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See detailThe European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in International Perspectives on Education & Society (in press), 33

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of ... [more ▼]

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe’s key position in global science. We uncover both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity in the fields of STEM, including health, over the twentieth century. On-going internationalization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition and collaboration. Despite policy goals to foster innovation and expand research capacity, policies cannot fully account for the differential growth of scientific productivity we chart from 1975 to 2010. Our neoinstitutional framework facilitates explanation of differences in institutional settings, organizational forms, and organizations that produce the most European research. We measure growth of published peer-reviewed articles indexed in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Organizational forms vary in their contributions, with universities accounting for nearly half but rising in France; ultrastable in Germany at four-fifths, and growing at around two-thirds in the UK. Differing institutionalization pathways created the conditions necessary for continuous, but varying growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science. The research university is central in all three countries, and we identify organizations leading in research output. Few analyses explicitly compare across time, space, and different levels of analysis. We show how important European science has been to overall global science productivity. In-depth comparisons, especially the organizational fields and forms in which science is produced, are crucial if policy is to support research and development. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Worldwide Triumph of the Research University and Globalizing Science
Powell, Justin J W UL; Fernandez, Frank; Crist, John T. et al

in International Perspectives on Education & Society (in press), 33

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an ... [more ▼]

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an international research team. The chapter synthesizes the results of a series of country-level case studies and cross-national and regional comparisons on the growth of scientific research from 1900 until 2011. Additionally, the chapter provides a quantitative analysis of global trends in scientific, peer-reviewed publishing over the same period. The introduction identifies common themes that emerged across the case studies examined in-depth during the multi-year research project Science Productivity, Higher Education, Research Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE). First, universities have long been and increasingly are the primary organizations in science production around the globe. Second, the chapters describe in-country and cross-country patterns of competition and collaboration in scientific publications. Third, the chapters describe the national policy environments and institutionalized organizational forms that fostered scientific research. The introduction reviews selected findings and limitations of previous bibliometric studies and explains that the chapters in the volume overcome these limitations by applying neo-institutional theoretical frameworks to analyze bibliometric data over an extensive period. [less ▲]

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See detailIslamic banking development and access to credit
Leon, Florian UL; Weill, Laurent

in Pacific-Basin Finance Journal (in press)

The recent expansion of Islamic banks raises questions on its economic implications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of Islamic banking development on access to credit. We combine data ... [more ▼]

The recent expansion of Islamic banks raises questions on its economic implications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of Islamic banking development on access to credit. We combine data from a unique hand-collected database that covers Islamic banks with firm-level data covering developing and emerging countries over the period of 2006 to 2009. We find that Islamic banking development has overall no impact on credit constraints, while banking development and conventional banking development alleviate obstacles to financing. However Islamic banking development exerts a positive impact on access to credit when conventional banking development is low. Hence we support the view that Islamic banking does not overall alleviate obstacles to financing, but it can act as substitute to conventional banking. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Deutschunterricht: Flucht und Vertreibung in der deutschen Literatur
Pavlik, Jennifer UL; Thurn, Nike

Book published by Friedrich Verlag (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL)
See detailNetzwerkvisualisierungen in den Geschichtswissenschaften zwischen explorativer Quellenanalyse und der Suggestionskraft des Bildes
During, Marten UL

in Häußling, Roger (Ed.) Visualisierung sozialer Netzwerke (2018)

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See detailThe Power of Networks. Prospects of Historical Network Research
Kerschbaumer, Florian; Keyserlingk, Linda Von; Stark, Martin et al

Book published by Routledge Publishers (2018)

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See detailEnergy, Risk and Governance: The Case of Nuclear Energy in India
Wong, Catherine UL

Book published by Palgrave Macmillan (2017)

This book is about how risk, energy and governance are intertwined in the development of the nuclear industry in India and its relationship with the Indian public. It provides a rare insider-view of how ... [more ▼]

This book is about how risk, energy and governance are intertwined in the development of the nuclear industry in India and its relationship with the Indian public. It provides a rare insider-view of how the nuclear establishment thinks about risk and contrasts that with public understandings of nuclear risk. Through that, the book presents a more nuanced picture of why nuclear energy is considered a rational choice in spite of the risks; the ambiguities in both expert and public risk perceptions; and the internal reflexivities that have emerged within the nuclear establishment as a result of the Fukushima-Daiichi disaster which are not displayed in the public discourse. The insights in this book are not unique to India and similar observations can easily be made in the global nuclear industry. Reflecting on what this means for risk governance in practice, the book proposes a toolkit that practitioners in the nuclear industry can use in public engagement, risk communication and deliberation at various stages of decision-making. [less ▲]

