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See detailMany Independent Objective (MIO) Algorithm for Test Suite Generation
Arcuri, Andrea UL

in Symposium on Search-Based Software Engineering (SSBSE) (in press)

Automatically generating test suites is intrinsically a multi- objective problem, as any of the testing targets (e.g, statements to exe- cute or mutants to kill) is an objective on its own. Test suite ... [more ▼]

Automatically generating test suites is intrinsically a multi- objective problem, as any of the testing targets (e.g, statements to exe- cute or mutants to kill) is an objective on its own. Test suite generation has peculiarities that are quite di erent from other more regular optimi- sation problems. For example, given an existing test suite, one can add more tests to cover the remaining objectives. One would like the smallest number of small tests to cover as many objectives as possible, but that is a secondary goal compared to covering those targets in the rst place. Furthermore, the amount of objectives in software testing can quickly become unmanageable, in the order of (tens/hundreds of) thousands, es- pecially for system testing of industrial size systems. Traditional multi- objective optimisation algorithms can already start to struggle with just four or ve objectives to optimize. To overcome these issues, di erent techniques have been proposed, like for example the Whole Test Suite (WTS) approach and the Many-Objective Sorting Algorithm (MOSA). However, those techniques might not scale well to very large numbers of objectives and limited search budgets (a typical case in system test- ing). In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, called Many Indepen- dent Objective (MIO) algorithm. This algorithm is designed and tailored based on the speci c properties of test suite generation. An empirical study, on a set of arti cial and actual software, shows that the MIO al- gorithm can achieve higher coverage compared to WTS and MOSA, as it can better exploit the peculiarities of test suite generation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (12 UL)
See detail'Was heißt schon Integration?' Subjektive Vorstellungen von Migrantenjugendlichen in Luxemburg
Steinmetz, Sara UL; Willems, Helmut UL; Weiss, Pierre UL

in Henn, Daniela; Prigge, Jessica; Ries, Karsten (Eds.) et al Streifzüge durch die angewandte Sozialwissenschaft. Evaluation - Migration - Sozialpolitik - Soziale Arbeit. Dieter Filsinger zum 65. Geburtstag (in press)

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See detailAn Empirical Evaluation of Evolutionary Algorithms for Test Suite Generation
Campos, Jose; Ge, Yan; Fraser, Gordon et al

in Symposium on Search-Based Software Engineering (SSBSE) (in press)

Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be effective at generating unit test suites optimised for code coverage. While many aspects of these algorithms have been evaluated in detail (e.g., test length ... [more ▼]

Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be effective at generating unit test suites optimised for code coverage. While many aspects of these algorithms have been evaluated in detail (e.g., test length and different kinds of techniques aimed at improving performance, like seeding), the influence of the specific algorithms has to date seen less attention in the literature. As it is theoretically impossible to design an algorithm that is best on all possible problems, a common approach in software engineering problems is to first try a Genetic Algorithm, and only afterwards try to refine it or compare it with other algorithms to see if any of them is more suited for the addressed problem. This is particularly important in test generation, since recent work suggests that random search may in practice be equally effective, whereas the reformulation as a many-objective problem seems to be more effective. To shed light on the influence of the search algorithms, we empirically evaluate six different algorithms on a selection of non-trivial open source classes. Our study shows that the use of a test archive makes evolutionary algorithms clearly better than random testing, and it confirms that the many-objective search is the most effective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (14 UL)
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See detailRESTful API Automated Test Case Generation
Arcuri, Andrea UL

in IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability & Security (QRS) (in press)

