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See detailResearch Organizations' Contributions to Science Productivity in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (in press)

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and ... [more ▼]

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolsters Europe’s position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the political goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison, neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Ger- many, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is key organizational form across countries. [less ▲]

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See detail'Was heißt schon Integration?' Subjektive Vorstellungen von Migrantenjugendlichen in Luxemburg
Steinmetz, Sara UL; Willems, Helmut UL; Weiss, Pierre UL

in Henn, Daniela; Prigge, Jessica; Ries, Karsten (Eds.) et al Streifzüge durch die angewandte Sozialwissenschaft. Evaluation - Migration - Sozialpolitik - Soziale Arbeit. Dieter Filsinger zum 65. Geburtstag (in press)

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See detailSecurity Slicing for Auditing Common Injection Vulnerabilities
Thome, Julian UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in The Journal of Systems & Software (in press)

Cross-site scripting and injection vulnerabilities are among the most common and serious security issues for Web applications. Although existing static analysis approaches can detect potential ... [more ▼]

Cross-site scripting and injection vulnerabilities are among the most common and serious security issues for Web applications. Although existing static analysis approaches can detect potential vulnerabilities in source code, they generate many false warnings and source-sink traces with irrelevant information, making their adoption impractical for security auditing. One suitable approach to support security auditing is to compute a program slice for each sink, which contains all the information required for security auditing. However, such slices are likely to contain a large amount of information that is irrelevant to security, thus raising scalability issues for security audits. In this paper, we propose an approach to assist security auditors by defining and experimenting with pruning techniques to reduce original program slices to what we refer to as security slices, which contain sound and precise information. To evaluate the proposed approach, we compared our security slices to the slices generated by a state-of-the-art program slicing tool, based on a number of open-source benchmarks. On average, our security slices are 76% smaller than the original slices. More importantly, with security slicing, one needs to audit approximately 1% of the total code to fix all the vulnerabilities, thus suggesting significant reduction in auditing costs. [less ▲]

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See detailAugmenting Field Data for Testing Systems Subject to Incremental Requirements Changes
Di Nardo, Daniel; Pastore, Fabrizio; Briand, Lionel UL

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering & Methodology (in press)

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See detailInternet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Van Looy, Jan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences (in press)

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various ... [more ▼]

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various studies aim to validate the proposed diagnostic criteria for IGD and multiple new scales have been introduced that cover the suggested criteria. Using a structured approach, we demonstrate that IGD might be better interpreted as a formative construct, as opposed to the current practice of conceptualizing it as a reflective construct. Incorrectly approaching a formative construct as a reflective one causes serious problems in scale development, including: (i) incorrect reliance on item-to-total scale correlation to exclude items and incorrectly relying on indices of inter-item reliability that do not fit the measurement model (e.g., Cronbach's alpha); (ii) incorrect interpretation of composite or mean scores that assume all items are equal in contributing value to a sum score; and (iii) biased estimation of model parameters in statistical models. We show that these issues are impacting current validation efforts through two recent examples. A reinterpretation of IGD as a formative construct has broad consequences for current validation efforts and provides opportunities to reanalyze existing data. We discuss three broad implications for current research: (i) composite latent constructs should be defined and used in models; (ii) item exclusion and selection should not rely on item-to-total scale correlations; and (iii) existing definitions of IGD should be enriched further. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Do Different Aspects of Spatial Skills Relate to Early Arithmetic and Number Line Estimation?
Cornu, Véronique UL; Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (in press)

The present study investigated the predictive role of spatial skills for arithmetic and number line estimation in kindergarten children (N = 125). Spatial skills are known to be related to mathematical ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated the predictive role of spatial skills for arithmetic and number line estimation in kindergarten children (N = 125). Spatial skills are known to be related to mathematical development, but due to the construct’s non-unitary nature, different aspects of spatial skills need to be differentiated. In the present study, a spatial orientation task, a spatial visualization task and visuo-motor integration task were administered to assess three different aspects of spatial skills. Furthermore, we assessed counting abilities, knowledge of Arabic numerals, quantitative knowledge, as well as verbal working memory and verbal intelligence in kindergarten. Four months later, the same children performed an arithmetic and a number line estimation task to evaluate how the abilities measured at time 1 predicted early mathematics outcomes. Hierarchical regression modelling revealed that children’s performance in arithmetic was predicted by their performance in the spatial orientation and Visuo-motor integration task, as well as their knowledge of the Arabic numerals. Performance in number line estimation was significantly predicted by the children’s spatial orientation performance. Our findings emphasize the role of spatial skills, notably spatial orientation, in mathematical development. The relation between spatial orientation and arithmetic was partially mediated by the number line estimation task. Our results further show that some aspects of spatial skills might be more predictive of mathematical development than others, underlining the importance to differentiate within the construct of spatial skills when it comes to understanding numerical development. [less ▲]