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See detailLIPS vs MOSA: a Replicated Em- pirical Study on Automated Test Case Generation
Panichella, Annibale UL; Kifetew, Fitsum; Tonella, Paolo

in International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering (SSBSE) 2017 (2017, September 09)

Replication is a fundamental pillar in the construction of scientific knowledge. Test data generation for procedural programs can be tackled using a single-target or a many-objective approach. The ... [more ▼]

Replication is a fundamental pillar in the construction of scientific knowledge. Test data generation for procedural programs can be tackled using a single-target or a many-objective approach. The proponents of LIPS, a novel single-target test generator, conducted a preliminary empirical study to compare their approach with MOSA, an alternative many-objective test generator. However, their empirical investigation suffers from several external and internal validity threats, does not consider complex programs with many branches and does not include any qualitative analysis to interpret the results. In this paper, we report the results of a replication of the original study designed to address its major limitations and threats to validity. The new findings draw a completely different picture on the pros and cons of single-target vs many-objective approaches to test case generation. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Modelling of Damage and Fracture in Discrete Materials Using a Variational Quasicontinuum Method
Rokos, Ondrej; Peerlings, Ron; Beex, Lars UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September 05)

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See detailIs Big Data Sufficient for a Reliable Detection of Non-Technical Losses?
Glauner, Patrick UL; Migliosi, Angelo UL; Meira, Jorge Augusto UL et al

in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems (ISAP 2017) (2017, September)

Non-technical losses (NTL) occur during the distribution of electricity in power grids and include, but are not limited to, electricity theft and faulty meters. In emerging countries, they may range up to ... [more ▼]

Non-technical losses (NTL) occur during the distribution of electricity in power grids and include, but are not limited to, electricity theft and faulty meters. In emerging countries, they may range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed. In order to detect NTLs, machine learning methods are used that learn irregular consumption patterns from customer data and inspection results. The Big Data paradigm followed in modern machine learning reflects the desire of deriving better conclusions from simply analyzing more data, without the necessity of looking at theory and models. However, the sample of inspected customers may be biased, i.e. it does not represent the population of all customers. As a consequence, machine learning models trained on these inspection results are biased as well and therefore lead to unreliable predictions of whether customers cause NTL or not. In machine learning, this issue is called covariate shift and has not been addressed in the literature on NTL detection yet. In this work, we present a novel framework for quantifying and visualizing covariate shift. We apply it to a commercial data set from Brazil that consists of 3.6M customers and 820K inspection results. We show that some features have a stronger covariate shift than others, making predictions less reliable. In particular, previous inspections were focused on certain neighborhoods or customer classes and that they were not sufficiently spread among the population of customers. This framework is about to be deployed in a commercial product for NTL detection. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do we need to say about a design method?
Gericke, Kilian UL; Eckert, Claudia; Stacey, Martin

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (2017, August)

Method development is one of the raisons d’etre of engineering design research and method uptake by industry is perceived as an important success criterion. This paper argues that one of the problems with ... [more ▼]

Method development is one of the raisons d’etre of engineering design research and method uptake by industry is perceived as an important success criterion. This paper argues that one of the problems with methods is the lack of clarity about what is actually proposed to industry and the academic community when a new method is put forward, in terms of how detailed, strict, precise and rigorous the method is and what it can deliver. This paper puts the concept of method in the context of related concepts and proposes a multi-level model of the elements of a method to argue that a contribution on each of these levels can be of value and that the introduction of methods can fail on each of these levels. Implications thereof for industry and academia are discussed, concluding that a clear description of methods and their intended use is important for enabling proper validation of each of the method’s elements and for communicating methods to academia and industry. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussant
Greiff, Samuel UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 UL)
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See detailAn engineering approach to mapping meanings in products and services
Waltersdorfer, Gregor UL; Gericke, Kilian UL; Desmet, Pieter M. A. et al

Scientific Conference (2017, August)

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See detaileXtended Variational Quasicontinuum Methodology for Modelling of Crack Propagation in Discrete Lattice Systems
Rokos, Ondrej; Peerlings, Ron; Zeman, Jan et al

Scientific Conference (2017, July 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 UL)
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See detailAn equation-free multiscale method: a result of extending the quasicontinuum method to irregular structures
Beex, Lars UL; Kerfriden, Pierre

Scientific Conference (2017, July 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 UL)
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See detailLa réforme du droit luxembourgeois des sociétés (2016)
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés - Tijdschrift voor Rechtspersoon en Vennootschap (2017), (4),

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (11 UL)