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See detailEfeitos de contextos ambientais desfavoráveis na memória operacional
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Puglisi, M; Cruz-Santos, A et al

Poster (2012, October)

Há um crescente número de estudos indicando que o desempenho em tarefas de memória operacional (MO) depende fortemente do conhecimento e experiência prévios. Poucos estudos, entretanto, têm explorado ... [more ▼]

Há um crescente número de estudos indicando que o desempenho em tarefas de memória operacional (MO) depende fortemente do conhecimento e experiência prévios. Poucos estudos, entretanto, têm explorado diretamente o papel do ambiente social no desenvolvimento de habilidades de MO.Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto da experiência escolar e linguística do indivíduo em tarefas de MO verbal e visual. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (4 UL)
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See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 UL)
See detailLanguage bias in nonword repetition: Towards a culture fair nonword  repetition task
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; dos Santos, C

Presentation (2012, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (1 UL)
See detailL'école luxembourgeoise: (quel) besoin de changement?
Martin, Romain UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (8 UL)
See detailExecutivfunktiounen a Léiere bei Kanner
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 UL)
See detailD’Exekutivfunktiounen an d’Sproochentwécklung bei jonken Immigrantekanner zu Lëtzebuerg
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (2 UL)
See detailResearch in Luxembourgish schools
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 UL)
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See detailExecutive and phonological processes in second language acquisition
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S. E.

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2012), 104(4), 974-986

This paper reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links between executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1 ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links between executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual edu-cation. Children completed multiple L1-measures of complex span, verbal short-term storage, and phonological awareness, and tests of proficiency in a range of linguistic domains (vocabulary, grammar, and literacy) in Luxembourgish (L1), German (familiar L2) and French (unfamiliar L3). Results indicate that executive processing abilities, phonological short-term memory, and phono-logical awareness operate as distinct but related constructs that manifest differential associations with native and second language proficiency in multilingual children: Phonological short-term memory was uniquely linked to vocabulary in L1 and the structurally similar L2; executive pro-cesses were related to grammar across languages, reading comprehension, and spelling; and phono-logical awareness made specific contributions to word decoding, spelling, and language proficiency in the structurally dissimilar L3. Phonological processing abilities appear to be critical for acquiring the sound structure of a new language, whereas executive processes share more general links with higher-order linguistic abilities in second language learners. [less ▲]

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See detailBilingualism Enriches the Poor: Enhanced Cognitive Control in Low-Income Minority Children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Cruz-Santos, A.; Tourinho De Abreu Neto, Carlos José UL et al

in Psychological Science : A Journal of the American Psychological Society (2012), 23(11), 1364-1371

This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young children challenged by poverty and if so, which specific processes are most ... [more ▼]

This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young children challenged by poverty and if so, which specific processes are most affected. Forty Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from low-income immigrant families in Luxembourg and 40 matched monolingual children from Portugal completed visuo-spatial tests of working memory, abstract reasoning, selective attention, and interference suppres-sion. Two broad cognitive factors of executive functioning labeled representation (abstract reason-ing and working memory) and control (selective attention and interference suppression) emerged from principal components analysis. Whereas there were no group differences in representation, the bilinguals performed significantly better than the monolinguals in control. These results demon-strate first, that the bilingual advantage is neither confounded with nor limited by socioeconomic and cultural factors and second, that separable aspects of executive functioning are differentially af-fected by bilingualism. The bilingual advantage lies in control but not in visuo-spatial representa-tional processes. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions in low-income multilingual children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2011, November)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailWorking memory, executive functions, language, and socio-economic status - A Latent Variable Study of Children From Brazil
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Nikaedo, C; Abreu, N et al

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the effect of socioeconomic status on the identified factor structure and to explore whether potential links might be mediated by stimulation in the home and/or nutritional status. A population of 400, six- and eight-year-olds, completed multiple measures of working memory, short-term memory, response inhibition, conflict resolution, focused attention, fluid intelligence, and language. Socioeconomic status was indexed by the education and occupation of the caregivers and household income. Anthropometrical assessments were conducted to establish nutritional status; Environmental stimulation was explored via interviews conducted with the caregivers. The results contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive functions in childhood and their link with related cognitive systems. They also contribute to an increased understanding of the relationship between poverty and cognitive achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence in young children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S; Conway, A

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory ... [more ▼]

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system - short-term storage or cognitive control - drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. 119 children were followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. When the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (8 UL)
See detailExecutive functions, language, and socio-economic status
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Nikaedo, C; Abreu, N et al

