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See detailTransborder Access to e-Evidence by Law Enforcement Agencies: A first comparative view on the Commission's Proposal for a Regulation on a European Preservation/Production Order and accompanying Directive
Quintel, Teresa Alegra UL; Cole, Mark UL

in SSRN (2018)

As communication nowadays commonly takes place via electronic means, the use of electronic evidence (e-evidence) is becoming a crucial element in criminal investigations. Due to the borderless nature of ... [more ▼]

As communication nowadays commonly takes place via electronic means, the use of electronic evidence (e-evidence) is becoming a crucial element in criminal investigations. Due to the borderless nature of the internet, many criminal investigations include a cross-border dimension and therefore, commonly require access to electronic data and evidence that are stored outside the territorial jurisdiction of the investigating authority. Since data are typically held by private companies that are often located in a different country than the investigator, law enforcement authorities (LEAs) are either dependent on the willingness of these service providers to cooperate on a voluntary basis, or to resort to existing legal procedures for obtaining the data for investigations. The relevant procedures under the current framework to access data stored outside the European Union is based on so-called Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs), whereas judicial cooperation within the EU is, inter alia, governed by the Directive on the European Investigation Order in the form of the national transposition acts of the Member States. Because e-evidence is, due to its volatile nature, prone to modification and deletion, the timely acquisition of stored data is vital for LEAs. Therefore, informal cooperation between LEAs and private companies is a common method to obtain e-evidence, thereby bypassing the lengthy and often ineffective Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) mechanisms. Such direct cooperation between law enforcement and private companies, which is commonly carried out on a unilateral basis, has led to a fragmented framework for the acquisition of data. Against this background, the European Commission, on 17 April 2018, proposed new rules on access to e-evidence, to secure and obtain preserved data faster and more effectively and to ensure that all providers that offer services in the EU are subject to the same obligations. Similar developments regarding the adoption of comparable legislative acts and instruments regarding direct law enforcement access to data stored by private companies take place elsewhere in Europe and beyond: The Council of Europe is currently preparing a 2nd Additional Protocol to the Budapest Convention on enhanced international cooperation, whereas in the U.S., the Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act on rules for cross-border law enforcement investigations was enacted in March 2018. This contribution will address concerns regarding the role of private companies as ‘extended arm’ of LEAs and the measures that seek to cope with the legal uncertainty and fragmentation that emerged with the informal public-private relationships around the acquisition of e-evidence. The article suggests that the initiatives on different levels might result in even more conflicts of laws than is currently the case, if lacking a coordinated and coherent approach in Europe and internationally. Moreover, the article discusses the impact of the abovementioned developments with regard to EU data protection standards. The compliance of the new rules on access to e-evidence with the EU data protection acquis, namely the GDPR and Directive (EU)2016/680, will be one of the relevant matters covered in this article. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intégration des élèves nouvellement arrivés en France dans l'espace scolaire français. Langues, représentations, identités en contexte.
Kadas, Timea UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Our thesis focuses on newcomer students in France and aims at understanding how these students integrate into French schools and exploring the educational paths they tread. Thus, this study is based ... [more ▼]

Our thesis focuses on newcomer students in France and aims at understanding how these students integrate into French schools and exploring the educational paths they tread. Thus, this study is based mainly on the analysis of the discourse of thirteen students concerning their learning and their school experiences. It is also based on the representations that these students have of themselves, others (French students, teachers), their learning in general, their learning of the French language in particular and the context in which this learning takes place. Our thesis also focuses on the students’ first languages and their role in the learning process. The link between language and identity has long been established by researchers from different disciplines. Therefore, we have tried to understand, through an autobiographical project based on the notions of multiliteracy and multimodality, how the first languages of the students can be taken into consideration in order to help them progress in both the learning of French and learning in general. We also considered the significance of such an approach in the reconstruction of these students' identities. Furthermore, in response to our initial question regarding how these students integrate into the French education system, we investigated two complementary perspectives: that of the institution through interviews with three teachers, three heads of school and two inspectors and that of the students’ families through questioning nine parents. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of research on the role of migration in the French educational context and to provide a better understanding of the current educational challenges facing our globalized society. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 168 (13 UL)
See detailCountry Report Luxembourg
Cole, Mark UL; Vandendriessche, Annelies UL

in Ukrow, Jörg; Iacino, Gianna; Ory, Stephan (Eds.) et al Comparative Study on Investigative Journalism (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (25 UL)
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See detailLänderbericht Luxembourg
Jütte, Bernd Justin UL; Cole, Mark UL

in Cole, Mark; Ory, Stefan (Eds.) Fotografien in der Großregion/Photographie dans la Grande Région (2016)

