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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence
Conway, A; Macnamara, B; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in Alloway, T; Alloway, R. G. (Eds.) Working Memory the Connected Intelligence (2013)

We are on the cusp of a new revolution in intelligence that affects every aspect of our lives from work and relationships, to our childhood, education, and old age. Working Memory, the ability to remember ... [more ▼]

We are on the cusp of a new revolution in intelligence that affects every aspect of our lives from work and relationships, to our childhood, education, and old age. Working Memory, the ability to remember and mentally process information, is so important that without it we could not function as a society or as individuals. People with superior working memory tend to have better jobs, better relationships, and more happy and fulfilling lives. People with poor working memory struggle in their work, their personal lives, and are more likely to experience trouble with the law. But there is exciting evidence emerging: working memory can be trained, and, as a result, we can change our circumstances. But what works and what doesn’t? And can all of us benefit from working memory training? This book reviews cutting-edge scientific research and examines how working memory influences our lives, as well as the evidence on working memory training. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects on verbal working memory and vocabulary: Testing minority-language children with an immigrant background
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Baldassi, M.; Puglisi, L. M. et al

in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2013), 56(2), 630-642

PURPOSE: This study explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language minority children. METHOD: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: This study explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language minority children. METHOD: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first- and second-language vocabulary (comprehension and production), executive-loaded working memory (counting recall and backward digit recall), and verbal short-term memory (digit recall and nonword repetition). Cross-linguistic task performance was compared within individuals. The language minority children were also compared with multilingual language majority children from Luxembourg and Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Brazil without an immigrant background matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal reasoning. RESULTS: Results showed that (a) verbal working memory measures involving numerical memoranda were relatively independent of test language and cultural status; (b) language status had an impact on the repetition of high- but not on low-wordlike L2 nonwords; (c) large cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects emerged for productive vocabulary; (d) cross-cultural effects were less pronounced for vocabulary comprehension with no differences between groups if only L1-words relevant to the home context were considered. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that linguistic and cognitive assessments for language minority children require careful choice among measures to ensure valid results. Implications for testing culturally and linguistically diverse children are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of impoverished environmental conditions on working memory performance
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Puglisi, M.; Cruz-Santos, A. et al

in Memory (2013), Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

This cross-cultural study investigates the impact of background experience on four verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) tasks. Eighty-four children from low income families were recruited from the ... [more ▼]

This cross-cultural study investigates the impact of background experience on four verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) tasks. Eighty-four children from low income families were recruited from the following groups: (1) Portuguese immigrant children from Luxembourg impoverished in terms of language experience; (2) Brazilian children deprived in terms of scholastic background; (3) Portuguese children from Portugal with no disadvantage in either scholastic or language background. Children were matched on age, gender, fluid intelligence, and socioeconomic status and completed four simple and complex span tasks of WM and a vocabulary measure. Results indicate that despite large differences in their backgrounds and language abilities, the groups exhibited comparable performance on the visuo-spatial tasks dot matrix and odd-one-out and on the verbal simple span task digit recall. Group differences emerged on the verbal complex span task counting recall with children from Luxembourg and Portugal outperforming children from disadvantaged schools in Brazil. The study suggests that whereas contributions of prior knowledge to digit span, dot matrix, and odd-one-out are likely to be minimal, background experience can affect performance on counting recall. Implications for testing WM capacity in children growing up in poverty are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChildhood experience and brain development
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailEfeitos de contextos ambientais desfavoráveis na memória operacional
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Puglisi, M; Cruz-Santos, A et al

Poster (2012, October)

Há um crescente número de estudos indicando que o desempenho em tarefas de memória operacional (MO) depende fortemente do conhecimento e experiência prévios. Poucos estudos, entretanto, têm explorado ... [more ▼]

Há um crescente número de estudos indicando que o desempenho em tarefas de memória operacional (MO) depende fortemente do conhecimento e experiência prévios. Poucos estudos, entretanto, têm explorado diretamente o papel do ambiente social no desenvolvimento de habilidades de MO.Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto da experiência escolar e linguística do indivíduo em tarefas de MO verbal e visual. [less ▲]

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See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailLanguage bias in nonword repetition: Towards a culture fair nonword  repetition task
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; dos Santos, C

Presentation (2012, May)

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See detailL'école luxembourgeoise: (quel) besoin de changement?
Martin, Romain UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailExecutivfunktiounen a Léiere bei Kanner
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailD’Exekutivfunktiounen an d’Sproochentwécklung bei jonken Immigrantekanner zu Lëtzebuerg
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (2 UL)
See detailResearch in Luxembourgish schools
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (5 UL)
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See detailExecutive and phonological processes in second language acquisition
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S. E.

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2012), 104(4), 974-986

This paper reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links between executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1 ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links between executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual edu-cation. Children completed multiple L1-measures of complex span, verbal short-term storage, and phonological awareness, and tests of proficiency in a range of linguistic domains (vocabulary, grammar, and literacy) in Luxembourgish (L1), German (familiar L2) and French (unfamiliar L3). Results indicate that executive processing abilities, phonological short-term memory, and phono-logical awareness operate as distinct but related constructs that manifest differential associations with native and second language proficiency in multilingual children: Phonological short-term memory was uniquely linked to vocabulary in L1 and the structurally similar L2; executive pro-cesses were related to grammar across languages, reading comprehension, and spelling; and phono-logical awareness made specific contributions to word decoding, spelling, and language proficiency in the structurally dissimilar L3. Phonological processing abilities appear to be critical for acquiring the sound structure of a new language, whereas executive processes share more general links with higher-order linguistic abilities in second language learners. [less ▲]

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See detailBilingualism Enriches the Poor: Enhanced Cognitive Control in Low-Income Minority Children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Cruz-Santos, A.; Tourinho De Abreu Neto, Carlos José UL et al

in Psychological Science : A Journal of the American Psychological Society (2012), 23(11), 1364-1371

This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young children challenged by poverty and if so, which specific processes are most ... [more ▼]

This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young children challenged by poverty and if so, which specific processes are most affected. Forty Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from low-income immigrant families in Luxembourg and 40 matched monolingual children from Portugal completed visuo-spatial tests of working memory, abstract reasoning, selective attention, and interference suppres-sion. Two broad cognitive factors of executive functioning labeled representation (abstract reason-ing and working memory) and control (selective attention and interference suppression) emerged from principal components analysis. Whereas there were no group differences in representation, the bilinguals performed significantly better than the monolinguals in control. These results demon-strate first, that the bilingual advantage is neither confounded with nor limited by socioeconomic and cultural factors and second, that separable aspects of executive functioning are differentially af-fected by bilingualism. The bilingual advantage lies in control but not in visuo-spatial representa-tional processes. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions in low-income multilingual children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2011, November)

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See detailWorking memory, executive functions, language, and socio-economic status - A Latent Variable Study of Children From Brazil
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Nikaedo, C; Abreu, N et al

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the effect of socioeconomic status on the identified factor structure and to explore whether potential links might be mediated by stimulation in the home and/or nutritional status. A population of 400, six- and eight-year-olds, completed multiple measures of working memory, short-term memory, response inhibition, conflict resolution, focused attention, fluid intelligence, and language. Socioeconomic status was indexed by the education and occupation of the caregivers and household income. Anthropometrical assessments were conducted to establish nutritional status; Environmental stimulation was explored via interviews conducted with the caregivers. The results contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive functions in childhood and their link with related cognitive systems. They also contribute to an increased understanding of the relationship between poverty and cognitive achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence in young children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S; Conway, A

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory ... [more ▼]

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system - short-term storage or cognitive control - drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. 119 children were followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. When the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (8 UL)