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See detailLuxemburg und der Studiengang der Sozialen Arbeit
Böwen, Petra UL; Dujardin, Céline UL; Straus, Liz UL

Poster (2017, May 10)

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See detailChiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Microlenses
Popov, Piotr; Honaker, Lawrence William UL; Mirheydari, Mona et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

Nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) of achiral molecules and racemic mixtures of chiral ones form flat films and show uniform textures between circular polarizers when suspended in sub-millimeter size grids ... [more ▼]

Nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) of achiral molecules and racemic mixtures of chiral ones form flat films and show uniform textures between circular polarizers when suspended in sub-millimeter size grids and immersed in water. On addition of chiral dopants to the liquid crystal, the films exhibit optical textures with concentric ring patterns and radial variation of the birefringence color. Both are related to a biconvex shape of the chiral liquid crystal film; the rings are due to interference. The curvature radii of the biconvex lens array are in the range of a few millimeters. This curvature leads to a radial variation of the optical axis along the plane of the film. Such a Pancharatnam-type phase lens dominates the imaging and explains the measured focal length of about one millimeter. To our knowledge, these are the first spontaneously formed Pancharatnam devices. The unwinding of the helical structure at the grid walls drives the lens shape. The relation between the lens curvature and material properties such as helical pitch, the twist elastic constant, and the interfacial tensions, is derived. This simple, novel method for spontaneously forming microlens arrays can also be used for various sensors. [less ▲]

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See detailErythritol is a pentose-phosphate pathway metabolite and associated with adiposity gain in young adults
Hootman, Katie C.; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre UL; Kraemer, Lisa UL et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2017)

Metabolomic markers associated with incident central adiposity gain were investigated in young adults. In a 9-mo prospective study of university freshmen (n = 264). Blood samples and anthropometry ... [more ▼]

Metabolomic markers associated with incident central adiposity gain were investigated in young adults. In a 9-mo prospective study of university freshmen (n = 264). Blood samples and anthropometry measurements were collected in the first 3 d on campus and at the end of the year. Plasma from individuals was pooled by phenotype [incident central adiposity, stable adiposity, baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) > 5.05%, HbA1c < 4.92%] and assayed using GC-MS, chromatograms were analyzed using MetaboliteDetector software, and normalized metabolite levels were compared using Welch’s t test. Assays were repeated using freshly prepared pools, and statistically significant metabolites were quantified in a targeted GC-MS approach. Isotope tracer studies were performed to determine if the potential marker was an endogenous human metabolite in men and in whole blood. Participants with incident central adiposity gain had statistically significantly higher blood erythritol [P < 0.001, false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.0435], and the targeted assay revealed 15-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.27, 16.25] higher blood erythritol compared with participants with stable adiposity. Participants with baseline HbA1c > 5.05% had 21-fold (95% CI: 19.84, 21.41) higher blood erythritol compared with participants with lower HbA1c (P < 0.001, FDR = 0.00016). Erythritol was shown to be synthesized endogenously from glucose via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) in stable isotope-assisted ex vivo blood incubation experiments and through in vivo conversion of erythritol to erythronate in stable isotope-assisted dried blood spot experiments. Therefore, endogenous production of erythritol from glucose may contribute to the association between erythritol and obesity observed in young adults. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunities of Heads of State and State Officials for International Crimes
Pichou, Maria UL

Presentation (2017, May 08)

This project explores the issue of immunities of Heads of State and State officials for international crimes before international courts and international criminal tribunals and courts. My presentation ... [more ▼]

This project explores the issue of immunities of Heads of State and State officials for international crimes before international courts and international criminal tribunals and courts. My presentation begins with the Rome Statute provisions and the International Criminal Court’s case law on the issue; it then turns to the jurisprudence of the international criminal tribunals and specialised, internationalised, hybrid courts, in an attempt to provide a concise but as far as possible comprehensive analysis; it proceeds with an analysis under public international law and the International Court of Justice (hereinafter ‘ICJ’) case law. As the question of immunities is currently under review at the International Law Commission (hereinafter ‘ILC’), an analysis of the ILC Reports thus far is included. Finally, the project will address the question of how national courts and national law have dealt with Article 27 of the Rome Statute [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Happens Next? Language Learning Trajectory of an Iraqi Asylum Seeker in Luxembourg
Kalocsanyiova, Erika UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May 05)

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is often portrayed as a country of immigration. Official government policies continually draw upon the rhetoric of trilingualism to support claims about the country’s ... [more ▼]

