Results 81-85 of 85.
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre working memory measures free of socio-economic influence?
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Santos, F. H.; Gathercole, S. E.

in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2008), 51(6), 1580-1587

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. METHOD: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. METHOD: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low-income families, completed tests of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span) and vocabulary (expressive and receptive). A further group of Brazilian children from families of higher socioeconomic status matched for age, gender, and nonverbal ability also participated in the study. RESULTS: Children from the low socioeconomic group obtained significantly lower scores on measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary than their higher income peers but no significant group differences were found on the working memory measures. CONCLUSION: Measures of working memory provide assessments of cognitive abilities that appear to be impervious to substantial differences in socioeconomic background. As these measures are highly sensitive to language ability and learning in general, they appear to provide useful methods for diagnosing specific learning difficulties that are independent of environmental opportunity [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (11 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLinks between working memory, phonological awareness, and language learning
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S. E.

Scientific Conference (2007, September)

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between working memory, phonological awareness and developing language skills in a population of children growing up in a multilingual context ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between working memory, phonological awareness and developing language skills in a population of children growing up in a multilingual context involving the three languages of Luxembourgish, German, and French. A sample of 122 children from Luxembourg aged 5 to 7 years participated in the study, completing assessments of phonological short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension and reading. The data were best characterized by a model of working memory that consisted of two related but separable components - corresponding to phonological short-term memory and the central executive - that were distinct from phonological awareness. Language abilities in both the native and foreign languages were more strongly associated with phonological short-term memory than other factors in the model. The findings lend strong support to the proposal that vocabulary learning in particular is mediated, in part at least, by phonological short-term memory. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailARE WORKING MEMORY MEASURES FREE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES?
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Santos, F; Martin, Romain UL et al

Scientific Conference (2007, September)

This research investigated the hypothesis that working memory skills are independent of environmental factors such as socio-economic or cultural background. Study 1: Twenty Brazilian children aged 6 and 7 ... [more ▼]

This research investigated the hypothesis that working memory skills are independent of environmental factors such as socio-economic or cultural background. Study 1: Twenty Brazilian children aged 6 and 7 years from low socio-economic status families were evaluated on measures of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span, taken form the AWMA: Automated Working Memory Assessment) and of vocabulary (expressive and receptive). They were compared with typically developing Brazilian children from the same region, matched on age, sex, and nonverbal ability from families of higher socio-economic status. Children from the low socioeconomic status group obtained significantly lower scores on the vocabulary tests but not on the verbal short-term memory measures, compared to their peers from a higher socio-economical background. Both groups differed on one of the two complex span measures - counting recall - but performed equally well on backwards digit recall. The results indicate that tests of verbal short-term memory and also backwards digit recall provide measures of cognitive abilities that are not biased by the quality of the child's socio-economical background. Study 2: The Brazilian children were also compared to a population of Portuguese- speaking, immigrant children growing up in Luxembourg, evaluated on the same measures. Results will specify whether or not, in addition to being independent of socioeconomic background, verbal short-term memory and backwards digit recall are also free of cultural bias. As these measures are also highly sensitive to language ability, they may provide useful methods for diagnosing language disorder that are independent of environmental opportunity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailWorking memory, phonological awareness, and language learning
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S. E.

Scientific Conference (2007, August)

This study investigated the relationship between working memory, phonological processing and developing language skills in a population of children growing up in a multilingual context involving the three ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the relationship between working memory, phonological processing and developing language skills in a population of children growing up in a multilingual context involving the three languages of Luxembourgish, German, and French. A sample of 122 children from Luxembourg, aged between 5 and 7 years, participated in the study, and completed assessments of phonological short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension and reading. The data were best characterized by a measurement model in which working memory consists of two related yet distinct components – corresponding to phonological short-term memory and a central executive – that were distinct from phonological awareness. Language abilities in both the native and foreign languages were more strongly associated with phonological short-term memory than other constructs in the model. The findings lend strong support to the proposal that vocabulary learning in particular is mediated in part at least by the phonological loop component of working memory. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 UL)