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See detailA multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology: Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Gagnon, Jean et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (in press)

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong ... [more ▼]

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). This model considers impulsivity as a multidimensional construct that includes four facets: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, we discuss the psychological mechanisms underlying the dimensions of impulsivity, as well as the laboratory tasks designed to assess each mechanism and their neural bases. We then present a scale specifically designed to assess these four dimensions of impulsivity in patients with brain damage and examine the data regarding this multidimensional approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology. This review supports the need to adopt a multifactorial and integrative approach toward impulsive behaviors, and the model presented provides a valuable rationale to disentangle the nature of brain systems and mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviors in patients with brain damage. It may also foster further relevant research in the field of impulsivity and improve assessment and rehabilitation of impulsive behaviors in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailSuburbanisierung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Handwörterbuch der Stadt- und Raumentwicklung (in press)

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See detailEmotional ambivalence in adult children of care-dependent older parents: Heuristic impulses from cognitive-motivational emotion theories
Boll, Thomas UL

in Albert, Isabelle; Abbey, Emily; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultural psychology of transgenerational family relations: Investigating ambivalences (in press)

Emotional ambivalence of adult children of care-dependent older parents is analyzed from the perspective of cognitive-motivational theories of emotion. Emotional ambivalence is conceived of as the co ... [more ▼]

Emotional ambivalence of adult children of care-dependent older parents is analyzed from the perspective of cognitive-motivational theories of emotion. Emotional ambivalence is conceived of as the co-presence of positive and negative emotions toward the multifaceted care situation involving these major elements: Multiple problems of the elderly parent, multiple caregiving tasks of the adult child, and multiple gains and losses for the elderly parent and for the adult child. In line with cognitive-motivational theories, positive and negative emotions are thought of as arising from mental comparisons between what adult children desire and what they believe with respect to the various facets of the care situation. Perceived fulfillment of such desires is assumed to lead to positive emotions (happiness, hope, moral pride, etc.) and perceived frustration to result in negative emotions (pity, fear, guilt, etc.) related to the elderly parent, oneself, or other family members. Because adult children usually have multiple desires (e.g., own welfare, welfare of older parent, welfare of other family members) which may be perceived as fulfilled in some areas and unfulfilled in others, various combinations of positive and negative emotions and thus emotional ambivalence is assumed to arise toward various aspects of the care situation. An illustrative application of this theoretical approach is given to a major care-related event, namely, the transition of an elderly parent to a nursing home. In conclusion, benefits for research and practice in the field of elder care (measurement, description, understanding, management, and positive functions of emotional ambivalence) are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (in press)

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. [less ▲]

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See detailA Stein deficit for the logarithmic Sobolev inequality
Ledoux, Michel; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Science China Mathematics (in press)

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See detailCorrector in random homogenization of elliptic equations in presence of long-range media
Lechiheb, Atef; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Zheng, Guangqu UL et al

in Probability and Mathematical Statistics (in press)

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See detailAging and Time Perception for Short and Long Durations: A Question of Attention?
Lamotte, Mathilde UL; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

in Timing & Time Perception (in press)

This study examined the difference in the perception of time between young and older adults in a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges from a few milliseconds (500 ms) to several ... [more ▼]

This study examined the difference in the perception of time between young and older adults in a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges from a few milliseconds (500 ms) to several seconds (30 s). In addition, individual cognitive capacities (short-term memory, working memory, processing speed, attention) were assessed with different neuropsychological tests. The results showed a general effect of age on the variability of time judgment, indicating a lower sensitivity to time in the old than in the younger adults, regardless of the duration range tested. In addition, the results showed that the individual differences in time sensitivity were explained by attention capacities, which decline with aging. [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (in press)

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailUnraveling Entangled Spaces and Practices: Teacher's Views on the evolving Material Classroom (c.1960-2015)
Tondeur, Jo; Herman, Frederik UL; De Buck, Maud et al

in European Journal of Education (in press)

Despite growing interest in redesigning the material landscape of education, relatively little is known about the impact of these evolving classrooms. The current study aimed to gain insight into the ... [more ▼]