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is often portrayed as a country of immigration. Official government policies continually draw upon the rhetoric of trilingualism to support claims about the country’s openness and multicultural spirit. This, along with the recognition of three languages – Luxembourgish, German and French – is expected to facilitate the integration of foreign nationals. It is claimed no Luxembourger is monolingual: moving fluidly back and forth between a multitude of languages is a communication method in its own right and members of the local society are believed to excel in it. Despite widespread acceptance and favourable attitudes towards multilingualism, language resources outside the recognised trilingual model have ambiguous statuses. As a result, broader societal multilingualism is perceived as problematic in numerous instances (Horner & Weber, 2008; Horner, 2015). In present-day language ideological debates, the strong presence of foreigners tends to be perceived as a threat to the established language regime and particularly to the position of the Luxembourgish language. The role of Luxembourgish as “language of integration” has been increasingly emphasised, although it is the one resource new arrivals are least likely to have in their communicative repertoires (de Bres, 2014). The often conflicting nationalist and multilingual language ideologies give rise to ambivalent messages as to what languages and what identities should be offered to newcomers, among them to the refugees who have sought international protection in Luxembourg. This contribution offers detailed insights into the linguistic integration trajectory of an Iraqi asylum seeker who arrived to Luxembourg in the summer of 2015. Our aim is to explore how his language resources are being compiled, enhanced and discarded in the course of the integration process, i.e. the reorganisation of his communicative repertoire. As integration seldom starts from scratch, first we report on language resources the research participant accumulated prior to his arrival to Luxembourg. These are being discussed in the context of his educational and professional experiences and future life-projects. Secondly, we examine his language learning trajectory bearing in mind the competing linguistic ideologies and practices refugees are required to adjust in their daily efforts to integrate in Luxembourg. Thirdly, we offer examples of the language practices he engaged in. These demonstrate how he responded to multilingual social settings in both language use and attitudes towards the languages and identities offered. Furthermore, they provide clues about what language resources have become part of his complex repertoire. Blommaert and Backus (2013) described language learning as a “process of growth” drawing attention to the fact that repertoires do not develop in linear fashion, but “explosively in some phases of life and gradually in some others”. Our data suggest that the process of repertoire-building is highly dynamic during this transition period. The research participant’s deliberate use of newly-acquired language resources, without regard to how well he knows the languages involved, indicates new forms of linguistic identification. These include fluid multilingual practices, which are considered to be expressions of his new emerging identity. This contribution presents data from an ongoing linguistic ethnographic research (obtained through interviews, classroom observations and shadowing) and will include a discussion about the challenges brought by working with vulnerable research participants and the need to research multilingually. [less ▲]

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See detailOwnership structure and investment-cash flow sensitivity
Derouiche, Imen UL

in Journal of Management & Governance (2017)

This study investigates the effect of ownership structure on the use of cash flow in financing corporate investments—the investment-cash flow sensitivity—in a concentrated ownership context. Using a ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the effect of ownership structure on the use of cash flow in financing corporate investments—the investment-cash flow sensitivity—in a concentrated ownership context. Using a sample of 6797 French listed firms from 2000 to 2013, results show that investment-cash flow sensitivity decreases with the cash-flow rights of the controlling shareholder and increases with the separation of its cash-flow and control rights (excess control rights). Firms are, thus, less likely to use cash flow in investments when the interests of controlling shareholders are aligned with those of minority shareholders. However, they appear to use considerable internal funds for their investments when they have severe agency problems, driven by excess control rights of the controlling shareholders. Overall, our findings help advance the understanding of the role of agency relationship in shaping corporate financial policy. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic Decision Theory for solving complex decision problems
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Presentation (2017, May 03)

Today's decision makers in fields ranging from engineering to psychology, from medicine to economics and/or homeland security are faced with remarkable new technologies, huge amounts of information to ... [more ▼]

Today's decision makers in fields ranging from engineering to psychology, from medicine to economics and/or homeland security are faced with remarkable new technologies, huge amounts of information to help them in reaching good decisions, and the ability to share information at unprecedented speeds and quantities. These tools and resources should lead to better decisions. Yet, the tools bring with them daunting new problems: the massive amounts of data available are often incomplete, unreliable and/or distributed and there is great uncertainty in them; interoperating/distributed decision makers and decision making devices need to be coordinated; many sources of data need to be fused into a good decision; information sharing under new cooperation/competition arrangements raises security problems. When faced with such issues, there are few highly efficient algorithms available to support decision makers. The objective of Algorithmic Decision Theory (ADT) is to improve the ability of decision makers to perform well when facing these new challenges and problems through the use of methods from theoretical computer science, in particular algorithmic methods. The primary goal of ADT is hence to explore and develop algorithmic approaches for solving decision problems arising in a variety of applications areas. Examples include, but are not limited to: - Computational tractability/intractability of social consensus and multiple criteria compromise functions; - Improvement of decision support and recommender systems; - Development of automatic decision devices including on-line decision procedures; - Robust decision making; - Learning for multi-agent systems and other on-line decision devices. This presentation will focus more specifically on multiple criteria decision aiding methodology, the actual research field of the author. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical abilities in elementary school: Do they relate to number–space associations?
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2017)