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See detailLes rites des uns et des autres. La sécurisation des corps dans l'espace et le temps scolaire
Kerivel, Aude UL

in Revue EP&S (2016), (83), 129

Agir sur la violence et le harcèlement à l’école implique d’en repérer les causes et les conséquences. C’est dans cette perspective que nous avons mené l’évaluation d’une expérimentation – ... [more ▼]

Agir sur la violence et le harcèlement à l’école implique d’en repérer les causes et les conséquences. C’est dans cette perspective que nous avons mené l’évaluation d’une expérimentation – financée par le FEJ3 – visant à éduquer à l’empathie, par le corps, des élèves de CM1- CM2 afin de lutter contre le harcèlement à l’école. Cette expérimentation coordonnée par Omar Zanna, mise en place empirique de ses travaux théoriques sur l’empa- thie 4, nous a amenés à faire un état des lieux du climat scolaire au sein des classes concernées. Dans la lignée des enquêtes de victimation5 dans l’ensei- gnement secondaire6, nous avons tenté de recueillir les expériences et émotions de 433 élèves d’une vingtaine d’écoles élémentaires7 (CM1 et CM2) et de leurs ensei- gnants. Des entretiens collectifs avec les enseignants et les groupes d’élèves ainsi que la passation d’un question- naire ludique présenté comme une bande dessinée et utili- sant, entre autres, les émoticônes, ont permis de recueillir les expériences et ressentis des enseignants et élèves. Comment l’approche de la violence à l’école, par le biais des interstices de cette organisation, permet d’appré- hender les sentiments de sécurité et d’insécurité des élèves et des enseignants ? C’est ce que nous cher- chons à mettre en lumière au travers de cet article qui se concentre sur les émotions des élèves et des ensei- gnants à l’école. [less ▲]

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See detailPIT a Practical Mutation Testing Tool for Java
Coles, Henry; Laurent, Thomas; Henard, Christopher et al

in International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, ISSTA 2016 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 UL)
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See detailReport on the sixth blind test of organic crystal structure prediction methods
Reilly, Anthony M.; Cooper, Richard I.; Adjiman, Claire S. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section B (2016), 72(4), 439--459

The sixth blind test of organic crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods has been held, with five target systems: a small nearly rigid molecule, a polymorphic former drug candidate, a chloride salt ... [more ▼]

The sixth blind test of organic crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods has been held, with five target systems: a small nearly rigid molecule, a polymorphic former drug candidate, a chloride salt hydrate, a co-crystal and a bulky flexible molecule. This blind test has seen substantial growth in the number of participants, with the broad range of prediction methods giving a unique insight into the state of the art in the field. Significant progress has been seen in treating flexible molecules, usage of hierarchical approaches to ranking structures, the application of density-functional approximations, and the establishment of new workflows and `best practices' for performing CSP calculations. All of the targets, apart from a single potentially disordered Z$^\prime$ = 2 polymorph of the drug candidate, were predicted by at least one submission. Despite many remaining challenges, it is clear that CSP methods are becoming more applicable to a wider range of real systems, including salts, hydrates and larger flexible molecules. The results also highlight the potential for CSP calculations to complement and augment experimental studies of organic solid forms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (4 UL)
See detailAllgemeine Grundsätze
Cole, Mark UL

Book published by Rehm (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 UL)
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See detailNew Act on the film fund for audiovisual production
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
See detailRechtsgrundlagen des Rundfunks und der Telemedien
Cole, Mark UL

Book published by Rehm (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (8 UL)
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See detailNew Grand-Ducal Regulation on fees for audio and audiovisual media service providers
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 UL)
See detailRundfunkstaatsvertrag/Jugendmedienschutzstaatsvertrag – Heidelberger Kommentar
Cole, Mark UL; Hartstein, Reinhard; Ring, Wolf-Dieter et al

Book published by Rehm (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (7 UL)
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See detailRegulator imposes warning on RTL for breach of commercial communication rules
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 UL)