Scientific Conference (2011, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCultural and language effects on measures of vocabulary and working memory
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Baldassi, M

Scientific Conference (2011, June)

Two studies are presented exploring whether performance on assessments of working memory (WM) and vocabulary is affected by the experience with the test language and/or the linguistic and cultural status ... [more ▼]

Two studies are presented exploring whether performance on assessments of working memory (WM) and vocabulary is affected by the experience with the test language and/or the linguistic and cultural status of the child. Forty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children growing up in Luxembourg were assessed on a range of L1 and L2 vocabulary measures and verbal WM tests. Their data was compared to monolingual speakers of Luxembourgish and Portuguese from different socioeconomic background (SES) groups. Results showed that WM is highly associated with vocabulary in both native and foreign languages. Furthermore, the study indicates that WM tests are relatively independent of SES, test language, and immigrant/language status. In contrast, results on the vocabulary measures have shown that bilingual immigrant children perform equally well to monolinguals if their combined vocabulary across languages is considered but lack behind their monolingual peers in terms of conceptual development. The data suggests that bilingual immigrants’ poor conceptual knowledge is not simply a reflection of lower SES but instead seems to be a direct consequence of growing up as an immigrant in a multilingual environment. The results of this study have important practical utility especially in relation to improving the range of culture-fair assessment tools that can be used with minority language children. As WM measures are highly associated with children’s language learning and are relatively independent of test language, language status, and SES, these tests might provide valuable tools for distinguishing between language impairments of a cognitive origin and language differences related to the environmental context of growing up as an immigrant with several languages. This distinction is crucial in order to avoid erroneous diagnostics and provide appropriate remediational support that help immigrant children overcome their langue differences in order to improve their chances of accessing the same opportunities and resources as their majority culture peers. [less ▲]

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See detailO EFEITO DO NIVEL SOCIOECONÔMICO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO COGNITIVO INFANTIL
Carneiro; Guedes; Rossi et al

Poster (2011, May)

A inteligência humana pode ser dividida em dois tipos de inteligência: a cristalizada, a qual se baseia em habilidades adquiridas e aprendizado passado, e a fluida, que se refere à capacidade de ... [more ▼]

A inteligência humana pode ser dividida em dois tipos de inteligência: a cristalizada, a qual se baseia em habilidades adquiridas e aprendizado passado, e a fluida, que se refere à capacidade de relacionar idéias e de resolver novos problemas. Esse estudo explora os efeitos do nível socioeconômico (NSE) no desenvolvimento de habilidades cognitivas fluidas e cristalizadas em crianças. A pesquisa contou com um total de 105 participantes de 6 a 8 anos, pertencentes a três diferentes níveis socioeconômicos (alto, médio e baixo) de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil (ABEP). Foram recrutadas crianças do primeiro e segundo ano do ensino fundamental de escolas particulares, de bairro e públicas em Salvador. Cada grupo continha 35 participantes equiparados em idade, sexo e ano de escolaridade. Os grupos não diferiram significativamente em aspectos nutricionais, estado emocional, peso ao nascer e tempo de gestação. As crianças foram avaliadas por uma extensa bateria de medidas comportamentais que exploraram a inteligência cristalizada (vocabulário, sintaxe e desempenho acadêmico) e a inteligência fluida (memória operacional e raciocínio indutivo). Os resultados apontaram que crianças inseridas em condições desprivilegiadas (baixo NSE) apresentaram desempenho significativamente pior nas medidas de inteligência cristalizada, quando comparadas às crianças que cresceram em ambiente mais favorável (alto NSE); com tamanho do efeito significativo. As crianças de baixo NSE apresentaram, também, um pior desempenho nos testes de inteligência fluida, que, embora significativo, foram menos expressivos que os efeitos correspondentes nas medidas de linguagem. Este estudo mostra que o crescimento em ambientes de baixo NSE constitui um sério fator de risco para o desenvolvimento cognitivo infantil. Sugere, ainda, que alguns sistemas neurocognitivos são mais sensíveis ao NSE que outros: o sistema de linguagem é fortemente impactado pelo NSE, enquanto a memória operacional e a resolução de conflitos são moderadamente influenciadas. Tais achados relacionados ao perfil neurocognitivo do NSE na infância são essenciais no sentido de testar hipóteses mais específicas sobre mecanismos causais e maximizar o efeito de intervenções. Deste modo, pais e escolas desempenham um papel fundamental em prover um ambiente cognitivo estimulante, a fim de otimizar o desenvolvimento intelectual infantil. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (5 UL)
See detailEnvironmental effects on the development of crystallized and fluid cognition
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2011, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 UL)