Considering the importance of mathematics in Western societies, it is crucial to understand the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of more complex mathematical skills. The current study ... [more ▼]

Considering the importance of mathematics in Western societies, it is crucial to understand the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of more complex mathematical skills. The current study, therefore, investigated how the quality of number–space mappings on the mental number line, as indexed by the parity SNARC (spatial–numerical association of response codes) effect, relates to mathematical performances in third- and fourth-grade elementary school children. Mathematical competencies were determined using the “Heidelberger Rechentest,” a standardized German math test assessing both arithmetical and visuospatial math components. Stronger parity SNARC effects significantly related to better arithmetical but not visuospatial math abilities, albeit only in the relatively younger children. These findings highlight the importance of spatial–numerical interactions for arithmetical (as opposed to visuospatial) math skills at the fairly early stages of mathematical development. Differential relations might be explained by the reliance on problem-solving strategies involving number–space mappings only for arithmetic tasks mainly in younger children. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fourniture transfrontalière de services bancaires et financiers après Brexit
Voordeckers, Olivier UL

in Revue internationale des services financiers (2017), 2017(1), 76-83

This article analyses the legal possibilities for banks incorporated in the United Kingdom to have access to the single market for financial services after Brexit.

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See detailMusikalische Bildung. Deutsche und französische Tradition im Überblick
Sagrillo, Damien UL

in Gradus (2017), 4(1),

In den folgenden Zeilen wird es darum gehen, die beiden Persönlichkeiten Leo Kestenberg und Marcel Landowski vorzustellen, ihr Lebenswerk zu beleuchten, zu vergleichen und mit dem ungarischen Komponisten ... [more ▼]

In den folgenden Zeilen wird es darum gehen, die beiden Persönlichkeiten Leo Kestenberg und Marcel Landowski vorzustellen, ihr Lebenswerk zu beleuchten, zu vergleichen und mit dem ungarischen Komponisten, Musikethnologen und Musikpädagogen Zoltán Kodály in Zusammenhang zu bringen. Im Vordergrund wird aber immer Marcel Landowski stehen, da von ihm in deutscher Sprache bis jetzt so gut wie nichts vorliegt. Obschon in ihren Ländern durchaus als Musiker und Wegbereiter der Organisation des Musiklebens anerkannt, sind Kestenberg und Landowski, im Gegensatz zu Zoltán Kodály, in den jeweilig anderen Ländern so gut wie unbekannt. Eine vergleichende Studie bietet sich demnach an. Dennoch kann sie nicht komplett sein, sondern Anregung sein für weitere Nachforschungen über Organisation musikalischer Bildung und deren politischen Hintergrund in den an dieser Stelle behandelten Ländern bzw. in den europäischen Nationen überhaupt. In the following lines, I will present the two personalities of Leo Kestenberg and Marcel Landowski; I will describe their life-work and relate it to Zoltán Kodály, the eminent Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and music pedagogue. However, the study will be based on Marcel Landowski, because, until now, no German documents are dealing with his life and achievements. Although acknowledged in their countries as musicians and of music organisers, Kestenberg and Landowski are not known in the respective other country. On the other hand, Zoltán Kodály is recognised worldwide. It is for this reason that a comparative study is necessary. Nevertheless, this paper cannot be complete but should be a motivation for further research about the organisation of music education, the organisation of music including the political background in the countries presented in this document or the larger context of European nations. [less ▲]

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See detailPushing the Boundaries. New Research on the Activism of EU Supranational Institutions
Howarth, David UL; Roos, Mechthild

in Journal of Contemporary European Research [=JCER] (2017), 13(2), 1007-1024

This contribution introduces the concept of ‘activism’ to the study of EU supranational institutions and their role in EU policy making and European integration. While long present in studies of the Court ... [more ▼]

