche Berufskarrieren unabdingbar geworden sind. Zugleich gibt es in diesem Wettbewerb klare Gewinner und Verlierer, denn diejenigen ohne Zugang zu (Aus-)Bildung, vor allem ehemalige Sonderschüler und Hauptschüler, werden zunehmend marginalisiert (vgl. Pfahl 2011; Protsch 2014; Solga 2005). Bildung und die durch sie erworbenen und ausgewiesenen Fähigkeiten gelten in unserer Gesellschaft als Innovationspotenzial, als zentrale Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, gesellschaftlichen Wohlstand sowie soziale und politische Teilhabe. Statt der sozialen Platzierung entlang zugeschriebener Merkmale der Herkunft (wie Schicht, Geschlecht, Rasse, Ethnie) soll die erworbene Leistung, signalisiert in Schulnoten, Bildungsabschlüssen, Qualifikationen sowie Bildungskarrieren insgesamt, den legitimen Zugang zu Positionen, insbesondere höheren sozialen Positionen bestimmen. Insofern ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass in europäischen Gesellschaften individuelle Bildungsbeteiligung und Bildungserfolg wesentliche Bestimmungsgrößen der Verteilung gesellschaftlicher Chancen und Risiken darstellen. [less ▲]

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See detailScientific and legal concepts of care dependency: Role for understanding, emotional responding, and acting in the field of elder care
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care. First, two comprehensive concepts from the nursing sciences are contrasted. Then we compare a scientific and two legal concepts (restrictive vs. inclusive) of care dependency from the German long-term care (LTC) system, the last of which regulate older persons´ access to LTC benefits. Here, we consider their different implications for the risk of unmet psychological, social, and temporary care needs. Next, we examine the theoretical and methodological roles of different care dependency concepts for assessment as well as the analysis of prevalence, antecedents, consequences, and the management of care dependency. Following this, we explore possible functions of care dependency concepts as cognitive mediators of various agents’ activities related to elder care, which opens new topics for further research. Among these, we include the ascription of care dependency by various actors, older people´s self-presentation, and family carers´ presentation and LTC administrators´ evaluation of an older person´s care dependency. Further issues addressed are the education of professional care workers and professionals´ provision of elder care. Here, special attention is devoted to the implications of a shift from a restrictive to a more inclusive legal concept of care dependency as recently happened in Germany. Finally, we discuss the implications of inclusive legal concepts of care dependency for the improvement of elder care quality [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning and natural language processing on the patent corpus: data, tools, and new measures
Balsmeier, Benjamin UL; Li, Guan-Cheng; Assaf, Mohamad et al

in Journal of Economics & Management Strategy (in press)

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See detailTeachers’ assessments of students’ achievements: The ecological validity of studies using case vignettes
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Glock, Sabine et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (in press)

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See detailConvergence of credit structure around the world
Leon, Florian UL

in Economic Modelling (in press)

This paper studies convergence of credit structure worldwide. We hand-collect data on credit to household and firm credit for 143 countries over the period 1995-2014. First, we separately document the ... [more ▼]

This paper studies convergence of credit structure worldwide. We hand-collect data on credit to household and firm credit for 143 countries over the period 1995-2014. First, we separately document the existence of a convergence process of total credit, household credit and firm credit, respectively. Second, we find that convergence of household credit occurs faster than firm credit, inducing a process of convergence of the share of household credit to total credit. Third, convergence occurs faster in low-income countries and in countries with a lower initial level of total credit but slows down after the 2008 global financial crisis. Finally, our data investigation does not support the idea that convergence is driven by changing conditions in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailAwareness-raising, Legitimation or Backlash? Effects of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on Education Systems in Germany
Powell, Justin J W UL; Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.

in Resnik, Julia (Ed.) The Power of Numbers and Networks (in press)

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See detailNew Directions in Attack Tree Research: Catching up with Industrial Needs
Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL

in Mauw, Sjouke (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Graphical Models for Security (in press)

Attack trees provide a systematic way of characterizing diverse system threats. Their strengths arise from the combination of an intuitive representation of possible attacks and availability of formal ... [more ▼]

Attack trees provide a systematic way of characterizing diverse system threats. Their strengths arise from the combination of an intuitive representation of possible attacks and availability of formal mathematical frameworks for analyzing them in a qualitative or a quantitative manner. Indeed, the mathematical frameworks have become a large focus of attack tree research. However, practical applications of attack trees in industry largely remain a tedious and error-prone exercise. Recent research directions in attack trees, such as attack tree generation, attempt to close this gap and to improve the attack tree state-of-thepractice. In this position paper we outline the recurrent challenges in manual tree design within industry, and we overview the recent research results in attack trees that help the practitioners. For the challenges that have not yet been addressed by the community, we propose new promising research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe discrete Pompeiu problem on the plane
Kiss, Gergely UL

Presentation (2018, November 27)

The discrete Pompeiu problem is stemmed from an integral-geometric question on the plane. The problem is whether we can reconstruct a function if we know the average values of the function on every ... [more ▼]

The discrete Pompeiu problem is stemmed from an integral-geometric question on the plane. The problem is whether we can reconstruct a function if we know the average values of the function on every congruent copy of a given pattern. After introducing the theory of spectral analysis on discrete Abelian groups, I show some results for the discrete version of the problem. One of the arguments is connected to a coloring problem of the plane. One of them is a geometric construction and some others based on some geometric and combinatoric properties of the plane. I also mention some unsolved questions of the topic. My talk is based on a joint work with M. Laczkovich and Cs. Vincze. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport Werner en suspens. Les débats autour de l'Union économique et monétaire en 1973
Danescu, Elena UL

in Wilkens, Andreas (Ed.) Une année particulière: 1973 et les tourments de l'Europe (2018)

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See detailRobert Triffin, a 'personal equation'
Danescu, Elena UL

in The Journal of European Economic History (2018)

Robert Triffin (1911-1993), a Belgian-born economist who spent much of his career in America, had a major influence on 20th-century economic thinking. He is particularly known for his monetary approach ... [more ▼]

Robert Triffin (1911-1993), a Belgian-born economist who spent much of his career in America, had a major influence on 20th-century economic thinking. He is particularly known for his monetary approach. His intellectual legacy revolves ariund the 'Triffin dilemma' or 'Triffin paradox'. Triffin accurately predicted the end of the Bretton Woods system, though not for the right reasons. Triffin stuck by his monetary theory that it was much harder to achieve sound international economic management with flexible exchange rates and that best practices were by no means a guarantee of global stability if they were not accompanied by genuine international coordination. Triffin was also a committed European. He was close to Jean Monnet and Pierre Werner and worked alongside them from the early 1960's onwards in favour of European monetary integration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Werner report and the financial crisis during the 1970s
Danescu, Elena UL; Tedeschi, Paolo

in Leboutte, René; Tedeschi, Paolo (Eds.) Euro changes: European Responses to Economics and Social Changes. From de 1970s to the new Millennium. (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (8 UL)