Nowadays, web services play a major role in the development of enterprise applications. Many such applications are now developed using a service-oriented architecture (SOA), where microservices is one of ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, web services play a major role in the development of enterprise applications. Many such applications are now developed using a service-oriented architecture (SOA), where microservices is one of its most popular kind. A RESTful web service will provide data via an API over the network using HTTP, possibly interacting with databases and other web services. Testing a RESTful API poses challenges, as inputs/outputs are sequences of HTTP requests/responses to a remote server. Many approaches in the literature do black-box testing, as the tested API is a remote service whose code is not available. In this paper, we consider testing from the point of view of the developers, which do have full access to the code that they are writing. Therefore, we propose a fully automated white-box testing approach, where test cases are automatically generated using an evolutionary algorithm. Tests are rewarded based on code coverage and fault finding metrics. We implemented our technique in a tool called EVOMASTER, which is open-source. Experiments on two open-source, yet non-trivial RESTful services and an industrial one, do show that our novel technique did automatically find 38 real bugs in those applications. However, obtained code coverage is lower than the one achieved by the manually written test suites already existing in those services. Research directions on how to further improve such approach are therefore discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 UL)
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See detailSecurity Slicing for Auditing Common Injection Vulnerabilities
Thome, Julian UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in The Journal of Systems & Software (in press)

Cross-site scripting and injection vulnerabilities are among the most common and serious security issues for Web applications. Although existing static analysis approaches can detect potential ... [more ▼]

Cross-site scripting and injection vulnerabilities are among the most common and serious security issues for Web applications. Although existing static analysis approaches can detect potential vulnerabilities in source code, they generate many false warnings and source-sink traces with irrelevant information, making their adoption impractical for security auditing. One suitable approach to support security auditing is to compute a program slice for each sink, which contains all the information required for security auditing. However, such slices are likely to contain a large amount of information that is irrelevant to security, thus raising scalability issues for security audits. In this paper, we propose an approach to assist security auditors by defining and experimenting with pruning techniques to reduce original program slices to what we refer to as security slices, which contain sound and precise information. To evaluate the proposed approach, we compared our security slices to the slices generated by a state-of-the-art program slicing tool, based on a number of open-source benchmarks. On average, our security slices are 76% smaller than the original slices. More importantly, with security slicing, one needs to audit approximately 1% of the total code to fix all the vulnerabilities, thus suggesting significant reduction in auditing costs. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 does not protect against dopamine neuron dysfunction and injury in the mouse 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease
Ashrafi, Amer UL; Garcia, Pierre UL; Kollmus, Heike et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (in press)

Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 4 (RGS4), a member of the RGS family of proteins that inactivate G-proteins, has gained interest as a potential drug target for neurological disorders, such as epilepsy ... [more ▼]

Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 4 (RGS4), a member of the RGS family of proteins that inactivate G-proteins, has gained interest as a potential drug target for neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the case of PD, the main current option for alleviating motor symptoms are dopamine replacement therapies, which have limitations because of side effects, and reduced effectiveness over the long term. Research on new non-dopaminergic PD drug targets has indicated that inhibition of RGS4 could be an effective adjuvant treatment option. The effectiveness of RGS4 inhibition for an array of PD-linked functional and structural neuroprotection endpoints has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we use the 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning model of the nigrostriatal pathway in mice to address this question. We observe, using a battery of behavioral and pathological measures, that mice deficient for RGS4 are not protected from 6-OHDA induced injury, and show enhanced susceptibility in some measures of motor function. Our results suggest that inhibition of RGS4 as a non-dopaminergic target for PD should be approached with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailAugmenting Field Data for Testing Systems Subject to Incremental Requirements Changes
Di Nardo, Daniel; Pastore, Fabrizio; Briand, Lionel UL

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering & Methodology (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (13 UL)
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See detailA multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology: Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Gagnon, Jean et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (in press)

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong ... [more ▼]

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). This model considers impulsivity as a multidimensional construct that includes four facets: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, we discuss the psychological mechanisms underlying the dimensions of impulsivity, as well as the laboratory tasks designed to assess each mechanism and their neural bases. We then present a scale specifically designed to assess these four dimensions of impulsivity in patients with brain damage and examine the data regarding this multidimensional approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology. This review supports the need to adopt a multifactorial and integrative approach toward impulsive behaviors, and the model presented provides a valuable rationale to disentangle the nature of brain systems and mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviors in patients with brain damage. It may also foster further relevant research in the field of impulsivity and improve assessment and rehabilitation of impulsive behaviors in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailSuburbanisierung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Handwörterbuch der Stadt- und Raumentwicklung (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 UL)
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See detail(Re)shaping Educational Research through ‘Programification’: Institutional Expansion, Change, and Translation in Norway
Zapp, Mike UL; Helgetun, Jo B.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Education (in press), 52