This contribution introduces the concept of ‘activism’ to the study of EU supranational institutions and their role in EU policy making and European integration. While long present in studies of the Court of Justice of the EU, ‘activism’ has rarely been examined systematically in the context of analyses of other supranational institutions. This contribution offers a definition of ‘supranational institutional activism’, examines its analytical usefulness in relation to other concepts such as ‘entrepreneurship’ and through the lens of a number of political science and EU integration theories and analytical approaches. The specific analytical insights derived from the disciplines of political science, history and legal scholarship of the twelve articles of this special edition on ‘supranational institutional activism’ are also considered. While the powers and roles of EU supranational institutions have been examined in numerous studies, this article presents a concept that can contribute to a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the contribution of these entities to EU policy making and European integration. [less ▲]

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See detailMood, emotions and eating disorders
Vögele, Claus UL; Lutz, Annika UL; Gibson, E. Leigh

in Agras, W. Stewart; Hagler Robinsn, Athena (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Eating Disorders, Second Edition (2017)

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. This chapter discusses basic mechanisms, findings, and models that help our understanding of the interactions between eating and emotions, in both ... [more ▼]

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. This chapter discusses basic mechanisms, findings, and models that help our understanding of the interactions between eating and emotions, in both clinical and nonclinical populations. The finding that negative affect predicts EDs transdiagnostically, and that comorbidity with depressive disorders and anxiety disorders is the norm among patients with EDs suggests that EDs may not necessarily be restricted to domains of eating behavior and body image but may also be associated with significant difficulties in affective functioning. This chapter reviews the evidence relating to the notion that EDs are disturbances of mood regulation, in which regulatory strategies specifically related to eating and the body are used to diminish negative affect associated with food, body image, or stress. [less ▲]

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See detailFrance and European macroeconomic policy coordination: from the Treaty of Rome to the euro area sovereign debt crisis
Howarth, David UL; Schild, Joachim

in Modern & Contemporary France (2017), 25(2), 171-190

French support for European (EC/EU)-level macroeconomic policy coordination has been driven by remarkably consistent preferences since the 1950s. With the exception of the de Gaulle decade (1958–1968 ... [more ▼]

French support for European (EC/EU)-level macroeconomic policy coordination has been driven by remarkably consistent preferences since the 1950s. With the exception of the de Gaulle decade (1958–1968), French governments have sought European-level mechanisms for balance of payments support. This article sets out to explain these remarkably stable French preferences on European-level macroeconomic policy coordination over time through a combination of an interest-based analysis referring to structural and competitive weaknesses of the French economy and an ideational explanatory analysis focused upon French Keynesian thinking on symmetrical adjustment of both deficit and surplus countries. French preferences align largely with the concept of ‘embedded liberalism’. This article also interprets a number of developments in EU-level economic governance in response to the banking and sovereign debt crises that provided a policy window for France to move European-level mechanisms and institutions towards long-held French preferences. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral-Efficient Model for Multiuser Massive MIMO: Exploiting User Velocity
Vu, Xuan Thang UL; Trinh, Anh Vu; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE international Conference on Communications (2017, May)

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See detailOn the Diversity of Partial Relaying Cooperation with Relay Selection in Finite-SNR Regime
Vu, Xuan Thang UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (2017, May)

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See detailFinite-SNR analysis for partial relaying cooperation with channel coding and opportunistic relay selection
Vu, Xuan Thang UL; Duhamel, Pierre; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing (2017)

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See detailRécit national et négation de l'histoire
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailPost-occupancy evaluation of residential buildings in Luxembourgwith centralized and decentralized ventilation systems, focusing onindoor air quality (IAQ). Assessment by questionnaires and physicalmeasurements
Ferreira Silva, Marielle; Maas, Stefan UL; Artur de Souza, Henor et al

in Energy and Buildings (2017), 148

tComplete knowledge about habits of the occupants, including their opinions regarding ventilation sys-tems is an important condition for reducing the consumption of natural resources and improving ... [more ▼]

tComplete knowledge about habits of the occupants, including their opinions regarding ventilation sys-tems is an important condition for reducing the consumption of natural resources and improving indoorcomfort. In addition, uncomforted occupants tend to take measures to improve their situation, whichmay increase energy consumption. Advanced thermal models for buildings can perhaps predict interac-tions between the IAQ determinants, e.g. energy consumption, ventilation and comfort, but do not takeinto account the behavior of residents. By questionnaires and physical measurements this study evalu-ated dwellings equipped partly with centralized and partly with decentralized ventilation systems withheat recovery. This field study involved two post-occupied residential buildings situated in the city ofEsch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, during spring season 2015. Thus, both the physical measurements andquestionnaires were considered. The results obtained demonstrated that more than 80% of the residentswere satisfied and the perceived IAQ was judged “normal”, “good” or even “very good”. Furthermore,the measurements performed detected in some cases malfunction of ventilation devices, wherefore theoccupants were unable. [less ▲]

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