Despite growing interest in redesigning the material landscape of education, relatively little is known about the impact of these evolving classrooms. The current study aimed to gain insight into the physical learning environment and the potential pedagogical impacts thereof. A ‘biographical approach’ (c.1963-2015), was used to explore the long-term socio-material landscapes where teachers and pupils, classroom materiality and spatiality, and teaching practices are entangled. Stimulated recall interviews were conducted in Flanders (Belgium) with primary school teachers. Teacher-generated floorplans detailing their material classroom over time, transcribed oral accounts elaborating on these, and supportive data sources were aggregated and thematically analysed. The resulting identification of six key themes shed light on the evolving architectural and infrastructural developments, as well as triggers and teaching impacts thereof amongst the interviewed teachers. Findings show that negative school evaluations urging school intervention, and teachers’ proactive engagement within their classrooms, were the main catalysts of change. Moreover, evolving classroom layouts, in addition to the affordances of upgraded equipment, can be associated to changes in teachers’ practices. It can be concluded that the classroom is becoming an action context as the result of the inextricable mediating agencies identified. [less ▲]

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See detailBacArena: Individual-Based Metabolic Modeling of Heterogeneous Microbes in Complex Communities
Bauer, Eugen UL; Zimmermann, Johannes; Baldini, Federico UL et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (in press)

Recent advances focusing on the metabolic interactions within and between cellular populations, have emphasized the importance of microbial communities for human health. Constraint-based modeling, with ... [more ▼]

Recent advances focusing on the metabolic interactions within and between cellular populations, have emphasized the importance of microbial communities for human health. Constraint-based modeling, with flux balance analysis in particular, has been established as a key approach for studying microbial metabolism, whereas individual-based modeling has been commonly used to study complex dynamics between interacting organisms. In this study, we combine both techniques into the R package BacArena (https://cran.r-project.org/package=BacArena), to generate novel biological insights into Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation as well as a seven species model community of the human gut. For our P. aeruginosa model, we found that cross-feeding of fermentation products cause a spatial differentiation of emerging metabolic phenotypes in the biofilm over time. In the human gut model community, we found that spatial gradients of mucus glycans are important for niche formations, which shape the overall community structure. Additionally, we could provide novel hypothesis concerning the metabolic interactions between the microbes. These results demonstrate the importance of spatial and temporal multi-scale modeling approaches such as BacArena. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Test Case Generation as a Many-Objective Optimisation Problem with Dynamic Selection of the Targets
Panichella, Annibale UL; Kifetew, Fitsum; Tonella, Paolo

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

The test case generation is intrinsically a multi-objective problem, since the goal is covering multiple test targets (e.g., branches). Existing search-based approaches either consider one target at a ... [more ▼]

The test case generation is intrinsically a multi-objective problem, since the goal is covering multiple test targets (e.g., branches). Existing search-based approaches either consider one target at a time or aggregate all targets into a single fitness function (whole-suite approach). Multi and many-objective optimisation algorithms (MOAs) have never been applied to this problem, because existing algorithms do not scale to the number of coverage objectives that are typically found in real-world software. In addition, the final goal for MOAs is to find alternative trade-off solutions in the objective space, while in test generation the interesting solutions are only those test cases covering one or more uncovered targets. In this paper, we present DynaMOSA (Dynamic Many-Objective Sorting Algorithm), a novel many-objective solver specifically designed to address the test case generation problem in the context of coverage testing. DynaMOSA extends our previous many-objective technique MOSA (Many-Objective Sorting Algorithm) with dynamic selection of the coverage targets based on the control dependency hierarchy. Such extension makes the approach more effective and efficient in case of limited search budget. We carried out an empirical study on 346 Java classes using three coverage criteria (i.e., statement, branch, and strong mutation coverage) to assess the performance of DynaMOSA with respect to the whole-suite approach (WS), its archive-based variant (WSA) and MOSA. The results show that DynaMOSA outperforms WSA in 28% of the classes for branch coverage (+8% more coverage on average) and in 27% of the classes for mutation coverage (+11% more killed mutants on average). It outperforms WS in 51% of the classes for statement coverage, leading to +11% more coverage on average. Moreover, DynaMOSA outperforms its predecessor MOSA for all the three coverage criteria in 19% of the classes with +8% more code coverage on average. [less ▲]

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See detailA classification of polynomial functions satisfying the Jacobi identity over integral domains
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Mathonet, Pierre

in Aequationes Mathematicae (in press)

The Jacobi identity is one of the properties that are used to define the concept of Lie algebra and in this context is closely related to associativity. In this paper we provide a complete description of ... [more ▼]

The Jacobi identity is one of the properties that are used to define the concept of Lie algebra and in this context is closely related to associativity. In this paper we provide a complete description of all bivariate polynomials that satisfy the Jacobi identity over infinite integral domains. Although this description depends on the characteristic of the domain, it turns out that all these polynomials are of degree at most one in each indeterminate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 UL)