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use ... [more ▼]

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use of extensive and multi-year thematic programs to fund research projects. Applying a neo-institutionalist framework, we examine institutionalization dynamics in cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative dimensions over the past two decades using interviews, research program calls, policy documents, and funding data. In the cultural-cognitive dimension, we find references to the knowledge society, the importance of evidence in policy-making, and ideas of quality, excellence, and relevance. In the normative dimension, we find the introduction of new professional and methodological standards, reflecting broader global patterns of academic and epistemic drift. In the regulative dimension, the strengthened role of both government and the Research Council of Norway is manifest in substantial growth in both funding and large-scale, long-term planning, including thematic choices—evidence of ‘programification’. The importance of external models has grown in an era of internationalization, yet translation occurs at every level of governance of educational research. This results in a specific Norwegian research model, guided by a mode of governance of programs, that maintains social values traditionally strong in Nordic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailA Stein deficit for the logarithmic Sobolev inequality
Ledoux, Michel; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Science China Mathematics (in press)

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See detailCorrector in random homogenization of elliptic equations in presence of long-range media
Lechiheb, Atef; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Zheng, Guangqu UL et al

in Probability and Mathematical Statistics (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (5 UL)
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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (in press)

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Test Case Generation as a Many-Objective Optimisation Problem with Dynamic Selection of the Targets
Panichella, Annibale UL; Kifetew, Fitsum; Tonella, Paolo

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

The test case generation is intrinsically a multi-objective problem, since the goal is covering multiple test targets (e.g., branches). Existing search-based approaches either consider one target at a ... [more ▼]

The test case generation is intrinsically a multi-objective problem, since the goal is covering multiple test targets (e.g., branches). Existing search-based approaches either consider one target at a time or aggregate all targets into a single fitness function (whole-suite approach). Multi and many-objective optimisation algorithms (MOAs) have never been applied to this problem, because existing algorithms do not scale to the number of coverage objectives that are typically found in real-world software. In addition, the final goal for MOAs is to find alternative trade-off solutions in the objective space, while in test generation the interesting solutions are only those test cases covering one or more uncovered targets. In this paper, we present DynaMOSA (Dynamic Many-Objective Sorting Algorithm), a novel many-objective solver specifically designed to address the test case generation problem in the context of coverage testing. DynaMOSA extends our previous many-objective technique MOSA (Many-Objective Sorting Algorithm) with dynamic selection of the coverage targets based on the control dependency hierarchy. Such extension makes the approach more effective and efficient in case of limited search budget. We carried out an empirical study on 346 Java classes using three coverage criteria (i.e., statement, branch, and strong mutation coverage) to assess the performance of DynaMOSA with respect to the whole-suite approach (WS), its archive-based variant (WSA) and MOSA. The results show that DynaMOSA outperforms WSA in 28% of the classes for branch coverage (+8% more coverage on average) and in 27% of the classes for mutation coverage (+11% more killed mutants on average). It outperforms WS in 51% of the classes for statement coverage, leading to +11% more coverage on average. Moreover, DynaMOSA outperforms its predecessor MOSA for all the three coverage criteria in 19% of the classes with +8% more code coverage on average. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
See detailAutobiografia ed emigrazione. Ricordare, raccontare, costruire
Cicotti, Claudio UL

Book published by Lang (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 UL)
See detailKünstliche Sprachen (Plansprachen / Welthilfssprachen)
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in Dembeck, Till; Parr, Rolf (Eds.) Literatur und Mehrsprachigkeit. Ein Handbuch (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
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See detailChapter 4:A Survey on The Polytopic Takagi-Sugeno Approach: Application to the Inverted Pendulum
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL; Darouach, Mohamed

in The Inverted Pendulum: From Theory to New Innovations in Control and Robotics (in press)

This book chapter gives a general scope, states the main results obtained and methods used for the Polytopic Takagi-Sugeno approach with a detailed application to the inverted pendulum. Modeling, observer ... [more ▼]

This book chapter gives a general scope, states the main results obtained and methods used for the Polytopic Takagi-Sugeno approach with a detailed application to the inverted pendulum. Modeling, observer and controller design will be considered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 UL)